Leicester Tigers is an English professional rugby union club based in Leicester, England. They play in England's top division of rugby; the club was founded in 1880 and since 1892 plays its home matches at Welford Road Stadium in the south of the city. The club has been known by the nickname Tigers since at least 1885. In the 2017–18 Premiership Rugby season Tigers finished 5th, this entitled them to compete in the 2018-19 European Rugby Champions Cup; the current head coach is Geordan Murphy, appointed in September 2018. Leicester have won 20 major titles, they were European Champions twice, back-to-back in 2001 and 2002. Leicester last won the Premiership Rugby title in the 2013 and appeared in a record nine successive Premiership finals, from 2005 to 2013. Leicester have never finished a league season below sixth position, are one of only four teams never to have been relegated from the top division. Leicester have qualified to play in every season of European Rugby Champions Cup in which English teams have participated, the only English side to do so.
Leicester have appeared in five European finals, the second most overall, as well as the two victories they have lost finals three times, in 1997, 2007 and 2009. Three Leicester Tigers players were members of the 2003 Rugby World Cup Final winning England side including captain Martin Johnson. Leicester Football Club was formed on 3 August 1880 by the merger of three smaller teams: Leicester Societies AFC, Leicester Amateur FC and Leicester Alert; the club's first game was a scoreless draw on 23 October against Moseley at the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground. On 10 September 1892 Leicester played their first game at Welford Road against a Leicestershire XV. Tom Crumbie was appointed secretary on a position he held for the next 33 years. Crumbie has been credited with dragging the club to national prominence, he disbanded reserve and third teams making the First XV an invitation side and introducing players from all over the country. Tigers first silverware was the Midlands Counties Cup won for the first time in 1898 against Moseley.
Having won the Midlands Counties Cup every year from 1898 to 1905, they dropped out "to give other teams a chance". On their return to the competition in 1909 Tigers won the cup again. In 1903 Jack Miles became. Leicester's status as a premier club was confirmed in 1905 when a crowd of 20,000 was on hand to see the club face The Original All Blacks, losing 28-0. December 1909 saw; the fixture became a vital feature in the club's calendar delivering large attendances until open professionalism and league rugby in the 1990s forced it to be abandoned due to fixture congestion. Tigers won the Midlands Counties Cup three more times in four years to cement their place as the midland's premier side before the outbreak of war in 1914; the visit of the Invincible All Blacks on 4 October 1924 saw a record attendance at Welford Road of 35,000 that stands to this day. Tigers were beaten 27-0 by the tourists. Club captain Doug Prentice captained the 1930 British Lions tour to New Australia; the first BBC radio broadcast of a Tigers game was against Waterloo on 29 November 1930.
Bernard Gadney became the club's first home produced England captain in 1934 and was captain when four Leicester players were part of the first England side to beat the All Blacks. Gadney became the club's second player to captain the British Lions on their tour to Argentina. 1936-37 was the worst season. Tigers first televised game by the BBC was on 3 February 1951 when they beat London Scottish 14-0 at the Richmond Athletic Ground; the club underwent a significant restructure in the 1956/57 season. The practice of being an "invitation" club featuring only a First XV stopped and Tigers adopted a more traditional membership club based approach with multiple sides; the "A XV" was to be re-introduced under the name "Extra First XV" with a third "Colts XV" formed. The 1963/64 season saw David Matthews set the record for most consecutive appearances for the club with 109. Matthews was to in 1966/67 lead the club to a record 33 wins. Chalkie White became coach in 1968. White was credited with revolutionising Leicester's player in response to rule changes which opened up the game.
1970/71 saw Peter Wheeler emerge as first choice hooker having made his debut the year before, he ended the season on England's tour to the Far East. Attendance for the annual Barbarians game hit a nadir with a crowd of only 2,518; the 1971/72 season saw changes which would radically change both the game. The RFU introduced a national Knockout Cup competition for clubs and on 16 November 1971 Tigers played their first competitive cup match since 1914, a 10-3 defeat to Nottingham at their Beeston ground. Introduced that season was Tigers' first "Youth" XV, based on a collection of the best 14 and 15 year olds in the county. Only six year Paul Dodge became the first graduate to win an international cap. Tigers were not lost in the 1st round of the 1975-76 Cup; this forced the club into the Midlands qualifiers for the only time. This era saw a huge increase in the popularity of the Barbarians annual fixture with crowds of 15,000 in 1973 & 1975, 17,000 in 1974 and 21,000 in 1976; this contrasted with usual crowds in the low hundreds.
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
New Zealand national rugby union team
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987, they have a 77% winning record in test match rugby, are the only international men’s side with a winning record against every opponent. Since their international debut in 1903, they have lost to only six of the 19 nations they have played in test matches. Since the introduction of the World Rugby Rankings in 2003, New Zealand has held the number one ranking longer than all other teams combined; the All Blacks jointly hold the record for the most consecutive test match wins for a tier one ranked nation, along with England. New Zealand competes with Argentina and South Africa in The Rugby Championship; the All Blacks have won the trophy sixteen times in the competition's twenty-three-year history. New Zealand have completed a Grand Slam tour four times – 1978, 2005, 2008 and 2010.
The All Blacks have been named the World Rugby Team of the Year ten times since the award was created in 2001, an All Black has won the World Rugby Player of the Year award ten times over the same period. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; the team's first match was in 1884, their first international test match was in 1903 against Australia in Sydney. The following year, they hosted their first home test, a match against a British Isles side in Wellington; this was followed by a 34-game tour of Europe and North America in 1905, where the team suffered only one defeat – their first test loss, against Wales. New Zealand's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By the 1905 tour, they were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, the name All Blacks dates from this time; the team perform a Māori challenge or posture dance, before each match. The haka has traditionally been Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate, although since 2005 Kapa o Pango has been performed.
Rugby union – universally referred to only as "rugby" in New Zealand – was introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870. The first recorded game in New Zealand took place in May 1870 in Nelson between the Nelson club and Nelson College; the first provincial union, the Canterbury Rugby Football Union, was formed in 1879, in 1882 New Zealand's first internationals were played when New South Wales toured the country. NSW did not face a New Zealand representative team but played seven provincial sides – the tourists won four games and lost three. Two years the first New Zealand team to travel overseas toured New South Wales. A organised British team, which became the British and Irish Lions, toured New Zealand in 1888. No test matches were played, the side only played provincial sides; the British players were drawn from Northern England, but there were representatives from Wales and Scotland. In 1892, following the canvassing of provincial administrators by Ernest Hoben, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union was formed by the majority of New Zealand's provincial unions, but did not include Canterbury, Otago or Southland.
The first sanctioned New Zealand side toured New South Wales in 1893, where the Thomas Ellison captained team won nine of their ten matches. The following year New Zealand played its first home "international" game, losing 8–6 to New South Wales; the team's first true test match occurred against Australia on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in front of over 30,000 spectators, resulted in a 22–3 victory. A representative New Zealand team first toured the British Isles in 1905; the side is now known as the "Originals", as the "All Blacks" name emerged during this tour when, according to team member Billy Wallace, a London newspaper reported that the New Zealanders played as if they were "all backs". Wallace claimed that because of a typographical error, subsequent references were to "All Blacks"; this account is most a myth – because of their black playing strip, the side was referred to as the Blacks before they left New Zealand. Though the name All Blacks most existed before the trip, the tour did popularise it.
The Originals played 35 matches on tour, their only loss was a 3–0 defeat to Wales in Cardiff. The match has entered into the folklore of both countries because of a controversy over whether All Black Bob Deans scored a try which would have earned his team a 3–3 draw. In contrast to the success of the Originals on the field, the team did antagonise some in the Home Nations' rugby establishment; this complaint continued to dog New Zealand teams until the 1930s. The success of the Originals had uncomfortable consequences for the amateur NZRFU. In 1907, a party of professional players was assembled to tour the British Isles and play rugby league – a professional offshoot of rugby union, played by clubs that split from England's Rugby Football Union due to disagreements over financial compensation for players; when the "All Golds", as the team came to be known, returned they established rugby league in New Zealand, a large number of players switched to the professional code. English and Welsh authorities were alarmed by the threat of professionalism to rugby in New Zealand, in 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side undertook a tour to New Zealand to help promote the amateu
James Leo Farrell was an Irish rugby player. He was educated at Castleknock College and captained the Castleknock SCT to Leinster Schools Senior Cup success in 1920, he played for Bective Rangers and Ireland and was a member of the British Lions squad on the 1927 British Lions tour to Argentina and the 1930 British Lions tour to New Zealand and Australia Match report Great Britain XV tour – Buenos Aires, 31 July 1927 Match report Great Britain XV tour – Buenos Aires, 7 August 1927 Match Report Great Britain XV tour – Buenos Aires, 14 August 1927 Match report Great Britain XV tour – Buenos Aires, 21 August 1927
Ireland national rugby union team
The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union. They are ranked third in the world by World Rugby as of 18 March 2019; the team competes annually in the current Six Nations Championship, which they have won fourteen times outright and shared nine times in its various formats. The team competes every four years in the Rugby World Cup, where they reached the quarter-final stage in all but two competitions. Ireland is one of the four unions that make up the British and Irish Lions – players eligible to play for Ireland are eligible for the Lions; the Ireland national team dates to 1875, when it played its first international match against England. Ireland's highest position in the World Rugby Rankings is second, which they reached for the first time in 2015. Eleven former Ireland players have earned induction into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. Dublin University was the first organised rugby football club in Ireland, having been founded in 1854; the club was organised by students.
During the third quarter of the nineteenth century, following the adoption of a set of official rules in 1868, rugby football began to spread throughout Ireland, resulting in the formation of several other clubs which are still in existence, including NIFC. Carlow. In 1874, the Irish Football Union was formed. Ireland lost their first test match against England 7–0 at the Oval on 15 February 1875. Both teams fielded 20 players in this match. Ireland's first home game was against England in the same year held at Leinster Cricket Club's Observatory Lane ground in Rathmines as Lansdowne Road was deemed unsuitable; the first match at Lansdowne Road was held on 11 March 1878, with England beating Ireland by 2 goals and 1 try to nil. It was not until 1881. Ireland turned up two men short for their game in Cardiff in 1884 and had to borrow two Welsh players; the first victory Ireland had at Lansdowne Road took place on 5 February 1887. It was their first win over England, by two goals to nil. On the third of March 1888, Ireland recorded their first win over Wales with a goal, a try and a drop goal to nil.
In 1894, Ireland followed the Welsh model of using seven backs instead of six for the first time. After victory over England at Blackheath, Ireland won back-to-back matches for the first time when recording their first win over Scotland on 24 February 1894. Ireland went on to win the Triple Crown for the first time. In the 1890s, Rugby was a game for the Protestant middle class, the only Catholic in Edmund Forrest's 1894 team was Tom Crean. Of the eighteen players used in the three games, thirteen were from three Dublin clubs – Wanderers, Dublin University and Bective Rangers – and the remaining five were from Ulster, they went on to win the Home international championship twice more before the old century was out, so that by 1901 all four of the Home Unions had tasted success at a game, growing in popularity with players and spectators. Such was the level of interest in the visit of the first All Blacks team to Dublin in November 1905 that the IRFU made the match the first all-ticket rugby international in history.
Ireland played only seven forwards, copying the New Zealand method of playing a "rover". The game ended New Zealand 15 Ireland 0. On 20 March 1909, Ireland played France for the first time, beating them 19–8; this was Ireland's biggest victory in international rugby at that time, their highest points tally and a record five tries. 30 November 1912 was the first time the Springboks met Ireland at Lansdowne Road, the 1906 tour game having been played at Ravenhill. Ireland with seven new caps were overwhelmed by a record margin of 38–0, still a record loss to South Africa who scored 10 tries. In 1926, Ireland went into their final Five Nations match unbeaten and with the Grand Slam at stake lost to Wales in Swansea. Ireland again came close to a grand slam in 1927. In 1948, Ireland clinched their first Grand Slam in the Five Nations. Ireland were champions and Triple Crown winners again in 1949. In 1951, Ireland were once more crowned Five Nations champions. 1952 saw only Ireland's second overseas tour, the first for over half a century – as they headed to Argentina for a nine-match trip which included two test matches, their Test record being won one, drawn one.
On 27 February 1954, Ireland played Scotland at Ravenhill in Belfast. The 11 Republic-based players protested "God Save the Queen", an abbreviated anthem known as "the Salute" was instead played. Ireland beat Scotland 6–0, did not play in Northern Ireland again until 2007. In 1958, Ireland beat Australia 9–6 in Dublin, the first time a major touring team had been defeated. Ireland managed just three victories in the Five Nations Championship during the early 1960s: against England in 1961, Wales in 1963 and England again in 1964. 1965 saw an improvement as Ireland beat Scotland. On 10 April 1965 at Lansdowne Road Ireland recorded their first win over South Africa. Ireland beat Australia again in Dublin in 1967. Ireland became the first of the home nations to win in the Southern Hemisphere when they beat Australia in Sydney in
Flanker (rugby union)
Flanker is a position in the sport of rugby union. Each team of 15 players includes two flankers, who play in the forwards, are classified as either blindside or openside flankers, numbers 6 and 7 respectively; the name comes from their position in a scrum. They compete for the ball – most in rucks and mauls. Flankers assist in pushing in a scrum, but are expected to detach from the scrum as soon as the ball is out to get to the play before the opposition's forwards. Flankers participate in line-outs, either being lifted to contest or win possession, or to lift other players. Flankers are the key participants in the tackling process; the flankers the openside, are the fastest forwards on the team but still relied upon for tackling. Flankers can be known by several different names, they were called wing-forwards, although this name had a more specific meaning in New Zealand when they used a now-archaic scrum formation. This term is used any more, but the terms breakaway and flank forward are sometimes used.
Collectively, the flankers and the number eight can be known as the back-row forwards – referring to their scrum positions – or as loose forwards because they are loosely bound to the scrum. Flankers are the position where the player should have all-round attributes: speed, fitness and handling skills. Flankers are always involved in the game, as they are the players most involved in winning the ball in open play the openside flanker. Blindside flankers tend to be not as fast as their partners on the openside. In open play, flankers will stand behind the backs, supporting them. If any ball is dropped by the backs, the flankers' job is to clear up messy ball and start a new phase of play; because they are always close to the ball, they are first to the breakdown. Flankers do less pushing in the scrum than the tight five, but need to be fast as their task is to break and cover the opposing half-backs if the opponents win the scrum. At one time, flankers were allowed to break away from the scrum with the ball but this is no longer allowed and they must remain bound to the scrum until the ball is out.
Flankers have to defend at the back of the scrum if the opposition wins the ball and the opposing number 8 decides to pick and go. New Zealand openside flanker Richie McCaw, nominated for World Rugby Player of the Year a record eight times from 2002–2012, described three key roles for the flanker: "My main role as a flanker is, defensively, to tie in with the back line to ensure that the defence works well. On attack I think. You attack the back line and I'm the first person there to make sure we secure that ball. Thirdly I put pressure on break downs and make sure I disturb their ball and try to turn their ball over." The two flankers do not bind to the scrum in a fixed position. Instead, the openside flanker attaches to the scrum on whichever side is further from the nearer touchline, while the blind-side flanker attaches himself/herself to the scrum on the side closer to the touchline. Since most of the back play is on the open side, where there is more space, it is the openside flanker's job to be the first to any breakdown of play and to get his/her hands on any loose ball.
At a scrum where the ball has been won by the opposition, the openside flanker has the best view of when the ball is out and is able to break away and close down the opposing ball-carrier, reducing the time available for a pass or kick. Openside flankers are smaller and quicker than their blindside counterparts; the blindside flanker has the job of stopping any move by the opponents on the blind side from a scrum. Blindside flankers are responsible for cover defence from set pieces and may play a more physical role at the line-out, where they may well be used as a jumper, they can be used for breaking their opposition line in open play using their speed and strength to break tackles. Most countries prefer a quicker openside flanker with the ability to get off the scrum so that he can scavenge for the ball. In South Africa, however, it is preferred for the blindside flanker to be quicker as it is their duty to carry the ball, meaning they prefer the person running with the ball being quicker rather than the person trying steal it.
Flankers are not always assigned specific roles as blindsides. For example, Scotland flankers Finlay Calder and John Jeffrey played left and right, rather than open and blind. French teams tend not to make a distinction between the two roles, their flankers usually play left and right rather than open and blind: thus, Serge Betsen wore the number 6 but would pack down on either the open or blind sides of the scrum, will harass the opposition fly-half in the manner of an openside. Rugby union positions Scrum Playing Zinzan. "Position guide: blind-side flanker". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 December 2007. Brooke, Zinzan. "Position guide: open-side flanker". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 December 2007
England national rugby union team
The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Scotland and Wales. They have won this championship on a total of 28 occasions, 13 times winning the Grand Slam and 25 times winning the Triple Crown, making them the most successful outright winners in the tournament's history, they are ranked fourth in the world by the International Rugby Board as of 18 March 2019. England are to date the only team from the northern hemisphere to win the Rugby World Cup, when they won the tournament back in 2003, they were runners-up in 1991 and 2007. The history of the team extends back to 1871 when the English rugby team played their first official Test match, losing to Scotland by one try. England dominated the early Home Nations Championship which started in 1883. Following the schism of rugby football in 1895 into union and league, England did not win the Championship again until 1910. England first played against New Zealand in 1905, South Africa in 1906, Australia in 1909.
England was one of the teams invited to take part in the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987 and went on to appear in the final in the second tournament in 1991, losing 12–6 to Australia. Following their 2003 Six Nations Championship Grand Slam, they went on to win the 2003 Rugby World Cup – defeating Australia 20–17 in extra time, they again contested the final in 2007. England players traditionally wear a white shirt with a rose embroidered on the chest, white shorts, navy blue socks with a white trim, their home ground is Twickenham Stadium where they first played in 1910. The team is administered by the Rugby Football Union. Four former players have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame. Seven other former players are members of the IRB Hall—four for their accomplishments as players, two for their achievements in other roles in the sport, one for achievements both as a player and administrator; the expansion of rugby in the first half of the 19th century was driven by ex-pupils from many of England's Public Schools Rugby, upon finishing school, took the game with them to universities, to London, to the counties.
England's first international match was against Scotland on Monday 27 March 1871. Not only was this match England's first, but it proved to be the first rugby union international. Scotland won the match by a goal and a try to a try, in front of a crowd of 4,000 people at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh. A subsequent international took place at the Oval in London on 5 February 1872 which saw England defeat Scotland by a goal, a drop goal and two tries to one drop goal. In those early days there was no points system, it was only after 1890 that a format allowing the introduction of a points system was provided. Up until 1875 international rugby matches were decided by the number of goals scored, but from 1876 the number of tries scored could be used to decide a match if teams were level on goals. In 1875, England played their first game against the Irish at the Oval, winning by one goal, one drop goal and one try to nil. England defeated Scotland in 1880 to become the first winners of the Calcutta Cup.
Their first match against Wales was played on 19 February 1881 at Richardson's Field in Blackheath. England recorded their largest victory, defeating the Welsh by seven goals, six tries, one drop goal to nil and scoring 13 tries in the process; the subsequent meeting the following year at St Helens in Swansea was a closer contest. In 1889, England played their first match against a non-home nations team when they defeated the New Zealand Natives by one goal and four tries to nil at Rectory Field in Blackheath. In 1890 England shared the Home Nations trophy with Scotland. England first played New Zealand in 1905; the All Blacks scored five tries, worth three points at this time, to win 15–0. The following year, they played France for the first time, that year they first faced South Africa; the match was drawn 3–3. England first played France in 1905, Australia in 1909 when they were defeated 9–3; the year 1909 saw the opening of Twickenham as the RFU's new home, which heralded a golden era for English rugby union.
England's first international at Twickenham was in 1910 and brought them victory over Wales, England went on to win the International Championship for the first time since the great schism of 1895. Although England did not retain the title in 1911, they did share it in 1912. A Five Nations Grand Slam was achieved in 1913 and 1914 as well as in 1921 following the First World War. England subsequently won the Grand Slam in 1924 and as well as in 1925; this was despite having started 1925 with a loss to the All Black Invincibles in front of 60,000 fans at Twickenham. After winning another Grand Slam in 1928, England played the Springboks in front of 70,000 spectators at Twickenham in 1931. Following the ejection of France due to professionalism in 1930, which thus reverted The Five Nations back to the Home Nations tournament, England went on to win the 1934 and 1937 Home Nations with a Triple Crown, in 1935 achieved their first victory over the All Blacks; when the Five Nations resumed with the re-admission of France in 1947 after the Second World War