Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Payne Whitney Gymnasium
The Payne Whitney Gymnasium is the gymnasium of Yale University. One of the largest athletic facilities built, its twelve acres of interior space include a nine-story tower containing a third-floor swimming pool, fencing facilities, a polo practice room; the building houses the facilities of many varsity teams at Yale, including basketball, gymnastics, squash and volleyball. It is the second-largest gym in the world by cubic feet and the 94th largest in the United States by square footage; the building was donated to Yale by John Hay Whitney, of the Yale class of 1926, in honor of his father, Payne Whitney. Because it was designed in the Gothic Revival style that prevailed at Yale between 1920 and 1945, it is known as "the cathedral of sweat". For the design of Payne Whitney Gymnasium, architect John Russell Pope was awarded the Silver Medal at the 1932 Olympic Games Art Competition; the stuffed original Handsome Dan, the bulldog mascot of Yale and the first college mascot in the United States, resides in a glass cabinet near the entrance to the building.
The basketball team plays in the John J. Lee Amphitheater, named in 1996 for John J. Lee,'56 M. Eng. A star basketball player and benefactor in restoration projects; the wing opposite the Amphiteater houses the Robert J. H. Kiphuth Exhibition Pool, where the swimming teams compete; the pool is named for athletic director. A series of three crew tanks runs along the back of the gym, providing training facilities for the crews. Above the crew tanks is the Practice Pool, one of the world's largest suspended natatoriums. Above the Practice Pool are recreational basketball courts. On the wings, the Adrian "Ace" Israel Fitness Center is located above the Kiphuth Exhibition Pool, the Brady Squash Center is located above the Amphitheater; the Squash Center, one of the world's premier competition facilities, is home to the U. S. Squash Hall of Fame; the roof of the Squash Center has a small outdoor running track. The tower itself contains the Kiphuth Trophy Room, several multi-purpose recreational areas, the fencing salon, the gymnastics studio.
The Lanman Center, located behind the Amphitheater wing, provides a vast spread of additional flexible floor space, with a balcony running track ringing the facility. The William K. Lanman Center was added in 1999 as a new wing, with additional courts for basketball and volleyball, an indoor running track; this was the first phase of a $100 million renovation program. In 2006, the building is having external work done to stop leaks. Other work includes the purchasing of banners and benches for the Kiphuth Exhibition Pool, the resurfacing of the floor in the Lee Amphitheater, the upgrading of the Practice Pool's filtration system. Before coeducation, the third floor pool was "no suits," i.e. nude. Freshmen at that time had to undergo a questionable series of "posture" tests that involved nude photographs, they were instructed that if they had an excessive lordotic curve, remedial exercises would be prescribed, although it seemed no one was so required. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Payne Whitney Gym at Yale.edu
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
2015 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The 2015 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involved 68 teams playing in a single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. The 77th edition of the tournament began on March 17, 2015, concluded with the championship game on April 6 at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis. Duke defeated Wisconsin in the championship game, 68–63. Tyus Jones of Duke was the tournament's Most Outstanding Player; the following are the sites selected to host each round of the 2015 tournament:First Four March 17 and 18 University of Dayton Arena, Ohio Second and Third Rounds March 19 and 21 Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena, Florida KFC Yum! Center, Kentucky Consol Energy Center, Pennsylvania Moda Center, Oregon March 20 and 22 Time Warner Cable Arena, North Carolina Nationwide Arena, Ohio CenturyLink Center Omaha, Nebraska KeyArena, Washington Regional Semifinals and Finals March 26 and 28 Midwest Regional, Quicken Loans Arena, Ohio West Regional, Staples Center, Los Angeles March 27 and 29 East Regional, Carrier Dome, New York South Regional, NRG Stadium, Texas National Semifinals and Championship April 4 and 6 Lucas Oil Stadium, Indiana For the second time, Lucas Oil Stadium hosted the Final Four, marking the seventh time the NCAA's home city has hosted the tournament.
The 2015 tournament marked the first time since 2005 that no new venues were used, only the third time since 1950 that this has happened. As of 2018, this is the most recent tournament for Cleveland, Jacksonville, Seattle or Syracuse. Kentucky entered the tournament unbeaten. After 22 years without an unbeaten team in the tournament, following UNLV in 1991, this is the second consecutive tournament with an unbeaten team; the Wildcats, by beating Cincinnati in the third round, set an NCAA men's record with 36 straight wins to start a season. They would win two more before Wisconsin upset them in the Final Four. Defending national champion Connecticut did not qualify. Kansas extended its streak of consecutive tournament appearances to 26 in a row, they have made each NCAA Tournament dating back to 1990. Kansas would qualify again the next two seasons to set the record for consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances held by North Carolina. Atlantic Sun Conference champion North Florida, Big West Conference champion UC Irvine, Mid-American Conference champion Buffalo made their first respective appearances in the Division I tournament.
With both Buffalo and Albany winning their respective conferences and reaching the tournament, this is the first time two schools in the State University of New York system have reached the Division I tournament in the same year. Two teams broke appearance droughts of over 20 years with their bids: Colonial Athletic Association champion Northeastern made its first NCAA appearance since 1991, American champion Southern Methodist made its first NCAA appearance since 1993. Harvard and Yale played a one-game playoff at the Palestra. Harvard won in dramatic fashion. Dayton played a First Four game at their home arena, not allowed during the men's tournament; the NCAA selection committee indicated that putting Dayton in its home arena "falls within the context" of the committee's procedures. For the first time since 1995, two 14 seeds recorded wins in the Second Round. On March 19, Georgia State defeated UAB defeated Iowa State. Of the sixteen games played on March 19, five were decided by a single-day record.
For the first time since 2007 and the fourth time since the field expanded to 64 teams in 1985, all four 5 seeds won their Second Round games. This was the first time since 2007 that there were four 4 vs. 5 matchups in the Third Round. On March 20, all but one "chalk" team won their game, compared to the four upsets the previous day. Michigan State reached its seventh Final Four in the last 18 seasons—the best mark in the nation during that time span. For the first time since 2009, multiple 1 seeds reached the Final Four. For the first time since 2008, two 1 seeds reached the Championship, between Memphis. Wisconsin was in its first final since 1941, lost; the Wisconsin loss extended the Big Ten Conference's losing streak in National Championship games to six. As of 2015, Michigan State is the last Big Ten team to win a National Championship, having done so in 2000. Out of 333 eligible Division I teams, 68 participate in the tournament. Eighteen Division I teams were ineligible due to failing to meet APR requirements, self-imposed postseason bans, or reclassification from a lower division.
Of the 32 automatic bids, 31 were given to programs. The Ivy League does not hold a tournament, awards its bid to the team with the best regular-season record. However, whenever two or more teams are
Cornell Big Red men's basketball
The Cornell Big Red men's basketball team represents Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, in NCAA Division I men's competition. The Big Red's appearance in the 2008 NCAA Tournament was their first trip to "The Big Dance" since 1988. On March 14, 2016, Cornell did not renew the contract of head coach Bill Courtney, hired after the 2009–10 season. On April 18, 2016 Brian Earl was named the 22nd head coach in the program's history. Cornell played its first basketball game on December 13, 1898, a 48–12 victory over the Waverly YMCA; the team would finish the short season with a record of 1–3. The program did not record a winning season until 1908-1909 when the team went 13-10. Beginning with the 1901–1902 season and ending with the 1954-1955 season Cornell competed in the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League which at various points in its history consisted of between four and eight schools, all of whom would join the Ivy League upon its creation in 1954. Cornell won the EIBL title four times, including 1954 in a one-game playoff over Princeton which would earn the Big Red their first trip to the NCAA tournament.
The 1955–56 season was the first year of competition under the new Ivy League organization. Cornell has since won the Ivy League title four times, most in 2010; that year marked the first time. Cornell moved into their current home, Newman Arena in Bartels Hall in January 1990. From February 16, 1919 home games had been played in Barton Hall referred to as the "New Armory". Earlier games had been played in the previous armory, located on what is now the engineering quad; the 2010 tournament was the Big Red's fifth appearance in the NCAA Tournament. Their combined record is 2–6. In 2010, the men's basketball team defeated fifth-seeded Temple followed by fourth-seeded Wisconsin to advance to the Sweet Sixteen, becoming the first Ivy League team to advance that far since Penn's Final Four appearance in 1979; the win over Temple marked the first time Cornell won a game in the NCAA Tournament. Cornell has been selected to participate in one CollegeInsider.com Postseason Tournament. Their record is 0-1.
Jon Jaques, professional basketball player, assistant basketball coach Lou Molinet, football player Ed Peterson, basketball player Dick Savitt, tennis player Ryan Wittman, basketball player Official website
1998 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The 1998 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involved 64 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. It began on March 12, 1998, ended with the championship game on March 30 at the Alamodome in San Antonio. A total of 63 games were played; the Final Four consisted of Kentucky, making their third consecutive Final Four, making their first appearance since their initial Final Four run in 1942, making their fourth Final Four and first since 1966, North Carolina, who returned for a fourteenth overall time and third in four seasons. Kentucky won the national title, its second in three seasons and seventh overall, by defeating Utah 78–69 in the championship game. Jeff Sheppard of Kentucky was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. Kentucky came back from double-digit deficits in each of its last three games in the tournament, including a 17-point second half comeback against the Duke Blue Devils, leading to the school's fans dubbing the team the "Comeback Cats".
This was Kentucky's third straight championship game appearance. Bryce Drew led the 13th-ranked Valparaiso Crusaders to the Sweet Sixteen, including a memorable play that remains part of March Madness lore. For the second consecutive season, a #14 seed advanced from the first round. For the second time in three years, a top seeded team failed to advance to the Sweet Sixteen; that distinction belonged to Midwest Region #1 seed Kansas, defeated by #8 seed Rhode Island. San Antonio became the 26th host city, the Alamodome the 31st host venue, for the Final Four; the 1998 tournament saw two new venues. For the first time the tournament was held within Washington's city limits, at the new MCI Center downtown; the tournament came to Orange County, California for the first time, at the Arrowhead Pond, home to the NHL's Mighty Ducks. The tournament returned to St. Louis in 1998, playing at the Kiel Center, successor venue to both Kiel Auditorium and the St. Louis Arena, and for the first time in 45 years, the tournament was held within Chicago city limits at the United Center, successor venue to the old Chicago Stadium, across the street from the new venue.
The tournament marked the last appearance of the Myriad Convention Center in Oklahoma City, with future games held at the Chesapeake Energy Arena directly across the street. * – Denotes overtime period Jim Nantz and Billy Packer – First & Second Round at Atlanta, Georgia. C..
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner