Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
West Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the larger urban area of Jakarta, though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. With a population of 46.3 million West Java is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces. The city proper of Bandung, largest city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi and Depok are the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world. All these cities are suburban to Jakarta; the oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer with evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD. The prehistoric Buni culture clay pottery were developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artefacts, such as food and drink containers, were found as burial gifts.
There is archaeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, West Java was built around this time. One of the earliest known recorded history in Indonesia is from the former Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription; the Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region, as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription. An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak in central Java grew to an immediate threat against the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty with the Portuguese in 1512.
In return, the Portuguese were granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung River in 1522. Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati seized the port of Banten and established the Sultanate of Banten, affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak; the war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates continued for five years until a peace treaty was made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten.
After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran and the Sultanate of Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java seized the Priangan region, the southeastern part of the kingdom. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java fell under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West Java was declared as a province of Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide political decentralization, Banten was separated from West Java and made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename the province Pasundan after the historical name for West Java. Since the creation of West Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of West Java has been subdivided into 9 cities and 17 regencies; these 26 cities and regencies are divided into 620 districts, which comprise 1,576 urban villages and 4,301 rural villages.
An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 - Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of Ciamis Regency. Notes* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was part. ** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012. West Java borders Jakarta and Banten province to the west, Central Java to the east. To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in Indonesia which have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is loc
A protest song is a song, associated with a movement for social change and hence part of the broader category of topical songs. It may be classical, or commercial in genre. Among social movements that have an associated body of songs are the abolition movement, women's suffrage, the labour movement, the human rights movement, civil rights, the anti-war movement and 1960s counterculture, the feminist movement, the sexual revolution, the gay rights movement, animal rights movement and veganism, gun control, environmentalism. Protest songs are situational, having been associated with a social movement through context. "Goodnight Irene", for example, acquired the aura of a protest song because it was written by Lead Belly, a black convict and social outcast, although on its face it is a love song. Or they may be abstract, expressing, in more general terms, opposition to injustice and support for peace, or free thought, but audiences know what is being referred to. Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", a song in support of universal brotherhood, is a song of this kind.
It is a setting of a poem by Friedrich Schiller celebrating the continuum of living beings, to which Beethoven himself added the lines that all men are brothers. Songs which support the status quo do not qualify as protest songs. Protest song texts may have significant cognitive content; the labour movement musical Pins and Needles summed up the definition of a protest song in a number called "Sing Me a Song of Social Significance." Phil Ochs once explained, "A protest song is a song that's so specific that you cannot mistake it for BS."An 18th-century example of topical song intended as a feminist protest song is "Rights of Woman", sung to the tune of "God Save the King", written anonymously by "A Lady", published in the Philadelphia Minerva, October 17, 1795. There is no evidence that it was sung as a movement song, however. A more recent song advocating sexual liberation is "Sexo" by Los Prisioneros; the sociologist R. Serge Denisoff saw protest songs rather narrowly in terms of their function, as forms of persuasion or propaganda.
Denisoff saw the protest song tradition as originating in the "psalms" or songs of grassroots Protestant religious revival movements, terming these hymns "protest-propaganda", as well. Denisoff subdivided protest songs as either "magnetic" or "rhetorical". "Magnetic" protest songs were aimed at attracting people to the movement and promoting group solidarity and commitment – for example, "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" and "We Shall Overcome". "Rhetorical" protest songs, on the other hand, are characterized by individual indignation and offer a straightforward political message designed to change political opinion. Denisoff argued that although "rhetorical" songs are not overtly connected to building a larger movement, they should be considered as "protest-propaganda". Examples include Bob Dylan's "Masters of War" and "What's Going On" by Marvin Gaye. Ron Eyerman and Andrew Jamison, in Music and Social Movements: Mobilizing Tradition in the Twentieth Century, take issue with what they consider Denisoff's reductive approach to the history and function of song in social movements.
They point out that Denisoff had paid little attention to the song tunes of protest music, considered them subordinate to the texts, a means to the message. It is true that in the text-oriented western European song tradition, tunes can be subordinate and limited in number Eyerman and Jamison point out that some of the most effective protest songs gain power through their appropriation of tunes that are bearers of strong cultural traditions, they note that:There is more to music and movements than can be captured within a functional perspective, such as Denisoff's, which focuses on the use made of music within already-existing movements. Music, song, we suggest, can maintain a movement when it no longer has a visible presence in the form of organizations and demonstrations, can be a vital force in preparing the emergence of a new movement. Here the role and place of music needs to be interpreted through a broader framework in which tradition and ritual are understood as processes of identity and identification, as encoded and embodied forms of collective meaning and memory.
Martin Luther King Jr. described the freedom songs this way: "They invigorate the movement in a most significant way... these freedom songs serve to give unity to a movement." Raï is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been evolved by women in the culture. Raï has been forbidden music in Algeria, to the point of one popular singer being assassinated, although since the 1980s it has enjoyed some considerable success; the song "Parisien Du Nord" by Cheb Mami is a recent example of how the genre has been used as form of protest, as the song was written as a protest against the racial tensions that sparked the 2005 French riots. According to Memi: It is a song against racism, so I wanted to sing it with a North African, born in France... Because of that and because of his talent, I chose K-Mel. In the song, we say,'In your eyes, I feel like foreigner.' It's like the kids who were born in France but they have Arab faces.
They are French, they should be considered French." Indigenous issues feature prominently in politically i
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
New Order (Indonesia)
The New Order is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterise his regime as he came to power in 1966. Suharto used this term to contrast his rule with that of Sukarno; the term "New Order" in more recent times has become synonymous with the Suharto years. Following the attempted coup in 1965, the political situation was uncertain, but the Suharto's New Order found much popular support from groups wanting a separation from Indonesia's problems since its independence. The'generation of 66' epitomised talk of a new group of young leaders and new intellectual thought. Following Indonesia's communal and political conflicts, its economic collapse and social breakdown of the late 1950s through to the mid-1960s, the "New Order" was committed to achieving and maintaining political order, economic development, the removal of mass participation in the political process; the features of the "New Order" established from the late 1960s were thus a strong political role for the military, the bureaucratisation and corporatisation of political and societal organisations, selective but effective repression of opponents.
Strident anti-communism remained a hallmark of the regime for its subsequent 32 years. Within a few years, many of its original allies had become indifferent or averse to the New Order, which comprised a military faction supported by a narrow civilian group. Among much of the pro-democracy movement which forced Suharto to resign in the 1998 Indonesian Revolution and gained power, the term "New Order" has come to be used pejoratively, it is employed to describe figures who were either tied to the Suharto period, or who upheld the practises of his authoritarian regime, such as corruption and nepotism. Sukarno was Indonesia's founding president, a position he had held since the Republic's formation in 1945. In 1955, the first general parliamentary elections delivered an unstable parliament and from the late 1950s, Sukarno's rule became autocratic under his "Guided Democracy". Described as the great ‘’Dalang’’, or puppet master, Sukarno’s position depended on his concept of NASAKOM whereby he sought to balance the competing Indonesian Military, Islamic groups, the powerful Indonesian Communist Party.
To the resentment of the Military and Muslim groups, this arrangement became reliant on the PKI which had become the country’s strongest political party. Sukarno’s anti-imperial ideology saw Indonesia dependent on the Soviet Union and China, met with indignation from Western countries; the cash-strapped government had to scrap public sector subsidies, annual inflation rose to as high as 1,000%, export revenues were shrinking, infrastructure crumbling, factories were operating at minimal capacity with negligible investment. Sukarno’s administration became ineffective in providing a viable economic system to lift its citizens out of poverty and hunger. Meanwhile, Sukarno led Indonesia into Konfrontasi, a military confrontation with Malaysia, removed Indonesia from the United Nations, stepped up revolutionary and anti-Western rhetoric. By 1965 at the height of the Cold War, the PKI penetrated all levels of government. With the support of Sukarno and the Air Force, the party gained increasing influence at the expense of the Army, thus ensuring the Army's enmity.
Muslim clerics, many of whom were landowners, felt threatened by the PKI's rural land confiscation actions. The army was alarmed at Sukarno’s support for the PKI’s wish to establish a "fifth force" of armed peasants and labourers. Adding to this desperate and fractious nature of Indonesia in the 1960s, a split within the military was fostered by Western countries backing a right-wing faction against a left-wing faction backed by the PKI. On 30 September 1965, six generals were killed by a group calling themselves the 30 September Movement who alleged a right-wing plot to kill the President. General Suharto led the army in suppressing the abortive coup attempt; the Communist Party of Indonesia were blamed and the army led an anti-communist purge which killed an estimated 500,000 to a million people. Public opinion shifted against Sukarno in part due to his apparent knowledge of, sympathy for, the events of 30 September, for his tolerance of leftist and communist elements whom the army blamed for the coup attempt.
Student groups, such as KAMI, were encouraged by, sided with, the Army against Sukarno. In March 1966, Suharto secured a presidential decree, which gave him authority to take any action necessary to maintain security. Using the decree, the PKI was banned in March 1966 and the parliament and military were purged of pro-Sukarno elements many of whom were accused of being communist sympathisers, who were replaced with Suharto supporters. A June session of the now-purged parliament banned Marxism-Leninism, ratified the Supersemar, stripped Sukarno of his title of president for life. In August–September 1966, against the wishes of Sukarno, the New Order ended Indonesia's confrontation with Malaysia and rejoined the United Nations. Parliament re-convened in March 1967 to impeach the President for his apparent toleration of 30 September Movement and violation of the constitution by promoting PKI's international communist agenda, negligence of the economy, promotion of national "moral degradation" via his womanising behaviour.
In March 1967, the MPRS stripped Sukarno of his remaining power, Suharto was named Acting President. Sukarno was placed under house arrest in Bo
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
Koes Plus Koes Bersaudara, is an Indonesian musical group that enjoyed success in the 1960s and 1970s. Known as one of Indonesia's classic musical acts, the band peaked in popularity in the days far before the advent of private television companies, delivering stripped-down pop and rock songs at the then-only TV station, TVRI. In 2007, Rolling Stone Indonesia magazine placed 6 of the band's studio albums on their 150 Greatest Indonesian Albums of All Time list; those are Dheg Dheg Plas at number 4, To The So Called The Guilties at number 6, Koes Bersaudara at number 14, Koes Plus Volume 2 at number 21, Koes Plus Volume 4 at number 30 and Koes Plus Volume 5 at number 38. In addition, Rolling Stone put 10 of the band's songs on the 150 Greatest Indonesian Songs of All Time list; the songs are "Bis Sekolah" at number 4, "Kembali Ke Jakarta" at number 6, "Nusantara I" at number 19, "Kolam Susu" at number 31, "Bunga Di Tepi Jalan" at number 80, "Kelelawar" at number 83, "Manis dan Sayang" at number 88, "Pelangi" at number 92, "Jemu" at number 100 and "Di Dalam Bui" at number 126.
Hailing from the Bojonegoro-Tuban area in East Java, the band started out as Koes Bersaudara consisting of all five Koeswoyo brothers: John Koeswoyo, Yok Koeswoyo, Yon Koeswoyo, Nomo Koeswoyo and Tonny Koeswoyo. Its antics of pioneering Beatles-influenced rock and roll subculture in Indonesia proved to be controversial; such subcultures had been banned by President Sukarno in the early 1960s, in 1965 the brothers were arrested by the Highest Operation Commando for performing covers of Beatles songs. They were released just the day preceding the nation's coup d'état, on 29 September; this experience resulted in their song "Di Dalam Bui". When drummer Nomo quit in 1969, Murry was invited to fill the niche, but the decision caused an internal uproar as the band was projected as a family act; the feud was resolved by rebaptizing the band as Koes Plus. It consisted of the Koeswoyos plus an outsider. Music historians have hypothesized that it was Murry's heavy drumming which led to the band incorporating rock tunes within their ballad-heavy albums.
Koes Plus' early days were rugged. Murry became frustrated at some point and temporarily quit the band, distributing their records as well as joining several other acts. Not until their songs were played on the state radio network did they gain considerable fame. Koes Plus never owned any legal rights pertaining to their works. While this meant that their record label was willing to produce a huge number of albums by Koes Plus due to the small investment involved, it meant that the band never enjoyed any form of royalties whenever their works are being reproduced; as such, they rely upon their continuing live performances for their income. Murry died on February 1, 2014 in Jatisampurna, West Java, aged 65. 1962 Dara Manisku.