The Iwami Ginzan was an underground silver mine in the city of Ōda, in Shimane Prefecture on the main island of Honshu, Japan. It was the largest silver mine in Japanese history, it was active for four hundred years, from its discovery in 1526 to its closing in 1923. The mines, mining structures, surrounding cultural landscape — listed as the "Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape" — became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007; the mine was developed in 1526 by Kamiya Jutei, a Japanese merchant. Jutei introduced a Chinese style of silver mining that would become the Haifukiho Method; the mine reached its peak production in the early 1600s, with 38 tons of silver a year, one third of the world's production. Silver from the mine was used for coins in Japan, it was contested fiercely by warlords until the Tokugawa Shogunate won control of it in 1600 as a result of the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. It was secured by fences and barricaded by pine trees. Yamabuki Castle was built in the center of the mining complex.
Silver production from the mine fell in the 19th century, as it had trouble competing with mines elsewhere in the world. Mining for other minerals, such as copper replaced silver as the predominant material produced from the mountain; the mine was closed in 1923. Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine played a pivotal role in East Asian trade. In Europe and China, the mine had been known as the largest silver mine that could compare to the renowned Spanish colonial Cerro Rico mine of Potosí in the Viceroyalty of Peru, a present-day World Heritage Site in Bolivia. In foreign countries, because the silver mined at Iwami Ginzan was of high quality, it came to be known as one of the Japanese brands of silver, sold as "Soma Silver"; the name derived from the village of Sama. This silver was given the highest trading credit in East Asia. From the 17th century on, the silver coins made from the mine's silver were traded as not only one of the basic currencies within Japan, but as the currency for trade with China and the Netherlands.
The prosperity of the mine can be known by its indication on the maps of the period as the "Silver Mine Kingdom". With the progress of navigation, the monarchs of Western Europe had gained many maps imported from Muslim civilizations, developed their own maps. A trading fleet using the maps sailed via India and China to Japan, to trade European goods for Japanese silver; the feudal lords who controlled the mine traded with the Europeans. Parts of the mining town remain in good condition and the Japanese Government designated it as a Special Preservation District for Groups of Historic Buildings in 1969; the government applied for it to become a World Heritage Site. An evaluation of the site by the International Council on Monuments and Sites ) found no "outstanding universal value; the evaluating body concluded in its report that Iwami Ginzan was "a strong candidate for inscription as a World Heritage property" in the future. It recommended that the nomination be deferred for the time being so that more research on the property could be conducted.
The bid was successful in 2007, establishing the Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape as a listed World Heritage Site. The development of a large silver mine requires substantial quantities of lumber to be harvested from surrounding forests. However, the development of Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine resulted in less deforestation and erosion because of "sustainable" control of logging, less soil and water pollution, it was one of the reasons. It was declared in 2007 as among the 100 greatest geological sites of Japan; the World Heritage Site includes: Iwami Ginzan's mining area of around six hundred pits and mine shafts Related processing, administrative and religious sites Three historic castles built in the 16th century to protect the mines Three service ports for shipping silver Connecting transportation routes The fourteen nominated components assessed by ICOMOS are: the mining area of Ginzan Sakunouchi the Daikansho site Yataki Castle site Yahazu Castle site Iwami Castle site the mining settlement of Ōmori Ginzan the silver refining facilities of Miyanomae the House of the Kumagai Family the temple Rakan-ji Gohyakurakan Iwami Ginzan Kaidō Tomogauradō transportation route Iwami Ginzan Kaidō Yunotsu-Okidomaridō transportation route Tomogaura service port/port town Okidomari service port/port town Yunotsu service port/port town Iwami Ginzan World Heritage Center Iwami Silver Mine Museum Cultural landscape Cultural Landscape List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Mining in Japan Lyman, Benjamin Smith..
Geological Survey of Japan: Reports of Progress for 1878 and 1879. Tookei: Public Works Department. OCLC: 13342563 https://web.archive.org/web/20130627011241/http://sinn.dip.jp/kesiki/simane/iwamiginnzann1.htm UNESCO.org: Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape Ginzan.city.ja: Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mine website Japan Mint.jp: World Heritage Coin Set
Coningsby, or The New Generation is an English political novel by Benjamin Disraeli, published in 1844. Coningsby was the first of a trilogy of novels which marked a departure from Disraeli's silver-fork novels of the 1830s and which are his most famous; the book is set against a background of the real political events of the 1830s in England that followed the enactment of the Reform Bill of 1832. In describing these events Disraeli sets out his own beliefs including his opposition to Robert Peel, his dislikes of both the British Whig Party and the ideals of Utilitarianism, the need for social justice in a newly industrialized society, he portrays the self-serving politician in the character of Rigby and the malicious party insiders in the characters of Taper and Tadpole. In Coningsby Disraeli articulates a "Tory interpretation" of history to combat the "accepted orthodoxy of the day". In this interpretation the Whigs have emasculated three great institutions so as to rule in their own interest.
Disraeli is critical of the Tory party after the death of Pitt believing that it had abandoned "true Toryism" to become "Political Infidelity". This manifests itself in Coningsby's eponymous hero refusing the opportunity to stand as a Conservative parliamentary candidate though he is opposed to the Whigs; as an alternative or a remedy Coningsby and his young contemporaries articulate the "Young England" creed which Disraeli was associated with at the time. The novel follows the life and career of Henry Coningsby, the orphan grandson of a wealthy marquess, Lord Monmouth. Lord Monmouth disapproved of Coningsby's parents' marriage, but on their death he relents and sends the boy to be educated at Eton College. At Eton Coningsby meets and befriends Oswald Millbank, the son of a rich cotton manufacturer, a bitter enemy of Lord Monmouth; the two older men represent new wealth in society. As Coningsby grows up he begins to develop his own liberal political views, falls in love with Oswald's sister Edith.
When Lord Monmouth discovers these developments he secretly disinherits his grandson. On his death, Coningsby is left penniless, is forced to work for his living, he decides to become a barrister. This proof of his character impresses Edith's father and he consents to their marriage at last. By the end of the novel Coningsby is elected to Parliament for his new father-in-law's constituency and his fortune is restored. According to Disraeli's biographer, Robert Blake, the character of Sidonia is a cross between Lionel de Rothschild and Disraeli himself; the character of Coningsby is based on George Smythe. The themes, some of the characters, reappear in Disraeli's novels Sybil and Tancred. Harry Coningsby was the charge of his grandfather. Coningsby first met his grandfather, out of the country on government business, when he was aged about 9 and was so overwhelmed, he could only cry. Coningsby was brought up in his grandfather's political entourage including the critical and self-righteous Mr Rigby and the two political hacks and Taper.
Coningsby went to Eton where, in a rafting incident, he saved the life of a son of a wealthy manufacturer. Out walking one day shortly after leaving Eton, Coningsby takes refuge from a storm in an inn where he is captivated by a flamboyant traveller talking about young people needing to drive things forward and of the end of the “Age of Ruins”. Coningsby is now well integrated into upper class sets where he befriends a number of like-minded young gentlemen who look up to him as their leader. On a trip to Manchester, Coningsby decides to visit Millbank, abroad and so he is entertained by Millbank's father and his shy but beautiful 16-year-old sister, Edith. With Lord Monmouth's return to England, Coningsby is invited to the family seat for the first time for a massive reception including a play which features the stage debut of Flora “La Petite” the daughter of a great deceased actress and whom Lord Monmouth has taken under his wing. Flora does well but breaks down in tears and Coningsby alone goes backstage to sympathise.
Guests are dazzled by the arrival of the man Coningsby met in the inn, who impresses Princess Lucretia, being lined up by her step mother, Madame Colonna, as a potential wife for Coningsby. Shortly afterwards, the owner of Lord Monmouth's adjoining estate dies with no heirs dies but Lord Monmouth's bid to buy his land is thwarted by Millbank senior, their rivalry is accentuated when Monmouth's Tory candidate for the local parliamentary seat is defeated by the Liberal candidate, Millbank snr. In disgust Monmouth announces his surprise marriage to Lucretia. Meanwhile, Flora is unable to sing so frequently. After his first year at university, Coningsby goes to Paris to meet his grandfather, he is shown some of his father's old possessions in a banker's safe including a portrait of a woman Coningsby's mother, which he had seen at Milbank's home. Whilst visiting an art gallery he observes a beautiful young woman who turns out to be Edith Millbank and they are reacquainted at a grand ball Lord Monmouth holds the following evening.
Shortly afterwards Coningsby abruptly leaves Paris. A year Coningsby encounters Edith's aunt and learns that the rumour about Edith and Sidonia's marriage was false. Edith is now
Lee Roy Myers is a Canadian pornographic film director, producer and one of the creators of WoodRocket.com. He started his career with New Sensations in 2009 and developed their A XXX Parody and Romance Series lines, he has directed and produced films for Adam & Eve, DreamZone Entertainment, Tom Byron Pictures, Zero Tolerance Entertainment, Third Degree Films, Wicked Pictures, Capitol Entertainment Agency, Full Spread Entertainment, Nightingale Pictures, Brazzers and his own production company, Goodnight Media. 2010 AVN Award nominee – Director of the Year, Body of Work 2010 AVN Award nominee – Best Director, Feature – Seinfeld: A XXX Parody 2010 XBIZ Award nominee – Director of the Year, Body of Work 2010 XBIZ Award nominee – Director of the Year, Individual Project – 30 Rock: A XXX Parody 2011 AVN Award nominee – Director of the Year, Body of Work 2011 AVN Award nominee – Best Director, Feature – The Big Lebowski: A XXX Parody 2011 AVN Award nominee – Best Screenplay, Adapted – The Big Lebowski: A XXX Parody 2011 AVN Award nominee – Best Screenplay, Adapted – Cheers: A XXX Parody 2011 AVN Award nominee – Best Screenplay, Adapted – Reno 911: A XXX Parody 2012 AVN Award nominee - Best Director, Parody - Godfather: A DreamZone Parody 2012 AVN Award nominee - Director of the Year, Body of Work 2013 XBIZ Award nominee - Director of the Year, Parody - Buffy the Vampire Slayer XXX 2009 Nightmoves Award winner – Best Parody, The Office: A XXX Parody 2010 AVN Award winner – Best Parody, Sex Files 2010 Nightmoves Award winner – Best Parody, The Big Bang Theory: A XXX Parody 2011 XBIZ Award winner - Director of the Year - Body of Work 2011 XBIZ Award winner – Best Parody, The Big Lebowski: A XXX Parody 2011 XRCO Award winner - Best Parody, The Big Lebowski: A XXX Parody Woodrocket.com Lee Roy Myers on Twitter Lee Roy Myers on IMDb Lee Roy Myers on Internet Adult Film Database