Kingdom of Munster
The Kingdom of Munster was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland which existed in the south-west of the island from at least the 1st century BC until 1118. According to traditional Irish history found in the Annals of the Four Masters, the kingdom originated as the territory of the Clanna Dedad, an Érainn tribe of Irish Gaels; some of the early kings were prominent in the Red Branch Cycle such as Conaire Mór. For a few centuries they were competitors for the High Kingship or Ireland, but lost out to the Connachta, descendants of Conn Cétchathach; the kingdom had internal divisions at different times during its history. Major changes reshaped Munster in the 7th century. Osraige, brought under the control of Munster for two centuries was retaken by the Dál Birn. Various subordinate groups, such as the Múscraige, switched their alliance and helped to bring the Eóganachta to power in Munster. For the next three centuries, various subgroups such as the Eóganacht Chaisil and Eóganacht Glendamnach competed for control of Munster.
Celtic Christian civilisation developed at this time and the Rock of Cashel became a seat of power. Two kings, Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib and Cathal mac Finguine, were able to raise Munster to the premier Irish kingdom for a time. Munster had to contend with raids from the Vikings under the Uí Ímair from the 9th century onwards, who established themselves at Limerick and Cork. Around the same time the Dál gCais known as the Déisi, were in the ascendancy in Munster. Aided in part by the Uí Néill, the subordinate Dál gCais came to challenge the Eóganachta for control of Munster; the exploits of their most famous member Brian Bóruma, known for the Battle of Clontarf established Dál gCais rule for the rest of the 11th century. After internal divisions, Munster was partitoned by High King Toirdelbach Ó Conchobhair with the Treaty of Glanmire in 1118, between Thomond ruled by the Ó Briain and Desmond ruled by the Mac Cárthaigh. A late medieval text in Middle Irish named, it claims that the name derives from Eochaidh Mumu, one of the early Heberian High Kings of Ireland who ruled the area.
This High King held the royal nickname mó-mó meaning "greater-greater", because he was supposed to be more powerful and greater in stature than any other Irishman of his time. The Cóir Anmann claims that the word mó with ána combined to form Mumu, because the kingdom was more propserous than any other in Ireland; the second word ána is associated with the goddess Anu. Indeed, Munster includes within it a pair of breast shaped mountains near Killarney named the Two Paps of Ána; the early Kings of Munster, derived from the Érainn, were mentioned in the Red Branch Cycle of Irish traditional history. Prominent figures featuring in this Cycle are Cú Roí mac Dáire, Conaire Mór, Lugaid mac Con Roí and others; these men are all presented as great warriors, in particular Cú Roí features in the Táin bó Cúailnge, where he fights Amergin mac Eccit, until requested to stop by Meadhbh. Cú Roí is killed by Cú Chulainn after being betrayed by Bláthnat who he had captured, his death was avenged by his son Lugaid mac Con Roí.
The Dáirine, or Clanna Dedad, a major branch of the Érainn, were a significant power in Gaelic Ireland, providing several High Kings of Ireland at the Hill of Tara in addition to ruling Munster. There was a Temair Luachra, existing as the royal site of Munster, but this is lost to history; some of the most prominent High Kings from this time provided by the Érainn of Munster include Eterscél Mór and Conaire Mór who are the subject of the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga. The Laigin in particular were major rivals for Munster at the time; the Chronicle of Ireland places the start of these rulers at the 1st century BCE. Outside of Gaelic sources, the predominant people of Munster, the Érainn, along with other tribes in the area are attested to in Ptolemy's Geographia, where they are known as the Iverni. According to the Book of Glendalough, a member of the Munster royal family, Fíatach Finn, moved north and became King of Ulster, establishing the Érainn kindred known as the Dál Fiatach; this meant competing with the Ulaid rulers of Clanna Rudhraighe.
A great revival of power for Munster occurred in the 2nd century AD, as one of their kings, Conaire Cóem, established himself as High King of Ireland. This was a time for pioneering figures, as major High Kings representing other Gaelic groups in Ireland lived such as Conn Cétchathach founder of the Connachta and Cathair Mór a prominent king of the Laigin. Conaire Cóem holds an important place in Irish genealogies as the forefather of the Síl Conairi, his sons. Another High King from Munster's Dáirine around this period was Lugaid Mac Con, the progenitor of Corcu Loígde, his mother was Sadb ingen Chuinn from t
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis
The Uí Liatháin were an early kingdom of Munster in southern Ireland. They belonged the same kindred as the Uí Fidgenti, the two are considered together in the earliest sources, for example The Expulsion of the Déisi; the two have been given various origins among both the early or proto-Eóganachta and among the Érainn or Dáirine by different scholars working in a number of traditions, with no agreement reached or appearing reachable. It is possible that they were the product of a combination of lineages from both these royal kindreds, or alternatively of another origin entirely. Eochu Liathán, son of Dáire Cerbba, is the eponymous ancestor of the Uí Liatháin; the small village of Castlelyons in East County Cork preserves the name of one of their last royal seats in the High Middle Ages. The two most powerful septs of the Uí Liatháin were the Uí Thassaig. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Uí Meic Caille gave their name to the barony of Imokilly; the Uí Liatháin are known from both Irish and British sources the Sanas Cormaic and Historia Brittonum, to have had colonies in Wales and Cornwall.
According to the Historia Brittonum they were driven out of North Wales by his sons. Alongside the Uí Liatháin in this region of Britain were a significant force of the so-called Déisi, whose story is told in the famous Expulsion of the Déisi mentioned above, as well as a smaller population of the Laigin. Neither are connected to the Uí Liatháin, or connected to each other, in any of the Irish sources, but collaboration can not be ruled out in matters relating to trade, including the slave trade; the Déisi Muman lived adjacent to them in the neighbouring County Waterford and the Laigin could be found not much farther east in the Kingdom of Leinster. The Uí Liatháin can, however, be associated with their apparent relation Crimthann mac Fidaig, the legendary King of Munster and dominant High King of Ireland of the 4th century, they are mentioned not only in the same passage in the Sanas Cormaic, but are close relations in all the earliest genealogical manuscripts. In a 1926 paper, Eoin MacNeill discusses the movements of the Uí Liatháin at considerable length, arguing their leadership in the South Irish conquests and founding of the dynasty of Brycheiniog, figures in the Welsh genealogies matching Uí Liatháin dynasts in the Irish genealogies.
He argues any possible settlement of the Déisi would have been subordinate until the ousting of the Uí Liatháin by the sons of Cunedda. The founder of Brycheiniog, Brychan, is in all probability the early dynast Macc Brocc, while the name Braccan occurs early in the pedigrees of the Uí Fidgenti and Uí Dedaid, close kindred of the Uí Liatháin. MacNeill further associates this with the sovereignty in Ireland and conquests in Britain of their cousin germane, the monarch Crimthann mac Fidaig. Bressal mac Ailello Thassaig was an early king of Munster according to one source, his sister Angias was the queen of Lóegaire mac Néill, High King of Ireland, mother of Lugaid mac Lóegairi, who became High King himself despite the initial wishes of Saint Patrick, thanks to Angias' beseeching the saint. She and Bressal were children of son of Eochu Liathán. Ruithchern, daughter of the King of Iarmuman, Áed Bennán mac Crimthainn, sister of Mór Muman, was taken captive by the Uí Liatháin and forced to herd sheep.
At the Battle of Carn Conaill, the Uí Liatháin are listed among the Munster allies of Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin, a mention dismissed by Byrne, but discussed at length by Seán Ó Coileáin, who relates it to the cycle of Mór Muman and Ruithchern. Both the mother and celebrated wife, Caillech, of the infamous Cathal mac Finguine, King of Munster and King of Tara, were from the Uí Liatháin. A substantial part of the defunct kingdom was granted to the De Barry family by John of England in 1206, although the Uí Meic Tire persisted in a southern outpost for a few decades following. Based on Rawlinson B 502 and the Vita tripartita Sancti Patricii Dáire Cerbba / Maine Munchaín | |___________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | Fidach Fiachu Fidgenid Eochu Liathán Uí Duach Argetrois Uí Dedaid | | |__________________________ |___________________________ | | | | | | Crimthann mac Fidaig Mongfind = Eochaid Mugmedón = Cairenn Ailill Tassach | | | | | | Connachta Niall Noígíallach | | ___________| | | | Lóegaire mac Néill = Angias Bressal mac Ailello | |
The Geography known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. Written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles, its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin in 1406 was influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate and Renaissance Europe. Versions of Ptolemy's work in antiquity were proper atlases with attached maps, although some scholars believe that the references to maps in the text were additions. No Greek manuscript of the Geography survives from earlier than the 13th century. A letter written by the Byzantine monk Maximus Planudes records that he searched for one for Chora Monastery in the summer of 1295. In Europe, maps were sometimes redrawn using the coordinates provided by the text, as Planudes was forced to do.
Scribes and publishers could copy these new maps, as Athanasius did for the emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus. The three earliest surviving texts with maps are those from Constantinople based on Planudes's work; the first Latin translation of these texts was made in 1406 or 1407 by Jacobus Angelus in Florence, under the name Geographia Claudii Ptolemaei. It is not thought that his edition had maps, although Manuel Chrysoloras had given Palla Strozzi a Greek copy of Planudes's maps in Florence in 1397; the Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books. Book I is a treatise on cartography, describing the methods used to assemble and arrange Ptolemy's data. From Book II through the beginning of Book VII, a gazetteer provides longitude and latitude values for the world known to the ancient Romans; the rest of Book VII provides details on three projections to be used for the construction of a map of the world, varying in complexity and fidelity. Book VIII constitutes an atlas of regional maps.
The maps include a recapitulation of some of the values given earlier in the work, which were intended to be used as captions to clarify the map's contents and maintain their accuracy during copying. Maps based on scientific principles had been made in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. Ptolemy improved the treatment of map projections, he provided instructions on. The gazetteer section of Ptolemy's work provided latitude and longitude coordinates for all the places and geographical features in the work. Latitude was expressed in degrees of arc from the equator, the same system, used now, though Ptolemy used fractions of a degree rather than minutes of arc, his Prime Meridian ran through the Fortunate Isles, the westernmost land recorded, at around the position of El Hierro in the Canary Islands. The maps spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Fortunate Isles in the Atlantic to China. Ptolemy was aware. Ptolemy's work included a single large and less detailed world map and separate and more detailed regional maps.
The first Greek manuscripts compiled after Maximus Planudes's rediscovery of the text had as many as 64 regional maps. The standard set in Western Europe came to be 26: 10 European maps, 4 African maps, 12 Asian maps; as early as the 1420s, these canonical maps were complemented by extra-Ptolemaic regional maps depicting, e.g. Scandinavia; the original treatise by Marinus of Tyre that formed the basis of Ptolemy's Geography has been lost. A world map based on Ptolemy was displayed in Augustodunum in late Roman times. Pappus, writing at Alexandria in the 4th century, produced a commentary on Ptolemy's Geography and used it as the basis of his Chorography of the Ecumene. Imperial writers and mathematicians, seem to have restricted themselves to commenting on Ptolemy's text, rather than improving upon it. Byzantine scholars continued these geographical traditions throughout the Medieval period. Whereas previous Greco-Roman geographers such as Strabo and Pliny the Elder demonstrated a reluctance to rely on the contemporary accounts of sailors and merchants who plied distant areas of the Indian Ocean and Ptolemy betray a much greater receptiveness to incorporating information received from them.
For instance, Grant Parker argues that it would be implausible for them to have constructed the Bay of Bengal as as they did without the accounts of sailors. When it comes to the account of the Golden Chersonese and the Magnus Sinus and Ptolemy relied on the testimony of a Greek sailor named Alexandros, who claimed to have visited a far eastern site called "Cattigara". Muslim cartographers were using Geography by the 9th century. At that time, in the court of the caliph al-Maʾmūm, al-Khwārazmī compiled his Book of the Depiction of the Earth which mimicked the Geography in providing the coordinates for 545 cities and regional maps of the Nile, the Island of the Jewel, the Sea of Darkness, the Sea of Azov. A 1037 copy of these are the
The Mairtine were an important people of late prehistoric Munster, Ireland who by early historical times appear to have vanished from the Irish political landscape. They are notable for their former capital, Medón Mairtine, becoming the chief church of the Eóganachta, namely Emly. Geoffrey Keating's History of Ireland includes the following section, which may refer to the eponymous ancestor: "Eochaidh Apthach son of Fionn, son of Oilill, son of Flann Ruadh, son of Rothlan, son of Mairtine, son of Sithcheann, son of Riaghlan, son of Eoinbhric son of Lughaidh, son of Ioth, son of Breoghan, held the sovereignty of Ireland one year; this would make Mairtine mac Sithcheann a gr-gr-gr-gr-grandson of Breogán mac Brath, mythical king of Galicia. Breogan's grandson, Míl Espáine, was the father and uncle of the first Goidelic people to settle in Ireland. Eochu Apthach, Mairtine's gr-gr-gr-grandson, is given as a member of the Corcu Loígde, his reign is variously given as the 6th/5th, 7th, or 8th, century BC.
However, it is nowhere explicitly stated that Mairtine mac Sithcheann was the eponym of the Mairtine people. Plus, the Mairtine people are accorded status of Fir Bolg; this term has been translated as middle of the Mairtine, indicating that modern-day Emly, County Tipperary, was the central capital of the tribe. It is due west of Tipperary town, due west of Cashel, seat of the historic kings of Munster, it is therefore at what can be regarded as the geographic centre of Munster. In an essay of 2000, Nollaig Ó Muraíle notes the remote possibility that some of the Mairtine Mór "might just" have been located in Connacht, though he does not specify where. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín notes that in one tradition, preserved in the Book of Lecan's still unpublished genealogies, the Mairtine are said to have been expelled from the north of Ireland, or Leth Cuinn, to have settled in the territory known as In Déis Tuaisceirt, which would become Dál gCais. More following a battle or series of battles, there was a reshuffling of geographic locations within Ireland helping form an Eóghanacht confederation, spoken of in the Book of Munster and other sources.
In Irish myth, there was a battle in 123AD between Eoghan Mor and Conn of the Hundred Battles, it divided Ireland into two equal parts, by the boundary of Esker Riada - a long ridge of hills from Dublin to Galway. The traditional story is that the Mairtine are associated with Erainn, Benntraige and the Eóghanachta, they are noted by other scholars. In a late poem they are given as one of the tribes of the Domnainn, are elsewhere, in popular tradition, said to have belonged to the mythological Fir Bolg. I Dubhaltach MacFhirbhisigh records them in association with the Éarainn and Fir Bolg, listing them as the latter people in his Leabhar na nGenealach, he first mentions them in the statement that "Conmhal mac Ebhir, ri Ereann, do bhris cath Locha Lén for Eurna, agus for Moghruith mac Mofebhis d'Fearuibh Bolg"/"Conmhal s. Éibhear, king of Ireland, won the battle of Loch Léin over the Éarainn, the Mairtine, over Mogh Ruith s. Mo-Feibheas of Fir Bholg.". At 47.2 he wrote that Siorna mac Dian, king of Ireland, won the battle of Móin Fhoichnigh among Uí Fhailghe over the Mairtine and Éarainn.
He states the among the tribes who pay "servile rent" were "Tuath Fhochmhuinn... of Ui Fhailghe and over Fotharta of Dairbhre and Almhain and Mairtine or Maidirdine.". At 51.8 he gives their territories as "Tuath Mhairtine in Múscraighe Miontaine and in Oirthear Feimhin and Liag Tuaill and Liag Tí re and Aodha and Breóghain and in Ui Chairbre." In the poem Sloindfead athachtuatha Ereann, which lists the vassal-tribes of Ireland, MacFhirbhisigh relates that "the Mairtine over the middle of Munster/what of it is not remembered by all.". He lists them among the Fir Bolg in the poem Gá lí on i bhFó dla Fir Bholg? The Annals of the Four Masters date Conmael's reign of thirty years ending in Anno Mundi 3579; these annals further state that Angus Olmucahda, who died in Anno Mundi 3790, had defeated them in "the battle of Cuirce, the battle of Sliabh Cailge, against the Martini, in the territory of Corca Bhaiscinn." The territory of Corcu Baiscind lies within. Dáire Cerbba, a well known Munster dynast, ancestor of the Uí Fidgenti and Uí Liatháin, stated in the strange epic Forbhais Droma Dámhgháire to have been king of Medón Mairtine Luath and Eoghan are listed as three kings of the son of the king of the Mairtine of Munster in Acallamh na Senórach.
The Metrical Dindshenchas includes a passage which mentions "The three active Red Wolves of the Martine quenched the sturdy strength of the famous man: they took his head from him, whatever came of it." This may be a reference to Luath and Eoghan in Acallamh na Senórach
Dál Fiatach was a Gaelic dynastic-grouping and the name of their territory in the north-east of Ireland during the Middle Ages. It was part of the over-kingdom of Ulaid, they were its main ruling dynasty for most of Ulaid's history, their territory lay in eastern County Down. Their capital was Dún Lethglaise and from the 9th century their main religious site was Bangor Abbey; the Dál Fiatach are claimed as being descended from Fiatach Finn mac Dáire, a legendary King of Ulaid and High King of Ireland, are thought to be related to both the Voluntii and Darini of Ptolemy's Geographia. They are perhaps more directly related to the pre-historic Dáirine, the Corcu Loígde of Munster. Kinship with the Osraige is supported, more distantly with the Dál Riata; the Ulaid, of which the Dál Fiatach at times were the ruling dynasty, are further associated with the so-called Érainn. The Dál Fiatach claimed kinship with the Clanna Dedad; the Dál Fiatach are considered by scholars to be the true historical Ulaid, but after the fortunes of the dynasty declined in the 7th century, the legendary heroes of the Ulster Cycle were in fact claimed as ancestors by the rival and unrelated Dál nAraidi or Cruthin, claiming for political reasons to be the "true Ulaid" themselves and descendants of Rudraige mac Sithrigi through Conall Cernach.
The legendary Ulaid, a people related in some way to the ancestors of the Dál Fiatach, although this is not preserved in the genealogical traditions, are sometimes called the Clanna Rudraige. However, rather than contesting the quite false claims of the Cruthin to their ancient glory, the Dál Fiatach appear to have chosen to stress their kinship with the Clanna Dedad of Munster, fearsome rivals of the Clanna Rudraige, thus with their own ancestors appropriated by the Dál nAraidi, the Dál Fiatach had no choice but to transform themselves into descendants of their nearest kin they could remember. While kinship with the Dáirine and/or Clanna Dedad is not contested by scholars, it can be assumed the early generations of the Dál Fiatach pedigree are quite corrupt; this is true for the pedigree of the Dáirine and Corcu Loígde. Their natural kinship with the Munster dynasties can only be reconstructed in studies of Ptolemy's Ireland and by linguistics; every known king of Dál Fiatach became King of Ulster, but they did not monopolise the kingship as the Dál nAraidi supplied a number of powerful kings.
Among the more influential Dál Fiatach kings were: Muiredach Muinderg Báetán mac Cairill Fiachnae mac Demmáin Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic Fiachnae mac Áedo Róin Niall mac Eochada,A junior branch of the Dál Fiatach ruled Lecale, the peninsula south of the Dál Fiatach capital, Dún Lethglaise. Dún Lethglaise itself the royal centre of the Dál Fiatach would become a prestigious monastic site. In times, from the 9th century, Bangor controlled by the neighbouring Dál nAraidi, became the main religious site patronised by the kings. Below are a list of some of the tribes that were part of or claimed descent from the Dál Fiatach: Dál mBuinne known as the Muintir Branáin located near Moylinny, County Antrim. An Ulaid tribe, their name is preserved in the medieval deanery of Dalboyn. Leth Cathail, an offshoot of the Dál Fiatach, located in and around the modern barony of Lecale, County Down. Uí Blathmaic, whose territory was located in the northern part of the barony of Ards and part of Castlereagh, their name was preserved in the medieval county of Blathewyc.
Uí Echach Arda, based in the Ards peninsula. Mac Duinnshléibhe, meaning "brown mountain", anglicised as MacDonlevy, MacAleavey amongst other variations. Ó hEachaidh, meaning "son of Aghy", Anglicised variants include Haughey, MacGaughey, MacGahey and Hoy. Recorded as a Mac name as well as a branch of the Mac Duinnshléibhe. Sen mac Rosin Dedu mac Sin a quo Clanna Dedad Íar mac Dedad Dál Riata, etc. Dáire mac Dedad / Dairi Sirchrechtaig / Dáire Doimthech Cú Roí mac Dáire Lugaid mac Con Roí Fuirme mac Con Roíiatach Find Dál Fiatach Dáirine Corcu Loígde Conganchnes mac Dedad Conall Anglonnach mac Dedad Conaille Muirtheimne Eochaid mac SinDeitsin/Deitsini Dlúthaich/Dluthaig Dáire/Dairi Fir furmiFiatach Finn / Fiachach Fir UmaiDál Fiatach A third pedigree is given in Rawlinson B 502 at ¶689: Fiatach Find m. Dáre m. Forgo a quo Dál Fiatach rí h-Érenn.iii. Co torchair la Fiachaich Fidfholaid m. Feradaich. Dáire mac Forgo is listed as an early king of Emain Macha at ¶1481: Dáre m. Forgo m. Feideilmid; as Feideilmid is the father of Fachtna Fáthach according to this particular scheme, Forgo is thus an uncle of Conchobar mac Nessa.
Elsewhere Fachtna is a son of Cas, son of Rudraige mac Sithrigi, son of Dub, son of Fomor, son of Airgetmar. However, Forgo appears as an ancestor of Deda mac Sin at ¶1696: Dedad m. Sin m. Roshin m. Triir m. Rothriir m. Airnnil m. Maine m. Forggo m. Feradaig m. Ailella Érann m. Fiachach Fir Mara m. Óengusa Turbich Temra. A Forgo appears in the line of the historical kings of Dál Fiatach as the father of Muiredach Muinderg: Eochu m. Ardgair m. Matudáin m. Áeda m. Eochucain m. Áeda m. Echdach m. Fíachnai m. Áeda Roín m. Béce Bairche m. Blaithmeic m. Máile Coba m. Fíachnai Duib Tuile m. Demmáin m. Cairill m. Muiredaigh Mundeirg m. Forgo m. Dallaín m. Dubthaig m. Miennaig m. Ludgach m. Óengusa Find m. Fergusa Dubdhétaig m. Imchado m. Findchado m. Fíatach Find (a quo D
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is variously known as Old Brittonic and Common or Old Brythonic. By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cornish and the Pictish language. Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish and south of the Firth of Forth by Old English. Brittonic was replaced by English throughout England.
O'Rahilly's historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance. O'Rahilly's model seems to be supported by the presence of Belgic tribes in Ptolemy's maps. No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified; the Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic. There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse: Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai The affixed – Deuina, Andagin, Uindiorix – I have bound An alternative translation taking into account case marking is: May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda. There is a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text; this seems to contain Brittonic names.
British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy's Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979, they show. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic; some Brittonic personal names are recorded. Tacitus' Agricola noted. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic. Pritenic is a modern term, coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain. Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages, "Pritenic" would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BC; the evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain.
These names have been discussed by Kenneth H. Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European; the rarity of survival of Pritenic names is due to Dál Riatan and Norse settlement in the area. The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Koch, their conclusions are that Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century. The Roman frontier between Britannia and Pictland is to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede considered Welsh/British to be separate languages. Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers; the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was replaced by Old English.
Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales and Devon, Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh and Breton, respectively; the early Common Brittonic vowel inventory is identical to that of Proto-Celtic. /ɨ/ and /ʉ/ have not developed yet. Notes: The central mid vowels /ə/ and /ɵ̞/ were allophonic developments of /i/ and /u/, respectively. Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic: Notes: The dative dual and plural represent the inherited instrumental forms, which replaced the inherited dative dual and plural, from Proto-Celtic *toutābom, *toutābos. Notes: Neuter 2nd declension stems deviate from the paradigm as such:Notes: Dual is same as singular All other declensions same as regular 2nd declension paradigm Common Brittonic survive