Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, sensational and designed to appeal to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization. Characters are simply drawn, may appear stereotyped. Melodramas are set in the private sphere of the home, focus on morality and family issues and marriage with challenges from an outside source, such as a "temptress”, an aristocratic villain. In scholarly and historical musical contexts, melodramas are Victorian dramas in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the action; the term is now applied to stage performances without incidental music, movies and radio broadcasts. In modern contexts, the term "melodrama" is pejorative, as it suggests that the work in question lacks subtlety, character development, or both. By extension, language or behaviour which resembles melodrama is called melodramatic; the term originated from the early 19th-century French word mélodrame. It is derived from Greek μέλος, melos, "song, strain", French drame, drama.
Melodrama originated in the 5th century BC. The relationship of melodrama to realism is complex; the protagonists of melodramatic works may either be ordinary people who are caught up in extraordinary events, or exaggerated and unrealistic characters. Peter Brooks writes that melodrama, in its high emotions and dramatic rhetoric, represents a "victory over repression." According to Singer, late Victorian and Edwardian melodrama combined a conscious focus on realism in stage sets and props with "anti-realism" in character and plot. Melodrama in this period strove for "credible accuracy in the depiction of incredible, extraordinary" scenes. Novelist Wilkie Collins is noted for his attention to accuracy in detail in his works, no matter how sensational the plot. Melodramas put most of their attention on the victim and a struggle between good and evil choices, such as a man being encouraged to leave his family by an "evil temptress". Other stock characters are the "fallen woman", the single mother, the orphan and the male, struggling with the impacts of the modern world.
The melodrama examines family and social issues in the context of a private home, with its intended audience being the female spectator. Melodrama looks back at ideal, nostalgic eras, emphasizing "forbidden longings". Melodramas are rooted in medieval morality plays; the melodrama approach was revived in the 18th and 19th-century French romantic drama and the sentimental novels that were popular in both England and France. These dramas and novels focused on moral codes in regards to family life and marriage, they can be seen as a reflection of the issues brought up by the French Revolution, the industrial revolution and the shift to modernization. Many melodramas were about a middle-class young woman who experienced unwanted sexual advances from an aristocratic miscreant, with the sexual assault being a metaphor for class conflict; the melodrama reflected post-industrial revolution anxieties of the middle class, who were afraid of both aristocratic power brokers and the impoverished working class "mob".
Beginning in the 18th century, melodrama was a technique of combining spoken recitation with short pieces of accompanying music. In such works and spoken dialogue alternated, although the music was sometimes used to accompany pantomime; the earliest known examples are scenes in J. E. Eberlin's Latin school play Sigismundus; the first full melodrama was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Pygmalion, the text of, written in 1762 but was first staged in Lyon in 1770. The overture and an Andante were composed by Rousseau, but the bulk of the music was composed by Horace Coignet. A different musical setting of Rousseau's Pygmalion by Anton Schweitzer was performed in Weimar in 1772, Goethe wrote of it approvingly in Dichtung und Wahrheit. Pygmalion is a monodrama, written for one actor; some 30 other monodramas were produced in Germany in the fourth quarter of the 18th century. When two actors have involved the term duodrama may be used. Georg Benda was successful with his duodramas Ariadne auf Naxos and Medea.
The sensational success of Benda's melodramas led Mozart to use two long melodramatic monologues in his opera Zaide. Other and better-known examples of the melodramatic style in operas are the grave-digging scene in Beethoven's Fidelio and the incantation scene in Weber's Der Freischütz. After the English Restoration of Charles II in 1660, most British theatres were prohibited from performing "serious" drama, but were permitted to show comedy or plays with music. Charles II issued letters patent to permit only two London theatre companies to perform "serious" drama; these were the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and Lisle's Tennis Court in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the latter of which moved to the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden in 1720. The two patent theatres closed in the summer months. To fill the gap, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket became a third patent theatre in London in 1766. Further letters patent were granted to one theatre in each of several other English towns and cities. To get around the restriction, other theatres presented dramas that were underscored with music and, borrowing the French term, called it melodrama.
The Theatres Act 1843 allowed all the theatres to play drama. In t
Sir Tom Stoppard is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter. He has written prolifically for TV, radio and stage, finding prominence with plays such as Arcadia, The Coast of Utopia, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, Professional Foul, The Real Thing, The Invention of Love, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, he co-wrote the screenplays for Brazil, The Russia House, Shakespeare in Love, has received an Academy Award and four Tony Awards. His work covers the themes of human rights and political freedom delving into the deeper philosophical thematics of society. Stoppard has been a key playwright of the National Theatre and is one of the most internationally performed dramatists of his generation. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture". Born in Czechoslovakia, Stoppard left as a child refugee, he settled with his family in Britain after the war, in 1946, having spent the three years prior in a boarding school in Darjeeling in the Indian Himalayas.
After being educated at schools in Nottingham and Yorkshire, Stoppard became a journalist, a drama critic and in 1960, a playwright. Stoppard was born Tomáš Straussler, in Zlín, a city dominated by the shoe manufacturing industry, in the Moravia region of Czechoslovakia, he is a physician employed by the Bata shoe company. His parents were members of a long-established community. Just before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the town's patron, Jan Antonín Baťa, transferred his Jewish employees physicians, to branches of his firm outside Europe. On 15 March 1939, the day the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, the Straussler family fled to Singapore, where Bata had a factory. Before the Japanese occupation of Singapore, his brother, their mother were sent on to Australia. Stoppard's father remained in Singapore as a British army volunteer, knowing that, as a physician, he would be needed in its defence. Stoppard was four years old. In the book Tom Stoppard in Conversation, Stoppard tells how his father died in Japanese captivity, a prisoner of war but has said that he subsequently discovered that Straussler was reported to have drowned on board a ship bombed by Japanese forces whilst trying to flee Singapore in 1942.
In 1941, when Tomas was five, the three were evacuated to India. The boys attended Mount Hermon School, an American multi-racial school, where Tomas became Tom and his brother Petr became Peter. In 1945, his mother, married British army major Kenneth Stoppard, who gave the boys his English surname and, in 1946, moved the family to England. Stoppard's stepfather believed that "to be born an Englishman was to have drawn first prize in the lottery of life" —a quote from Cecil Rhodes —telling his 9 year-old stepson: "Don't you realise that I made you British?" Setting up Stoppard's desire as a child to become "an honorary Englishman". "I often find I'm with people who forget I don't quite belong in the world we're in", he says. "I find I put a foot wrong—it could be pronunciation, an arcane bit of English history—and I'm there naked, as someone with a pass, a press ticket." This is reflected in his characters, he notes, who are "constantly being addressed by the wrong name, with jokes and false trails to do with the confusion of having two names".
Stoppard attended the Dolphin School in Nottinghamshire, completed his education at Pocklington School in East Riding, which he hated. Stoppard left school at seventeen and began work as a journalist for the Western Daily Press in Bristol, never receiving a university education. Years he came to regret not going to university, but at the time he loved his work as a journalist and felt passionately about his career, he worked at the paper from 1954 until 1958, when the Bristol Evening World offered Stoppard the position of feature writer, humor columnist, secondary drama critic, which took Stoppard into the world of theater. At the Bristol Old Vic—at the time a well-regarded regional repertory company—Stoppard formed friendships with director John Boorman and actor Peter O'Toole early in their careers. In Bristol, he became known more for his strained attempts at humor and unstylish clothes than for his writing. Stoppard wrote short radio plays in 1953–54 and by 1960 he had completed his first stage play, A Walk on the Water, re-titled Enter a Free Man.
He noted that the work owed much to Robert Bolt's Flowering Cherry and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Within a week after sending A Walk on the Water to an agent, Stoppard received his version of the "Hollywood-style telegrams that change struggling young artists' lives." His first play was optioned, staged in Hamburg broadcast on British Independent Television in 1963. From September 1962 until April 1963, Stoppard worked in London as a drama critic for Scene magazine, writing reviews and interviews both under his name and the pseudonym William Boot. In 1964, a Ford Foundation grant enabled Stoppard to spend 5 months writing in a Berlin mansion, emerging with a one-act play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Meet King Lear, which evolved into his Tony-winning play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In the following years, Stoppard produced several works for radio and the theatre, including "M" is for Moon Among Other Things, A Separate Peace and If You're Glad I'll Be Frank. On 11 April 1967 – following acclaim at the 1966 Edinburgh Festival – the opening of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead in a National Theatre producti
Uncle Vanya is a play by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first published in 1898 and received its Moscow première in 1899 in a production by the Moscow Art Theatre, under the direction of Konstantin Stanislavski; the play portrays the visit of an elderly professor and his glamorous, much younger second wife, Yelena, to the rural estate that supports their urban lifestyle. Two friends—Vanya, brother of the professor's late first wife, who has long managed the estate, Astrov, the local doctor—both fall under Yelena's spell, while bemoaning the ennui of their provincial existence. Sonya, the professor's daughter by his first wife, who has worked with Vanya to keep the estate going, suffers from her unrequited feelings for Dr. Astrov. Matters are brought to a crisis when the professor announces his intention to sell the estate and Sonya's home, with a view to investing the proceeds to achieve a higher income for himself and his wife. Uncle Vanya is unique among Chekhov's major plays because it is an extensive reworking of his own play published a decade earlier, The Wood Demon.
By elucidating the specific changes Chekhov made during the revision process—these include reducing the cast-list from two dozen down to nine, changing the climactic suicide of The Wood Demon into the famous failed homicide of Uncle Vanya, altering the original happy ending into a more problematic, less final resolution—critics such as Donald Rayfield, Richard Gilman, Eric Bentley have sought to chart the development of Chekhov's dramaturgical method through the 1890s. Rayfield cites recent scholarship suggesting Chekhov revised The Wood Demon during his trip to the island of Sakhalin, a prison colony in Eastern Russia, in 1891. Aleksandr Vladimirovich Serebryakov: a retired university professor, who has lived for years in the city on the earnings of his late first wife's rural estate, managed for him by Vanya and Sonya. Helena Andreyevna Serebryakova: Professor Serebryakov's young and beautiful second wife, she is 27 years old. Sofia Alexandrovna Serebryakova: Professor Serebryakov's daughter from his first marriage.
She is considered plain. Maria Vasilyevna Voynitskya: the widow of a privy councilor and mother of Vanya. Ivan Petrovich Voynitsky: Maria's son and Sonya's uncle, the title character of the play, he is 47 years old. Mikhail Lvovich Astrov: a middle aged country doctor. Ilya Ilych Telegin: an impoverished landowner, who now lives on the estate as a dependent of the family. Marina Timofeevna: an old nurse. A Workman A garden in Serebryakov's country estate. Astrov and Marina discuss how old Astrov has grown, how he feels bored with his life as a country doctor. Vanya enters, complains about how all order has been disrupted since the professor and his wife, arrived; as they’re talking, Yelena and Telegin return from a walk. Out of the professor's earshot, Vanya calls him "a learned old dried mackerel," criticizing him for his pomposity and the smallness of his achievements. Vanya’s mother, Maria Vasilyevna, who idolizes Serebryakov, objects to her son’s derogatory comments. Vanya praises the professor’s wife, for her beauty, arguing that faithfulness to an old man like Serebryakov is an immoral waste of vitality.
Astrov is forced to depart to attend a patient, but not before delivering a speech on the preservation of the forests, a subject he is passionate about. Act I closes with Vanya declaring his love for an exasperated Yelena; the dining room, several days later. It is late at night. Before going to bed, Serebryakov complains of being of old age. Astrov arrives, having been sent for by Sonya. After Serebryakov is asleep and Vanya talk, she speaks of the discord in the house, Vanya speaks of dashed hopes. He feels he’s misspent his youth, he associates his unrequited love for Yelena with the devastation of his life. Yelena refuses to listen. Alone, Vanya questions why he did not fall in love with Yelena when he first met her ten years before, when it would have been possible for the two to have married and had a happy life together. At that time, Vanya believed in Serebryakov’s greatness and was happy to think that his own efforts supported Serebryakov's work; as Vanya agonizes over his past, Astrov returns, somewhat drunk, the two talk together.
Sonya chides Vanya for his drinking, responds pragmatically to his reflections on the futility of a wasted life, pointing out that only work is fulfilling. Outside, a storm is gathering and Astrov talks with Sonya about the suffocating atmosphere in the house, he laments. Sonya begs Astrov to stop drinking, telling him it is unworthy of him to destroy himself; the two discuss love, during which it becomes clear that Sonya is in love with the Doctor and that he is unaware of her feelings. When Astrov leaves, Yelena enters and makes peace with Sonya, after an long period of mutual anger and antagonism. Trying to resolve their past difficulties, Yelena reassures Sonya that she had strong feelings for her father when she married him, though the love proved false; the two women converse at cross purposes, with Yelena confessing her u
Realism in the theatre was a general movement that began in the 19th-century theatre, around the 1870s, remained present through much of the 20th century. It developed a set of dramatic and theatrical conventions with the aim of bringing a greater fidelity of real life to texts and performances. Part of a broader artistic movement, it includes Socialist realism. Russia's first professional playwright, Aleksey Pisemsky, along with Leo Tolstoy, began a tradition of psychological realism in Russia. A new type of acting was required to replace the declamatory conventions of the well-made play with a technique capable of conveying the speech and movements found in the domestic situations of everyday life; this need was supplied by the innovations of the Moscow Art Theatre, founded by Konstantin Stanislavski and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. Whereas the subtle expression of emotion in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull through everyday small-talk had gone unappreciated in a more traditionally conventional production in St Petersburg, a new staging by the Moscow Art Theatre brought the play and its author, as well as the company, immediate success.
A logical development was to take the revolt against theatrical artifice a step further in the direction of naturalism, Stanislavski in his production of Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths, helped this movement achieve international recognition. The Moscow Art Theatre's ground-breaking productions of plays by Chekhov, such as Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard, in turn influenced Maxim Gorky and Mikhail Bulgakov. Stanislavski went on to develop his'system', a form of actor training, well-suited to psychological realism. 19th-century realism is connected to the development of modern drama, which, as Martin Harrison explains, "is said to have begun in the early 1870s" with the "middle-period" work of the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen's realistic drama in prose has been "enormously influential."In opera, verismo refers to a post-Romantic Italian tradition that sought to incorporate the Naturalism of Émile Zola and Henrik Ibsen. It included realistic – sometimes sordid or violent – depictions of contemporary everyday life the life of the lower classes.
3D details were added by 1800. By 1850 settings and details became accurate and had more logic to the plays; as part of a strategic argument in his day, Stanislavski used the term "psychological realism" to distinguish his'system' of acting from his own Naturalistic early stagings of the plays of Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorky, others. Jean Benedetti argues that: Naturalism, for him, implied the indiscriminate reproduction of the surface of life. Realism, on the other hand, while taking its material from the real world and from direct observation, selected only those elements which revealed the relationships and tendencies under the surface; the rest was discarded. As used in critical literature today, the term Naturalism has a broader scope than that, within which all of Stanislavski's work falls. In this broader sense, Naturalism or "psychological realism" is distinct both from Socialist realism and the critical realism developed by the epic theatre of Bertolt Brecht. Realism in the arts Socialist realism Chanson réaliste “Introduction to Theatre -- Realism.”
Women's Liberation Movement, https://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/spd130et/realism.htm Benedetti, Jean. "Realism". Stanislavski: An Introduction. Routledge. Pp. 16–19. ISBN 978-1-135-47020-3. Benedetti, Jean. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. Revised edition. Original edition published in 1988. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-52520-1. Benedetti, Jean. "Realism". The Art of the Actor: The Essential History of Acting from Classical Times to the Present Day. Routledge. Pp. 99–108. ISBN 978-1-136-55619-7. Esslin, Martin. "Modern Theatre 1890–1920". In Brown, John Russell; the Oxford Illustrated History of Theatre. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285442-1. Harrison, Martin; the Language of Theatre. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-87830-087-2
The Treatment (2006 film)
The Treatment is an American romantic comedy film released in 2006 produced and directed by Oren Rudavsky and starring Chris Eigeman and Famke Janssen. It is based on a novel with the same title by Daniel Menaker; the film begins with Jake Singer meeting up with Julia in an attempt to rekindle their relationship. The wedding will be in Aspen but she invites him to her pre-wedding party in New York. Jake, the son of a retired physician Arnold Singer, is an English teacher and somewhat of a basketball coach at Coventry, a Manhattan private school, he becomes involved with Allegra Marshall the widow of a wealthy gentleman who died from a cardiac embolism. Jake seeks treatment from psychoanalyst Dr. Ernesto Morales who surprises Jake in the form of hallucinations attempting to shape or modify his behavior. Chris Eigeman... Jake Singer Famke Janssen... Allegra Marshall Harris Yulin... Arnold Singer Ian Holm... Dr. Ernesto Morales Stephanie March... Julia Peter Vack... Ted Griffin Newman... Scott The Treatment won in the category of Best New York Narrative at the 2006 Tribeca Film Festival.
John Zorn who composed the score for the film won a MacArthur Foundation, the "Genius" award for his music in 2006. The album, titled Filmworks XVIII: The Treatment features a full score for film by John Zorn; the album was released on Tzadik Records. The Treatment on IMDb The Treatment at Rotten Tomatoes