Diego de Landa
Diego de Landa Calderón, O. F. M. was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. Historians describe him as a fanatical priest who led a violent campaign against idolatry. In particular, he burned all the Mayan manuscripts that would have been useful in deciphering Mayan script, knowledge of Maya religion and civilization, the history of the American continent. Born in Cifuentes, Spain, he became a Franciscan friar in 1541, was sent as one of the first Franciscans to the Yucatán, arriving in 1549. Landa was in charge of bringing the Roman Catholic faith to the Maya peoples after the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, he presided over a spiritual monopoly granted to the Catholic Franciscan order by the Spanish crown, he worked diligently to buttress the order's power and convert the indigenous Maya. His initial appointment was to the mission of San Antonio in Izamal, which served as his primary residence while in Yucatán, he is the author of the Relación de las cosas de Yucatán in which he catalogues the Maya religion, Maya language and writing system.
The manuscript was written around 1566 on his return to Spain. The account is known only as an abridgement, which in turn had undergone several iterations by various copyists; the extant version was produced around 1660 and was discovered by the 19th-century French cleric Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg in 1862, who published the manuscript two years in a bilingual French-Spanish edition, Relation des choses de Yucatán de Diego de Landa. After hearing of Roman Catholic Maya who continued to practice idol worship, he ordered an Inquisition in Mani, ending with a ceremony called auto de fé. During the ceremony on July 12, 1562, a disputed number of Maya codices and 5000 Maya cult images were burned; the actions of Landa passed into the Black Legend of the Spanish in the Americas. Only three pre-Columbian books of Maya hieroglyphics and fragments of a fourth are known to have survived. Collectively, the works are known as the Maya codices. Landa's Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that many viewed as excessive and was, at the least, unusual.
Scores of Maya nobles were jailed pending interrogation, large numbers of Maya nobles and commoners were subjected to examination under "hoisting." During hoisting, a victim's hands were bound and looped over an extended line, raised until the victim's entire body was suspended in the air. Stone weights were added to the ankles or lashes applied to the back during interrogation; some contemporary observers were troubled by this widespread use of torture. Crown fiat had earlier exempted indigenous peoples from the authority of the Inquisition, on the grounds that their understanding of Christianity was "too childish" for them to be held culpable for heresies. Additionally, Landa dispensed with much of the extensive formal procedure and documentation that accompanied Spanish torture and interrogation. Scholars have argued that Mexican inquisitions showed little concern to eradicate magic or convict individuals for heterodox beliefs and that witchcraft was treated more as a religious problem capable of being resolved by confession and absolution.
Landa, however inspired by intolerant fellow Franciscan Cardenal, from the same Toledo convent, was "monomaniacal in his fervor" against it. Landa believed a huge underground network of apostasies, led by displaced indigenous priests, were jealous of the power the Church enjoyed and sought to reclaim it for themselves; the apostates, Landa surmised, had launched a counteroffensive against the Church, he believed it was his duty to expose the evil before it could revert the population to their old heathen ways. Landa claimed that he had discovered evidence of human sacrifice and other idolatrous practices while rooting out native idolatry. Although one of the alleged victims of said sacrifices, Mani Encomendero Dasbatés, was found to be alive, Landa's enemies contested his right to run an inquisition, Landa insisted a papal bull, Exponi nobis, justified his actions. However, Lopez de Cogolludo, Landa's chief Franciscan biographer, wrote of Landa's firsthand experiences with human sacrifices.
When Landa first came to the Yucatán, he made it his mission to walk the breadth of the peninsula and preach to the most remote villages. While passing through Cupules, he came upon a group of 300 about to sacrifice a young boy. Enraged, Landa stormed through the crowd, released the boy, smashed the idols and began preaching with such zeal and sincerity that they begged him to remain in the land and teach them more. Landa was remarkable in, he entered lands, only conquered, where native resentment of Spaniards was still intense. Armed with nothing but the conviction to learn as much of native culture as he could so that it would be easier for him to destroy it in the future, Landa formulated an intimate contact with natives. Natives placed him in such an esteemed position they were willing to show him some of their sacred writings, transcribed on deerskin books. To Landa and the other Franciscan friars, the existence of these Mayan codices was proof of diabolical practices. In references to the books, Landa said: We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they regretted to an amazing degree, which caused them much affliction.
Landa's insistence of widespread cults throughout the Yuc
Toci is a deity figuring prominently in the religion and mythology of the pre-Columbian Aztec civilization of Mesoamerica. In Aztec mythology she is seen as an aspect of the mother goddess Coatlicue, is thus labeled “mother of the gods”, she is called Tlalli Iyollo. Although considered to be an aged deity, Toci is not always shown with specific markers of great age. Toci is depicted with black markings around the mouth and nose, wearing a headdress with cotton spools; these are characteristic motifs for Tlazolteotl, a central Mesoamerican goddess of both purification and filth, the two deities are identified with one another. Toci was associated with healing, venerated by curers of ailments and midwives. In the 16th century Florentine Codex compiled by Bernardino de Sahagún Toci is identified with temazcalli or sweatbaths, in which aspect she is sometimes termed Temazcalteci, or "Grandmother of sweatbaths". Tlazolteotl has an association with temazcalli as the "eater of filth", such bathhouses are to have been dedicated to either Tlazolteotl or Toci/Temazcalteci.
Toci had an identification with war, had the epithet "Woman of Discord". By one Mexica-Aztec legendary tradition, at some point during their long peregrinations after leaving the mythical homeland Aztlan, the Mexica served as mercenaries to the Culhua at their capital of Culhuacan; the Culhua ruler bestowed his daughter upon the Mexica for an intended marriage with one of the Mexica nobility. When this was done she transformed into Toci; the Mexica were expelled from Culhuacan by the Culhua ruler for the act, the Mexica were pressed on towards Lake Texcoco. It was here that shortly thereafter they founded their capital Tenochtitlan, from which base they would grow in power to form the Aztec Empire and exert their dominion over the Valley of Mexico. During the veintena of Ochpaniztli in the Aztec calendar, harvest-time festival rites were held to honor Toci, in her aspect as "Heart of the Earth" were held, associated with the time of harvest. Tlazolteotl Coatlicue Campbell, R. Joe. "Florentine Codex Vocabulary".
Archived from the original on 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2006-07-17. Miller, Mary; the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador)
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba was a Spanish conquistador, known to history for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the first European accounts of the Yucatán Peninsula were compiled. Together with some 110 discontented Spanish settlers in early colonial Cuba, Hernández de Córdoba petitioned the governor, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, for permission to launch an expedition in search of new lands and exploitable resources; this permission was granted after some haggling over terms, the expedition consisting of three ships under Hernández de Córdoba's command left the harbor of Santiago de Cuba on February 8, 1517, to explore the shores of southern Mexico. The main pilot was Antón de Alaminos, the premiere navigator of the region who had accompanied Christopher Columbus on his initial voyages. During the course of this expedition many of Hernández' men were killed, most during a battle near the town of Champotón against a Maya army, he himself was injured, died a few days after his return to Cuba.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote about his journey. This was the Europeans' first encounter with what they considered an "advanced civilization" in the Americas, with solidly built buildings and a complex social organization which they recognized as being comparable to those of the Old World, they had reason to expect that this new land would have gold. Little is known of Córdoba's life before his exploration of the Yucatán. A native of Spain, he was living in Cuba in 1517, indicating that he had participated in the conquest of the island, he was quite wealthy, as he both owned a landed estate, including a native town, financed his expedition to Mexico. Bernal Díaz del Castillo is the chronicler who gives the most detail about the voyage of Hernández de Córdoba. Bernal declares in his chronicle that he had been himself a promoter of the project, together with another hundred or so Spaniards who said they had to "occupy themselves"; these soldiers and adventurers had been three years now in the newly settled territory of Cuba, many having moved there from the colony of Castilla del Oro under its governor Pedrarias Dávila, where they were surplus to requirements.
From Bernal Díaz del Castillo's narrative, it appears possible to deduce — against the narrator's own pretences because he would prefer to keep this hidden — that the original goal of the project was to capture Indians as slaves to increase or replace the manpower available to work the agricultural land or the mines of Cuba, so that the Spaniards resident on the island who did not have Indians for their own exploitation of the land, such as Bernal himself, could establish themselves as hacendados. Bernal tells first how he, like the other restless 110 Spaniards who lived in Castilla del Oro, decided to ask permission of Pedrarias to travel to Cuba, that Pedrarias granted this willingly, because in Tierra Firma "there was nothing to conquer, that every thing was peaceful, that Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Pedrarias's son-in-law, had conquered it"; those Spaniards from Castilla del Oro presented themselves in Cuba to Diego Velázquez, the governor, who promised them "...that he would give us Indians when some were available".
After this allusion to the promise of Indians, Bernal writes, "And as three years had passed and we haven't done a single thing worth the telling, the 110 Spaniards who came from Darién and those who in the island of Cuba do not have Indians" — again an allusion to the lack of Indians — they decided to join up with "an hidalgo known as Francisco Hernández de Córdoba and that he was a rich man who had a village of Indians on this island ", who had accepted to be their captain "to go on our venture to discover new lands and in them to employ ourselves". Bernal Díaz del Castillo tries to conceal that the much-repeated Indians had something to do with the project, although authors such as Salvador de Madariaga prefer to conclude that the objective was a much more noble one, "to discover, to occupy ourselves and do things worthy of being told". But, in addition, governor Diego Velázquez himself wanted to participate in the project and he lent the money to build a boat, "...with the condition that we had to go with three boats to some little islets that are between the island of Cuba and Honduras, that are now known as the islands of Los Guanaxes, we had to go in arms and fill up the boats with a cargo of Indians from those islets to serve as slaves".
The chronicler denied that he admits this pretension of Velázquez's: "we responded to him that what he said was not the command of God nor king, to make free men into slaves". If we are to believe Bernal, the governor sportingly admitted the denial and despite all this lent the money for the boat. To evaluate the vague and contradictory form in which Bernal treats the matter of kidnapping Indians as a possible objective of the voyage, one must take into account that he wrote his history of the conquest some fifty years after the occurrence of these events, that at least in part his objective was to have his services and those of his fellow soldiers recognized by the Crow
Maya codices are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark paper. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods. Most of the codices were destroyed by Catholic priests in the 16th century; the codices have been named for the cities where they settled. The Dresden codex is considered the most important of the few that survive; the paper was made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being amate. This sort of paper was known by the word āmatl in Nahuatl, by the word huun in Mayan; the Maya developed their huun-paper around the 5th century, the same time that the codex became predominant over the scroll in the Roman world. Maya paper was more durable and a better writing surface than papyrus. Our knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times.
There were many books in existence at the time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatán in the 16th century. Many in Yucatán were ordered destroyed by Bishop Diego de Landa in July 1562. In his conviction of the superiority and absolute truth of Christianity, De Landa wrote: We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they regretted to an amazing degree, which caused them much affliction; such codices were the primary written records of Maya civilization, together with the many inscriptions on stone monuments and stelae that survived. Their range of subject matter in all likelihood embraced more topics than those recorded in stone and buildings, was more like what is found on painted ceramics. Alonso de Zorita wrote that in 1540 he saw numerous such books in the Guatemalan highlands that "recorded their history for more than eight hundred years back, that were interpreted for me by ancient Indians".
Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas lamented that when found, such books were destroyed: "These books were seen by our clergy, I saw part of those that were burned by the monks because they thought might harm the Indians in matters concerning religion, since at that time they were at the beginning of their conversion." The last codices destroyed were those of Nojpetén, Guatemala in 1697, the last city conquered in the Americas. With their destruction, access to the history of the Maya and opportunity for insight into some key areas of Maya life was diminished. There are only three codices; these are: The Dresden Codex known as the Codex Dresdensis. A fourth codex that remained controversial until 2015 has been authenticated. Recent research, which includes a study that used everything from X-rays to UV imaging and microscopic analysis, points to its authenticity; the Grolier Codex known as the Sáenz Codex. The Dresden Codex is held in the state library in Dresden, Germany, it is the most elaborate of the codices, a important specimen of Maya art.
Many sections are ritualistic, others are of an astrological nature. The codex is written on a long sheet of paper that is'screen-folded' to make a book of 39 leaves, written on both sides, it was written between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. Somehow it made its way to Europe and was bought by the royal library of the court of Saxony in Dresden in 1739; the only exact replica, including the huun, made by a German artist is displayed at the Museo Nacional de Arqueología in Guatemala City, since October, 2007. How the Dresden Codex ended up in Europe is not clear, it arrived sometime in the late 18th Century from the first or second generation of Spanish conquerors. Though the last date entry in the book is from several centuries before its relocation, the book was used and added to until just before the conquerors took it. About 65% of the pages in the Dresden Codex contain richly illustrated astronomical tables; these tables focus on eclipses and solstices, the sidreal cycle of Mars, the synodic cycles of Mars and Venus.
These observations allowed the Mayans to plan the calendar year and religious ceremonies around the stars. In the text, Mars is represented by a long nosed deer, Venus is represented by a star. Pages 51-58 are eclipse tables; these tables predicted solar eclipses for 33 years in the 8th Century, though the predictions of lunar eclipses were far less successful. Icons of serpents devouring the sun symbolize eclipses throughout the book; the glyphs show 40 times in the text, making eclipses a major focus of the Dresden Codex. The first 52 pages of the Dresden Codex are about divination; the Mayan astronomers would use the codex for day keeping, but determining the cause of sickness and other misfortunes. Though a wide variety of gods and goddesses appear in the Dresden Codex, the Moon Goddess is t
The Tzʼutujil are a Native American people, one of the 21 Maya ethnic groups that dwell in Guatemala. Together with the Xinca, Garífunas and the Ladinos, they make up the 24 ethnic groups in this small country. 100,000 Tzʼutujil live in the area around Lake Atitlán. Their pre-Columbian capital, near Santiago Atitlán, was Chuitinamit. In pre-Columbian times, the Tzʼutujil nation was a part of the ancient Maya civilization; the Tzʼutujil are noted for their continuing adherence to traditional cultural and religious practices. Evangelical Protestantism and Roman Catholicism are practiced among them, they speak a member of the Mayan language family. The Tzʼutujil date from the post-classic period of the Maya civilization, inhabiting the southern watershed of Lake Atitlán, in the Solola region of the Guatemalan highlands. Today they dwell in the towns of San Juan La Laguna, San Pablo La Laguna, San Marcos La Laguna, San Pedro La Laguna, Santiago Atitlán, Tzanchaj, a few in San Lucas Tolimán, although they used to inhabit a much wider region.
In 1523 the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, with the help of the Kaqchikel Maya, defeated them in a battle close to the town of Panajachel in which they lost a portion of their lands, the control of the lake. In 2005, several hundred Tzʼutujil died in the mudslides caused by Hurricane Stan. From Panabaj and Tzanchaj, rescuers recovered 160 bodies, while 250 remained missing from both towns. Although tourism is now an increasing source of income, many still practice traditional methods of farming of the two main crops in the region and maize. Tourism is benefiting most from the work of talented artists and weavers who are anxious to gain recognition for the creativity and uniqueness they offer. San Juan is one of three Tzʼutujil communities where artists have adapted the international genre of Arte Naif to express the cultural traditions, beliefs and daily activities of their indigenous culture; this form of art and its most accomplished of the Tzʼutjil practitioners have been recognized in the definitive UNESCO-sponsored book on the subject, Arte Naif: Contemporary Guatemalan Mayan Painting, 1998.
The weavers of San Juan are among the few indigenous artisans who make their own dyes for the thread they use. Martín Prechtel is an author. Maya mythology Maya calendar Ixchel Blessed Father Stanley Rother, a priest from the Archdiocese of Oklahoma City, which at the time had a relationship with the then-mission area, martyred there.
Bacab is the generic Yucatec Maya name for the four prehispanic aged deities of the interior of the earth and its water deposits. The Bacabs have more recent counterparts in the lecherous, drunken old thunder deities of the Gulf Coast regions; the Bacabs are referred to as Pauahtuns. The Bacabs "were four brothers whom God placed, when he created the world, at the four points of it, holding up the sky so that it should not fall, they escaped when the world was destroyed by the deluge." Their names were Hobnil, Cantzicnal and Hosanek. The Bacabs played an important role in the cosmological upheaval associated with Katun 11 Ahau, when Oxlahuntiku'Thirteen-god' was humbled by Bolontiku'Nine-god'. According to the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, "then the sky would fall, it would fall down, it would fall down upon the earth, when the four gods, the four Bacabs, were set up, who brought about the destruction of the world."According to Francisco Hernández, the Bacabs were the sons of the creator god, of the goddess Ixchebelyax.
The veneration of the Bacabs was connected to that of the so-called Year Bearers and their prognostics. Each Bacab ruled one of the directions and the associated Year Bearer day, as follows: The Bacabs were invoked in connection with rain and agriculture, since they were intimately associated with the four Chaacs, or rain deities, the Pauahtuns, or wind deities, all located in the four directions; the Maya of Chan Kom referred to the four skybearers as the four Chacs. Since they were Year Bearer patrons, because of their meteorological qualities, the Bacabs were important in divination ceremonies. In addition, the "Four Gods, Four Bacabs" were invoked in curing rituals that had the four-cornered world and its beaches for a theatre. Of the'Grandfathers' of the Gulf Coast corresponding to the Bacabs, the most powerful one is responsible for opening the rainy season; the four earth-carrying old men are sometimes conceived as drowned ancestors who are serving for one year. Together with this comes the concept that the powerful'Grandfather' only grows old over the course of the year.
In earlier representations, the Bacabs who carry the sky are represented by old men carrying the sky-dragon. They can have the attributes of a conch, a turtle, a snail, a spider web, or a bee'armour'. In the rain almanacs of the Post-Classic Dresden Codex, the old man with the conch and the turtle is put on a par with Chaac; this old man corresponds to god N in the Schellhas-Zimmermann-Taube classification, a god of thunder and the interior of the earth. In Classic Maya iconography, the Bacab occurs in various stereotypical situations: Fourfold, the Bacabs are shown carrying the slab of a throne or the roof of a building. In this, princely impersonators can substitute for them, a fact reminiscent of the drowned ancestors serving as earth-carriers mentioned above. On a damaged relief panel from Pomona, four of these young Bacab impersonators appear to have held the four Classic Year Bearer days in their hands. A Bacab inhabiting a turtle is part of the scenes with the resurrection of the Maya maize god.
Still unexplained is a recurring scene depicted on Chama vases, in which a young man holds the Bacab, half-hidden in his conch, by the wrist to sacrifice him with a knife. The Bacab has a peculiar netted element as a distinguishing attribute serving as a headdress, which might conceivably belong to the sphere of the hunt or of beekeeping, it recurs as a superfix in his hieroglyphical names. Hieroglyphically, one finds conflations of Itzamna and Bacab, recalling the mythological filiation of the Bacab mentioned above. Four Heavenly Kings Lokapala Four sons of Horus Titan Guardians of the directions Anemoi Four Dwarves Four Stags Robert Redfield and Alfonso Villa Rojas,Chan Kom. Chicago University Press. Ralph L. Roys, The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Ralph L. Roys, Ritual of the Bacabs. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. David Stuart, New Year Records in Classic Maya Inscriptions, The PARI Journal 5:1-6. Fall 2004. Karl Taube, The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatan.
J. E. S. Thompson, The Bacabs: Their Portraits and Their Glyphs. A. M. Tozzer, Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan. A Translation
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon, caused by reflection and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground, centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer violet on the inner side; this rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc; this is caused by the light being reflected twice on the inside of the droplet before leaving it. A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source.
Thus, a rainbow can not be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. If an observer sees another observer who seems "under" or "at the end of" a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer. Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most cited and remembered sequence is Newton's sevenfold red, yellow, blue and violet, remembered by the mnemonic Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain. Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water; these include not only rain, but mist and airborne dew. Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle.
Because of this, rainbows are seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the sun; the result is a luminous rainbow. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is visible, it appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours. The rainbow effect is commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. A moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on moonlit nights; as human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are perceived to be white. It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required.
Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and secondary arcs can be created easily from a series of overlapping frames. From above the earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle; this phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is much smaller, covering only 5–20°. The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow; this is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow. Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch. Light of second arc is 90% polarised.
A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100. Accordingly, the Munsell colour system distinguishes 100 hues; the apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice. Newton, who admitted his eyes were not critical in distinguishing colours divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, green and violet, he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale. Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, the days of the week. Scholars have noted that what Newton regarded at the time as "blue" would today be regarded as cyan, what Newton called "indigo" would today be considered blue.
According to Isaac Asimov, "It is customary to list indigo as a colour lying between blue and violet, but it ha