Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. It is claimed that he was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League. Mazepa was famous as a patron of the arts, played an important role in the Battle of Poltava, where after learning that Tsar Peter I intended to relieve him as acting Hetman of Zaporizhian Host and to replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with King Charles XII of Sweden; the political consequences and interpretation of this desertion have resonated in the national histories both of Russia and of Ukraine. The Russian Orthodox Church laid an anathema on Mazepa's name in 1708 and refuses to revoke it to this day. Anti-Russian elements in Ukraine from the 18th century onwards were derogatorily referred to as Mazepintsy; the alienation of Mazepa from Ukrainian historiography continued during the Soviet period, but post-1991 in independent Ukraine there have been strong moves to rehabilitate Mazepa's image, although he remains a controversial figure.
Mazepa was born on March 30, 1639, in Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva part of the Kiev Voivodeship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, into a noble Ruthenian-Lithuanian family. His mother was Maryna Mokievska, his father was Stefan Adam Mazepa. Maryna Mokievska came from the family of a Cossack officer, she gave birth to two children -- Oleksandra. Stefan Mazepa served as an Otaman of Bila Tserkva, a Cossack representative of the King of the Polish-Lithuanian Rzecz Pospolita, a Czernihów podczaszy. Ivan Mazepa was educated first in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy at a Jesuit college in Warsaw; as a page Mazepa was sent to study "gunnery" in Deventer in 1656–1659, during which time he traveled across Western Europe. From 1659 he served at the court of the Polish king, John II Casimir on numerous diplomatic missions to Ukraine, his service at the Polish royal court earned him a reputation as an alleged catholicized "Lyakh" – the Russian Imperial government would use this slur to discredit Mazepa. During this time there arose the legend of his affair with Madam Falbowska that inspired number of European Romantics, such Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo, many others.
In 1663 Mazepa returned home. After the death of his father he inherited the title of the Czernihów cupbearer. In 1669–1673 Mazepa served under Petro Doroshenko as a squadron commander in the Hetman Guard during Doroshenko's 1672 campaign in Halychyna, as a chancellor on diplomatic missions to Poland and Ottoman Empire. In 1674–1681 Mazepa served as a "courtier" of Doroshenko's rival Hetman Ivan Samoylovych after was taken hostage on the way to Crimea by the Kosh Otaman Ivan Sirko in 1674. In 1677–1678 Mazepa participated in the Chyhyryn campaigns during which Yuri Khmelnytsky, with the support from the Ottoman Empire, tried to regain power in Ukraine; the young educated Mazepa rose through the Cossack ranks, in 1682–1686 he served as an Aide-du-Camp General. In 1687 Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster, was elected the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine in Kolomak, with the support of Vasily Galitzine. At the same time Ivan Mazepa signed the Kolomak Articles, which were based on the Hlukhiv Articles of Demian Mnohohrishny.
Mazepa accumulated great wealth, becoming one of Europe's largest land owners. A multitude of churches were built all over Ukraine during his reign in the Ukrainian Baroque style, he founded schools and printing houses, expanded the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the primary educational institution of Ukraine at the time, to accommodate 2,000 students. In 1702, the Cossacks of Right-bank Ukraine, under the leadership of hetman Semen Paliy, began an uprising against Poland, which after early successes was defeated. Mazepa convinced Russian Tsar Peter I to allow him to intervene, which he did, taking over major portions of Right-bank Ukraine, while Poland was weakened by an invasion of Swedish king Charles XII. In the beginning of the 18th century, as the Russian Empire lost significant territory in the Great Northern War, Peter I decided to reform the Russian army and to centralize control over his realm. In Mazepa's opinion, the strengthening of Russia's central power could put at risk the broad autonomy granted to the Cossack Hetmanate under the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654.
Attempts to assert control over the Zaporozhian Cossacks included demands of having them fight in any of the tsar's wars, instead of only defending their own land against regional enemies as was agreed to in previous treaties. Now Cossack forces were made to fight in distant wars in Livonia and Lithuania, leaving their own homes unprotected from the Tatars and Poles. Ill-equipped and not properly trained to fight on par with the tactics of modern European armies, Cossacks suffered heavy losses and low morale, as their commanders were Russians and Germans who did not value their lives or their specific military abilities; the Hetman himself started to feel his post threatened in the face of increasing calls to replace him with one of the abundant generals of the Russian army. The last straw in the souring relations with Tsar Peter was his refusal to commit any significant force to defend Ukraine against
Anna of Russia
Anna Ioannovna spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Anna was born in Moscow as the daughter of Tsar Ivan V by his wife Praskovia Saltykova. Ivan V was co-ruler of Russia along with his younger half-brother Peter the Great, but he was mentally disabled and incapable of administering the country, Peter ruled alone. Ivan V died in February 1696, when Anna was only three years old, her half-uncle became the sole ruler of Russia. Although Anna was the fourth child of her parents, she had only one surviving elder sister and one younger sister, Praskovia; the three girls were raised in a disciplined and austere manner by their widowed mother, a stern lady of sterling character. Born into a family of modest means, Praskovia Saltykova had been an exemplary wife to a mentally challenged man, expected her daughters to live up to her own high standards of morality and virtue. Anna grew up within a milieu which cherished womanly virtue and domesticity above all else, placed strong emphasis on thrift and religious observances.
Her education consisted of French, religious texts and folklore, leavened with some music and dancing. As she grew older, she developed into an obstinate girl, with a mean streak, earning her the nickname "Iv-anna the Terrible". Anna was famed for her big cheek, "which, as shown in her portraits", says Thomas Carlyle, "was comparable to a Westphalian ham". In time, her uncle Peter the Great ordered the family to move from Moscow to St. Petersburg; this meant a change of not just location but society, this had a significant effect on Anna. She enjoyed the splendour of court and the lavishness of high society, different from the austerity preferred by her mother. In 1710, Peter the Great arranged for the 17-year-old Anna to marry Frederick William, Duke of Courland, the same age as her, her wedding was held on a grand scale, as per her own inclinations, her uncle gave her a fabulous dowry of 200,000 roubles. At the feast which followed the wedding, two dwarfs performed a parody by jumping out of enormous pies and dancing on the tables.
The newly wedded couple spent several weeks in Russia before proceeding to Courland. Only twenty miles out of St. Petersburg, on the road to Courland, Duke Frederick died; the cause of death was uncertain - it has been attributed variously to a chill or to the effects of alcohol. After her husband died, Anna proceeded to Jelgava, the capital of Courland and ruled that province for twenty years, from 1711 to 1730. During this period, the Russian resident, Peter Bestuzhev, was her adviser, she never remarried after the death of her husband, but her enemies said she conducted a love affair with Duke Ernst Johann von Biron, a prominent courtier, for many years. In 1730, Tsar Peter II died childless at a young age, his death rendered extinct the male line of the Romanov dynasty, which had ruled Russia for over a century, since 1613. There were five possible candidates for the throne: the three surviving daughters of Ivan V, namely Catherine, Anna herself and Praskovya, the two surviving daughters of Peter the Great, namely Anna and Elizabeth.
Ivan V had been the older brother of Peter the Great and co-ruler with him, by that reckoning, his daughters may be considered to have the prior claim. However, if seen from the perspective that the successor should be the nearest kin of the most recent monarch the daughters of Peter the Great were nearer to the throne, because they were the aunts of the deceased Tsar Peter II; the dilemma was made greater because the daughters of Peter the Great had been born out of wedlock, had been legitimized by him, after he formally married their mother Catherine I, a maid in his household. On the other hand, Praskovia Saltykova, the wife of Ivan V, had been a nobleman's daughter and a devoted wife and mother; the Russian Supreme Privy Council led by Prince Dmitri Golitzyn selected Anna, the second daughter of Ivan V, to be the new Empress of Russia. She was selected in preference to her elder sister Catherine though Catherine was at that time resident in Russia whereas Anna was not. There were some reasons for this: Anna was a childless widow and there was no immediate danger of an unknown foreigner wielding power in Russia.
Catherine, on the other hand, was married to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was now separated from him and living in Russia, in itself disgraceful, his intervention in government affairs at some point could hardly be prevented since Catherine had a daughter by him. In that event, since he was ruling prince of ancient lineage with years of experience, he would not be as amenable to the council's advice as a Russian princess; the fact that Catherine had a daughter would provide a certainty of succession which the nobles preferred not to have. The Supreme Privy Council preferred the childless and widowed Duchess of Courland, they hoped that she would feel indebted to the nobles and remain a figurehead at best, malleable at worst. To make sure of that, the Council convince
Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, Tsesarevna of Russia Russian: Анна Петровна. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. While a potential heir in the reign of her father and her mother, she never acceded to the throne due to political reasons. However, her son Peter would rule as Emperor in 1762, she was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage. Anna was born out of wedlock, although her parents were married in 1712 and she was legitimized, her earlier illegitimacy would pose great challenges for her marriage. Anna grew up in the houses of Prince Alexander Menshikov. Although born illegitimate and her younger sister Elizabeth were awarded the titles of “princess” on 6 March 1711 and “crown princess” on 23 December 1721. Peter planned to marry his daughters to foreign princes in order to gain European allies for the Russian Empire; the two girls were educated with this aim in mind, learning literature, embroidery and etiquette. Anna developed into an intelligent, well-read girl who spoke four foreign languages – French, German and Swedish.
Anna’s shyness was evident at an early age. One witness describes the amusing hitch that once occurred during the traditional exchanging of Easter kisses; when the duke of Holstein-Gottorp tried to kiss the fourteen-year-old Anna, she turned bright red in embarrassment, while her younger sister “immediately stuck out her little pink mouth for a kiss.” Foreign visitors to the Russian court were struck by the uncommon beauty of Anna. The dark-eyed Anna looked more like her father and was considered more level-headed and intelligent than her younger sister, the fair-haired Elizabeth. A contemporary described Anna: “She was a beautiful soul in a beautiful body... both in appearance and in manners, she was complete likeness in her character and mind... set off by her kind heart.” On 17 March 1721, Karl Friedrich arrived in Imperial Russia to get acquainted with his future wife and father-in-law. He aspired to use the marriage in order to ensure Russia's support for his plans of retrieving Schleswig from Denmark.
He entertained hopes of being backed up by Russia in his claims to the Swedish throne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Nystad Russia promised not to interfere in the internal affairs of Sweden, so his hopes proved ill-founded. Another possible candidate as a husband was a grandson of Louis XIV of France and Madame de Montespan, Louis Duke of Orleans - the son of the Regent of France for the infant Louis XV of France; the marriage proposal was ignored due to a difference in style of address. Anna was addressed as Her Imperial Highness and Louis was as His Serene Highness; as a favorite child of Peter the Great, Anna's name day was taken to be a national holiday in 1724. On 22 November 1724, the marriage contract was signed between Karl Peter. By this contract and Karl Friedrich renounced all rights and claims to the crown of the Russian Empire on behalf of themselves and their descendants; however a secret clause allowed the Emperor to name a successor out of any sons from the marriage. As a result of this clause, the Emperor secured the right to name any of his descendants as his successor on the Russian throne.
A few months thereafter, by January 1725, Peter the Great fell mortally ill. As the story goes, on his deathbed he managed to spell the words: to give all... but could not continue further and sent for Anna to dictate his last will to her. By the time the princess arrived, the Emperor could not pronounce a single word. Based on the story, some historians speculated that Peter's wish was to leave the throne to Anna, but this is not confirmed. After the accession of her mother Catherine I, a grand wedding was held for Anna in Trinity Cathedral, St Petersburg on 21 May 1725; the wedding party crossed the River Neva to the Summer Garden, where Mikhail Zemtsov had designed a special banqueting hall for the occasion. The tables were set with all sorts including enormous pies; when the orchestra began to play and female dwarves jumped out of the pies and began to dance on the tables. Each toast was accompanied by cannon fire from a nearby yacht and the guards regiments positioned on Tsaritsa Meadow; the following day, everyone was invited to Peterhof, where the banqueting and dancing continued in the Upper Palace.
Carl Friedrich and Anna spent the next two years in St Petersburg. Catherine I made her son-in-law a lieutenant colonel of the Preobrazhensky Regiment and a member of the Supreme Privy Council, he began to play an important role in the life of the Russian Empire and foreign diplomats predicted that the empress would name Anna as her successor. The Duke was admitted into the newly established Supreme Secret Council and exerted a moderate influence on Russian politics. Catherine I's death in 1727 made his position precarious, as the power shifted to the hands of Alexander Menshikov, who aspired to marry the young emperor, Peter II, to his own daughter, Maria Menshikov. A quarrel between the Duke and Menshikov resulted in the former's withdrawing to Holstein on 25 July 1727. Before her departure for Holstein, Anna was asked to sign a receipt for all the money awarded to her as her dowry. For a long time, the document was not accepted by the government, because it gave the old title of Peter’s daughter –'Tsesarevna'.
Now, she was a crown princess. On 25 July 1727, her husband left St Petersburg for Kiel; when they arrived in the capital of Holstein, the duke underwent
Ivan Skoropadsky was a Ukrainian Hetman of Zaporizhian Host, the successor to the famous Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Born into a noble Cossack family in Uman, Ukraine in 1646, Skoropadsky was educated in Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. In 1675 he joined Cossack military service under Hetman Ivan Samoylovych and distinguished himself in Russo-Turkish War of 1676–1681 and once again in the Crimean expedition against the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate in 1688. Ivan Skoropadsky was an ambassador representing Cossack Hetmanate in negotiations with the Russian Tsar Peter the Great. During the Great Northern War Skoropadsky was a Cossack colonel of the Ukrainian Starodub regiment and after Swedish army crossed into Ukraine in 1708, refused to join Ivan Mazepa who decided to switch sides and fight against Russia. Only about 3,000 Cossacks Zaporozhians, followed Mazepa, while others remained loyal to the Tsar. With Mazepa deposed, Ivan Skoropadsky was elected as new Hetman on 11 November 1708; the fear of other reprisals and suspicion of Mazepa's newfound Swedish ally Charles XII prevented most of Ukraine's population from siding with the rebels.
Ivan Skoropadsky moved the capital of the Cossack Hetmanate from Baturyn, razed by the Russian army for Mazepa's rebellion, to the town of Hlukhiv. Following Mazepa's defeat in the Battle of Poltava, Skoropadsky thought to regain Peter I's trust and yet negotiate greater autonomy for the Hetmanate and greater rights for the Cossack nobility resisting Peter the Great's policy of incorporation of the Hetmanate lands into the Russian Empire, his careful negotiations allowed him to achieve both, the Hetmanate regained much of its lost prominence. In 1718 his daughter married Count Pyotr Pyotrovich Tolstoy, the son of Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy and Ivan Skoropadsky was granted numerous estates in Ukraine becoming its largest land-owner; the Hetman had no male children but Pavlo Skoropadsky, a descendant of his brother ruled Ukraine 200 years and carried the title of Hetman in his Hetmanate-influenced government. Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks Skoropadsky family Ivan Skoropadsky at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Elizabeth of Russia
Elizabeth Petrovna known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country during the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She encouraged Mikhail Lomonosov's establishment of the University of Moscow and Ivan Shuvalov's foundation of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, she spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral in Saint Petersburg are among the chief monuments of her reign, she remains one of the most popular Russian monarchs due to her strong opposition to Prussian policies and her decision not to execute a single person during her reign. Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on 18 December 1709, the daughter of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, by his second wife, Catherine I.
Catherine had been a maid in the household of Peter the Great and, although no documentary record exists, they are said to have married secretly at the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in St. Petersburg at some point between 23 October and 1 December 1707. Peter valued Catherine and married her again at Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg on 9 February 1712. On this day, the two children born to them were legitimized by their father; the circumstances of Elizabeth's birth would be used by her political opponents to challenge her right to the throne on grounds of illegitimate birth. Of the twelve children born to Peter and Catherine, only two daughters and Elizabeth survived to adulthood. Both of them were given the title of Tsarevna on 6 March 1711, of Tsesarevna on 23 December 1721, they had one older surviving sibling, crown prince Alexei Petrovich, Peter's son by his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina, a noblewoman. As a child, Elizabeth was the particular favorite of her father, she resembled him both temperamentally.
She was a bright girl, if not brilliant, but received only a desultory formal education. Though he adored his daughter, Peter did not devote time or attention to her education, he had a son from his first marriage to a noblewoman, did not anticipate that a daughter born to his former maid and second wife might one day inherit the throne. Indeed, no woman had sat upon the throne of Russia, it was therefore left to Catherine to raise the girls as best she could, but she was herself too uneducated to be able to superintend the formal education of her daughters. Elizabeth had a French governess and grew fluent in Italian and French, she was an excellent dancer and rider. Like her father, Elizabeth was physically active and loved riding, sledging and gardening. From her earliest years, she delighted everyone with her extraordinary beauty and vivacity, was regarded as the leading beauty of the Russian Empire; the wife of the British minister described Elizabeth as "fair, with light brown hair, large sprightly blue eyes, fine teeth and a pretty mouth.
She is inclinable to be fat, but is genteel and dances better than anyone I saw. She speaks German and Italian, is gay and talks to everyone..." Peter was enamored of western Europe, much of his fame rests on his efforts to westernize Russia. A corollary to this proclivity was his desire to see his children married into the royal houses of Europe, something which his predecessors had avoided. Peter's only son and heir was born of his first marriage to a nobleman's daughter, no problem was encountered in securing a bride for him from the ancient house of Brunswick-Lüneburg. However, Peter was hard put to arrange similar marriages for the daughters born of his second wife, a maid in his household, he was roundly snubbed by the Bourbons of France when, during a visit to that country, he offered either of his daughters in marriage to the future Louis XV. The French court conveyed to him in essence that the circumstance of their post-facto legitimization, the antecedents of their mother, made the girls unacceptable.
The young French king Louis XV would end up marrying the Polish noblewoman Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of the briefly-reigned King Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland, looked down by all of Europe as of insufficient rank to be Queen of France but politically suitable for the French ministers, much to the chagrin of the Empress Elizabeth. In 1724, Peter betrothed his daughters to two young princes, first cousins to each other, who hailed from the tiny north German principality of Holstein-Gottorp, whose family was undergoing a period of political and economic stress. Anna Petrovna was to marry Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, living in exile in Russia as Peter's guest after having failed in his attempt to succeed his maternal uncle as King of Sweden, whose patrimony was at that time under Danish occupation. Despite all this, the prince was of impeccable birth and well-connected to many royal houses; some time and in the same year, Elizabeth was betrothed to marry Charles Frederick's first cousin, Charles Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, the eldest son of Christian Augustus, Prince of Eu
Battle of Kulikovo
For the opera'The Battle of Kulikovo' see Dmitry Donskoy The Battle of Kulikovo was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow. The battle took place on 8 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River and was won by Dmitry, who became known as Donskoy after the battle. Although the victory did not end the Mongol domination over Russia, it is regarded by Russian historians as the turning point when Mongol influence began to wane and Muscovite power to rise; this process led to Muscovite independence and formation of the modern Russian state. After the Mongol-Tatar conquest, the territories of the disintegrating Kievan Rus became part of the western region of the Mongol Empire, centered in the lower Volga region; the numerous Russian principalities became the Horde's tributaries. During this period, the small regional principality of Moscow was growing in power and was challenging its neighbors over territory, including clashing with the Grand Duchy of Ryazan.
Thus, in 1300, Moscow seized the city of Kolomna from Ryazan, the Ryazan Prince was killed after several years in captivity. After the killing of Khan Berdi Beg of the Golden Horde at 1359, a civil war had arisen there. Warlord Mamai, son-in-law and beylerbey of Berdi Beg, soon took the power in the western part of the Golden Horde. Mamai enthroned Abdullah Khan in 1361 and after his mysterious death in 1370 immature Khan Muhammad Bolak was enthroned. Mamai was not a Genghisid, as such his grip on power was tenuous, as there were true Genghisids with claims to mastery. Therefore, he had to fight for supreme power and at the same time struggle against separatism. While there was a civil war in the falling Golden Horde, the new political powers were appearing, such as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Grand Duchy of Ryazan. Meanwhile, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania continued its expansion, it competed with Moscow for supremacy over Tver and in 1368-1372 made three campaigns against Moscow.
After the death of Algirdas in 1377, his eldest sons Andrei of Polotsk and Dmitri of Bryansk began to struggle with their step-brother Jogaila for their legitimate right to the throne and entered into an alliance with the Grand Prince of Moscow. With the beginning of the Great Troubles in the Horde in 1359, Prince of Moscow Ivan II died and the new Khan of the Horde by his jarliq transferred the throne of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir to the Prince of Nizhny Novgorod, but the Moscow elite did not accept this. They used armed force and bribes to various Khans and as a result, in 1365, forced the princes of Nizhny Novgorod to give up claims to the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. In 1368, the conflict between Moscow and Tver began. Prince of Tver Mikhail used the help of Lithuania, in addition, in 1371 Mamai gave him a jarliq to the Grand Duchy of Vladimir, but the Moscow troops did not let the new "Grand Prince" enter to Vladimir, despite the presence of the Tatar ambassador. The campaigns of the Lithuanian army ended in failure and so the jarliq returned to Dmitry.
According to the results of the truce with Lithuania in 1372, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir was now recognized as the hereditary possession of the Moscow Princes. In 1375 the Prince of Tver once again received a jarliq for the Grand Duchy from Mamai. Dmitri with a strong army moved to Tver and forced it to capitulate. Mikhail recognized himself as the "little brother" of the Moscow Prince and ensure to participate in wars with the Tatars; the open conflict between Dmitry and Mamai began in 1374, the exact reasons are unknown. It is believed that the illegitimacy of the puppet khans of Mamai was by that time too obvious, he demanded more and more money, as he lost the war for the throne of the Golden Horde. In the following years the Tatars raided Dmitry's allies and the Moscow troops made campaign against Tatars over the Oka River in 1376 and seized the city Bolghar in 1377. In the same year "Mamai's tatars" defeated the army of Nizhny Novgorodl with an auxiliary detachment left by Dmitry at the Battle on Pyana River.
The Tatars began to raid Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan. Mamai continued attempts to re-affirm his control over the tributary lands of the Golden Horde. In 1378, he sent forces led by the warlord Murza Begich to ensure Prince Dmitri's obedience, but this army suffered crushing defeat at the Battle of the Vozha River. Meanwhile, another khan, seized power in the eastern part of the Golden Horde, he was ready to unite the entire Horde under his rule. In 1380, despite the threat from Tokhtamysh, Mamai chose to lead his army against the forces of Moscow. In preparation for the invasion, he entered into an alliance with Prince Jogaila of Lithuania. Ryazan Prince Oleg was defeated by Mamai in 1378, he had no strength to resist Mamai, Ryazan's relationship with Moscow had long been hostile. Therefore, in the campaign of 1380 Oleg took the side of Mamai, although this fact is sometimes challenged. Mamai camped his army on the bank of the Don River. In August 1380 Prince Dmitri learned of the approaching army of Mamai.
It is alleged. The interpretations of such an act are different; some believe that he did this, because in fact he was not a su
Tobolsk is a town in Tyumen Oblast, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is the second oldest Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains in Asian Russia, is a historic capital of the Siberia region. Population: 99,694 . In 1580, a group of Yermak Timofeyevich's Cossacks initiated the Russian conquest of Siberia, pushing eastwards on behalf of the Tsardom of Russia, they attacked the Vogul and Ostyak peoples in Yugra, had captured a tax collector of Kuchum Khan, the king of the large Tatar Khanate of Sibir, the most powerful force in the western Siberia region on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains. At the time the Voguls and Ostyaks were subjects of Kuchum, in response retaliation attacks were carried out against the Cossacks by the Tatars. After a year of Tatar attacks, Yermak prepared for the conquest of the Khanate of Sibir and a campaign to take the Khanate's capital city, Qashliq; the Cossacks conquered the city on 26 October 1582. Despite the conquest, Kuchum had regrouped his remaining forces and formed a new army, launching a surprise attack on 6 August 1584, killing Yermak.
This resulted in a series of battles over Qashliq, passing between Tatar and Cossack control, with the city being abandoned in 1588. Kuchum was defeated by the Cossacks in 1598 at the Battle of Urmin near the River Ob, ending the Khanate of Sibir, establishing Russian control over the western Siberia region. Tobolsk was founded in 1590 by a group of Yermak's Cossacks under the command of Daniil Grigor'yevich Chulkov near the ruins of Qashliq, totally destroyed by years of fighting. Tobolsk would become the nerve center of the conquest. To the north Beryozovo and Mangazeya were built to bring the Nenets under tribute, while to the east Surgut and Tara were established to protect Tobolsk and subdue the ruler of the Narym Ostiaks. Of these, Mangazeya was the most prominent; the new city was the second Russian town founded in Siberia after Tyumen, was named after the Tobol River, situated at its confluence with the Irtysh River, where the Irtysh turns from flowing westward to flowing northward. Tobolsk grew based on the importance of the Siberian river routes, prospered on trade with China to the east and with Bukhara to the south.
In 1708, Tobolsk became the capital of the newly established Siberia Governorate, saw the establishment of the first school and newspaper in Siberia. During the Great Northern War, soldiers of the defeated Swedish army at Battle of Poltava in 1709 were sent in large numbers as prisoners of war to Tobolsk; the Swedes numbered about 25% of the total population and were popular among locals for their contributions to the city, to the point a building of the Tobolsk Kremlin was named The Swedish Chamber in their honor. Many of them were not repatriated until the 1720s, while some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk. In 1719, Russian authorities began administrative reforms that saw Tobolsk's political importance decline as the Siberia Governorate's massive territory was decentralized into new provinces or transferred to other governorates. By 1782, Siberia Governorate was abolished and its remaining area split into two viceroyalties, with Tobolsk becoming the capital of the Tobolsk Viceroyalty.
In 1796, Tobolsk became the capital of Tobolsk Governorate, remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat was moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Acknowledging the authority of Tobolsk, many Western Siberian towns including Omsk and Tomsk, had their original coat of arms display the Tobolsk insignia, which Omsk continues to honor as of 2015. After the Decembrist Revolt in 1825, some of the Decembrists deported to Siberia settled in Tobolsk; the 1890s saw the importance of Tobolsk decline further when the Trans-Siberian Railway line between Tyumen and Omsk bypassed the city to the south. In the early 1900s the town was famous as the administrative center of Grigori Rasputin's home province, is located close to his birthplace Pokrovskoye. In March 1917, the February Revolution saw the end of the Russian Empire with the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, in August the new Provisional Government evacuated the imperial family and their retinue to Tobolsk to live in relative luxury in the former house of the Governor-General.
The October Revolution three months saw the beginning of the Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks came to power in Tobolsk. After troops of the opposing White Army approached the city in the spring of 1918, the Bolsheviks moved the imperial family west to Yekaterinburg where they were executed in July 1918. Following the end of the war in Bolshevik victory and the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, administrative reforms in 1920 saw the abolition of Tobolsk Governorate and ending 218 years of Tobolsk serving as a provincial capital. Instead, the city became the administrative center of its own uyezd, Tobolsky District, in the new Tyumen Province seated in Tyumen. From 1921 to 1922, Tobolsk was a site of massive anti-Bolshevik peasant uprisings across Western Siberia by peasants associated with the Green Army. On November 3, 1923, the city became part of Ural Oblast until January 7, 1932, when it was transferred again to Omsk Oblast. From January 17, 1934, the city was part of Obsko-Irtysh Oblast until it was abolished on December 7 that year and transferred to Omsk Oblast.
On August 14, 1944, Tobolsk was transferred to Tyumen Oblast. On July 10, 1987, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR