Unión Hidalgo is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. It is part of the Juchitán District in the west of the Istmo de Tehuantepec region; the municipality covers an area of 132.69 km² at an average height of 20 meters above sea level. The weather is sub-humid with summer rains. Flora include Guanacaste, cactus, fruit trees and pastures. Wild fauna includes Coyote, armadillo, rabbit, quail and iguana; as of 2005, the municipality had 3,236 households with a total population of 12,983 of whom 7,230 spoke an indigenous language. Economic activity includes cultivating corn, sorghum and watermelon, animal husbandry including cattle, sheep and poultry. Fishing is of great economic importance; some households manufacture goods woven from palms. Many of the people are engaged in trade and tourism
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Juchitán de Zaragoza
Juchitán de Zaragoza is an indigenous town in the southeast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is part of the Juchitán District in the west of the Istmo de Tehuantepec region. With a 2005 census population of 74,714 inhabitants, it is the fourth-largest city in the state; the majority of the indigenous inhabitants are Huaves. The town serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality, with which it shares a name; the municipality has an area of 414.64 km² and a population of 85,869, the state's third-largest in population. It is located 26 km northeast of the city of Tehuantepec, its Palacio Municipal dates back to the middle of the 19th century and is the widest "palace" in Mexico with 31 arches in its front portal. Its main church is the Parroquia de San Vicente Ferrer. To the west of the Palacio is a large market where local products can be seen and a local variant of the Zapotec language can be heard. Juchitán was the first Mexican town to elect a left wing pro-socialist municipal government in the 20th century, when Leopoldo de Gyves won the elections for mayor in 1980 against the Partido Revolucionario Institucional.
The region's progressive politics and strong work ethic have cultivated a tradition of powerful women and an unusual tolerance for alternative gender roles. An article in Elle magazine called Juchitán "The Last Matriarchy". Many Juchitecas were angry about the article, saying it distorted what life is like in Juchitán. Groups of women demanded; the people of Juchitán have led some local revolts over time: In 1834, "Che Gorio Melendre", a native of Juchitán, directed a revolt against the government of Oaxaca, demanding the control of salt mines on the coast located at the southwest of Juchitán and for local autonomy of the county. The revolt was interrupted by the Mexican–American War in 1847. Irregular troops commanded by Melendre joined the resistance against the invasion. After the invasion by the United States], the governor of Oaxaca, Benito Juárez responded to the local demands of Che Gorio Melendre on May 19, 1850 by sending troops to burn the city of Juchitán and to assassinate their leader Melendre.
On September 5, 1866, during the French intervention in Mexico, the indigenous people of Juchitán, Unión Hidalgo, San Blas Atempa, Ixtaltepec defeated the Royal French Army stationed in Tehuantepec. Most of the army of Porfirio Díaz the dictator of Mexico, were natives of Juchitán. José Fructuoso Gómez, nicknamed Che Gómez directed a 1910 revolt in support of the Mexican Revolution, allied with Zapata and Villa. In the 1970s, a group of left wing students and farmers organized with the intent of taking control of the local county through elections, instead of by force. In February 2001, Juchitán municipality received the caravan of Zapatista Army of National Liberation; the violent history of Juchitán involves the strategic geopolitical location of the area, located on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the thin part of Mexico between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The zone has been coveted by many countries since the McLane–Ocampo Treaty, signed in December 1859. Under the treaty, President Benito Juárez received a loan in exchange for the use of the isthmus of Tehuantepec by the United States.
In the 1970s an attempt to resurrect the treaty, called the Alfa–Omega project, was aborted. In 2000, the project was approved as the Plan Puebla Panama. Gamesa and Iberdrola are making important investments in Juchitán, to create a big wind power eolic park -called Proyecto La Venta II- able to produce at least 88 megawatts of energy; the project will make Juchitán the center of the alternative energies in Mexico becoming an example to the rest of Latin America as the eolic park would be the largest in all the region. This project has been criticized because of the lack of information given by Gamesa and the Mexican Government about its possible ecological and cultural consequences on a region where its culture is based on the property of the land used by the Proyecto La Venta II. In 2006, it was renamed as "Heroica Ciudad de Juchitán de Zaragoza" by the State Congress for its inhabitants' defense against the French invasion. Citizens of Juchitán have made contributions in the arts, such as painting, music, folk dance, sculpture.
In May, residents celebrate the Fiesta de las Velas in honor of its patron saint San Vicente Ferrer, with a large procession. Anya Peterson Royce. 2016 Prestigio y afiliación en una comunidad urbana: Juchitán, Oaxaca. Colección Xhono Gui’Chi’. Juchitán: Fundación Excellentiam; the Isthmus Zapotec, an indigenous people who comprise about 70 percent of the population of Juchitan, a city in the south of Mexico, practice a melding of Catholic and indigenous spiritual traditions. In a slide illustrated lecture, anthropologist Anya Peterson Royce shows how the Zapotec use flowers and prayer in rituals that protect and guide spirits on their journey of dying, she describes the Day of the Dead and Holy Week rituals and the role of the community healer. Anya Peterson Royce. 2011 Becoming an Ancestor: The Isthmus Zapotec Way of Death. Albany, NY: SUNY University Press; as municipal seat, Juchitán has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: 15 de Agosto, 5 de Septiembre, Álvaro Obregón, Cerro Cristo, Chicapa de Castro, Colonia 19 de Marzo, Colonia de la Ami
Tehuantepec is a city and municipality in the southeast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is part of the Tehuantepec District in the west of the Istmo Region; the area was important in pre Hispanic period as part of a trade route that connected Central America with what is now the center of Mexico. It became a secondary capital of the Zapotec dominion, before it was conquered by the Spanish in the early 16th century; the city is still the center of Zapotec culture in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and is the second largest in the region. The city is known for its women and their traditional dress, adopted by Frida Kahlo. Tehuantepec has a reputation for being a "matriarchal society." Women are known to taunt men. However, political power is still the domain of men; the city experienced a short economic boom in the early 20th century related to a rail line, built linking the two oceans, but it was soon eclipsed by the Panama Canal. There have been plans to resurrect the line linking the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean but financing has been a problem.
Tehuantepec is the second largest city on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south of Mexico. Founded by the Zapotecs in the period just before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, Tehuantepec remains the center of Zapotec culture in the Isthmus. One important symbol of this culture is the image of a Zapotec woman from the area called La Tehuana. In the 2000s, a sculpture of this figure was created by Miguel Hernández Urbán from the State of Mexico; the sculpture is found at the main entrance to the city of Tehuantepec, made of local marble and fine wood along with stainless steel brought from Mexico City. The work made Hernández an "adopted son" of the city; the city remains home to many traditions and customs which are centuries old, with many in the market, still favoring the Zapotec language over Spanish. The city reached its height in the early 20th century with the arrival of the railroad. However, since the importance of this railroad has diminished by the building of the Panama Canal.
Today the city is considered to be poor, with many of its buildings in disrepair. Many survive on subsistence commerce. Many motorcycle taxi operators in Tehuantepec and other cities in Oaxaca are underage, between 13 and 15; the city has had problems with stray dogs including an incident when about twenty dogs took over the main entrance. Tehuantepec and nearby Juchitán have had a fierce rivalry dating back to the 19th century. In 1862, Napoleon III sent French troops to collect on debts Mexico owed; those Frenchmen allied themselves with local Mexican conservatives who allowed them to occupy the Isthmus area. Both Juchitán and Tehuantepec resisted the occupation; when the Juchitecos learned of this, they attacked Tehuantepec. Four year this same captain attacked Juchitán but was defeated as well. After the French left in 1862, Juchitán attacked Tehuantepec as a personal vendetta. Although there has been no blood shed since the rivalry and competitive attitudes have carried into modern times; each has tried to outdo the other in festivals in both quality.
The two communities mock one another in looks and clothing. The center of the city has colonial era constructions such as the Santo Domingo Monastery from the 16th century, the main cathedral; the former monastery part of the cathedral complex houses cultural center. The monastery was remodeled for this purpose at a cost of 50,000 pesos to rehabilitate walls and ceiling vaults; this Casa de Cultura houses the Museo de Antropología e Historia Zapoteca del Istmo, which contains archeological and artistic artifacts from the region. The museum has halls dedicated to archeology, ethnographic studies, the history of the Mexican Revolution and the Reform War, as well as items related to religion, regional dress and folk art, it has a library. The municipal palace was built during the railroad boom in the early 20th century. Covering an entire side of the main plaza, it today towers over the other buildings in the center, it is built in provincial Neoclassical style with massive arches. However, the back of the structure is different, as it is an irregular pattern of brickwork, which looks like it has half collapsed.
In reality, the structure was never completed. Since 1906, the city has promised to finish the building, but never has; the federal government in 1975 announced plans to not only finish the building but restore many of the churches and plazas, but they never came to fruition. The most important institution in the city is the market. There are four traditional markets with the most important of these located just off the main square; the main market building was built by the city in 1970, with booths in this market now worth as much as $30,000 pesos. The owners of the booths pay a small trust fee, used for public works projects; these are supplemented by tianguis markets in the Guichivere neighborhood on Wednesdays and one in Reoloteca neighborhood on Sundays. The market is the center of nearly all commerce in the city, with 95% of the goods small enough to carry sold there; as a result, the city lacks department, clothing and other types of stores. The city's markets are dominated by women, known as Tehuanas, who make up nearly all of the buyers and sellers.
Until the 1970s, there was a complete ban on men in this area. Today still it is estimated; the historical reason for this is that traditionally women worked in
El Espinal, Oaxaca
El Espinal --Spanish for'the spine' is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in southwestern Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 82.93 km². It is part of the Juchitán District in the west of the Istmo de Tehuantepec region. In 2005 the municipality had a total population of 8,219. El Espinal is a plane zone ideal for agriculture; the climate is warm and somewhat humid. This municipality shares boundaries with Asunción Ixtaltepec on the north side, with other municipalities named Comitancillo and San Pedro Comitancillo to the west side, Juchitán de Zaragoza to the south. El Espinal was considered a town in a couple years before Mexican Independence; this zone did not play an important role during the toughest years of the struggle for the independence of Mexico. Non of the important movements towards independence started here. Nor any of the important personalities that fought for independence was from this municipality. El Espinal remained isolated from national events. Regarding education in the Municipality.
There is four grammar schools, two middle schools and only one high school. There is only one computer lab and a small English school. There is only one health care center for the municipality, it only provides basic services and first aid. Sports are important in this municipality. Young people enjoy themselves at the sports facilities. There are two small soccer fields, two basketball courts, a track for running; the most important place is the baseball field. Many well known Mexican professionals in baseball come from Oaxacan Municipality el Espinal. In regard to population and according to a local source from 2005, there are about 2,172 houses from which 2,115 are owned by the population. Traditional foods in El Espinal include the black mole, stewed beef, jerked beef, marquesote, corn tamales, chiles stuffed with different types of meat and seafood
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Mexica War, was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies and the defeated Aztecs, it was not a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec Empire but rather the creation of a coalition of Spanish invaders with tributaries to the Aztecs, most the Aztecs' indigenous enemies and rivals. They combined forces to defeat the Mexica of Tenochtitlan over a two-year period. For the Spanish, the expedition to Mexico was part of a project of Spanish colonization of the New World after twenty-five years of permanent Spanish settlement and further exploration in the Caribbean. Following an earlier expedition led by Juan de Grijalva to Yucatán in 1517, Spanish settler, Hernán Cortés, led an expedition to Mexico. Two years in 1519, Cortés and his retinue set sail from Cuba for Mexico.
The Spanish campaign against the Aztec Empire had its final victory on August 13, 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The fall of Tenochtitlan marks the beginning of Spanish rule in central Mexico, they established their capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Cortés made alliances with tributaries city-states of the Aztec Empire as well as their political rivals the Tlaxcalteca and Texcocans, a former partner in the Aztec Triple Alliance. Other city-states joined, including Cempoala and Huexotzinco and polities bordering Lake Texcoco, the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico. Important to the Spanish success was a multilingual indigenous slave woman, known to the Spanish conquistadors as Doña Marina, as La Malinche. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, where he took up residence with fellow Spaniards and their indigenous allies.
When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, he took Moctezuma captive, along with Cuitláhuac, his kinsman. Capturing the cacique or indigenous ruler was standard operating procedure for Spaniards in their expansion in the Caribbean, so capturing Moctezuma had considerable precedent; when Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, sent to rein in Cortés's expedition that had exceeded its specified limits, Cortés's right-hand man Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen; the official biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre. The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city.
Moctezuma was killed. According to one account, when Moctezuma, now seen by the population as a mere puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace, he was killed by a projectile. According to an indigenous account, the Spanish killed Moctezuma. Cortés had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June 1520; the Spanish and reinforcements returned a year on August 13, 1521 to a civilization, weakened by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, including Cortés. A whole generation of Spaniards participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises; the Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices. The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which became Mexico. Historical sources for the conquest of Mexico recount some of the same events in both Spanish and indigenous sources.
Others, are unique to a particular primary source or group narrating the event. Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both. 1428 – Creation of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan 1492-3 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean. One of the enslaved Nahua woman (known as La Malinche, Doña Marina
Matías Romero, Oaxaca
Matías Romero is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. It is named after diplomat Matías Romero Avendaño; the municipality covers an area of 1,459.54 km². It is part of the Juchitán District in the west of the Istmo de Tehuantepec region. El Rio Corte in Colonia Cuauhtemoc is a popular tourist spot and with excellent beaches; as of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 38,421. According to the US Geological Survey, early on September 23, 2017, a magnitude 6.1 earthquake struck 12 miles southeast of Matías Romero. The epicenter was between the centers of the two more violent earthquakes seen earlier in the month. On September 8, an 8.1 magnitude quake had struck off of the southern Pacific coast, near Chiapas state. Mexico City, on September 19 endured a 7.1 magnitude quake, which marked the 32nd anniversary of the devastating 1985 earthquake, in which more than 10,000 people had been killed