Indonesian National Revolution
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949; the four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch military forces were able to control the major towns and industrial assets in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra but could not control the countryside. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that it recognised Indonesian independence; the revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for Netherlands New Guinea. It significantly changed ethnic castes as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers.
It did not improve the economic or political fortune of the majority of the population, although a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce. The Indonesian independence movement began in May 1908, commemorated as the "Day of National Awakening". Indonesian nationalism and movements supporting independence from Dutch colonialism, such as Budi Utomo, the Indonesian National Party, Sarekat Islam and the Indonesian Communist Party, grew in the first half of the 20th century. Budi Utomo, Sarekat Islam and others pursued strategies of co-operation by joining the Dutch initiated Volksraad in the hope that Indonesia would be granted self-rule. Others chose a non-cooperative strategy demanding the freedom of self-government from the Dutch East Indies colony; the most notable of these leaders were Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, two students and nationalist leaders who had benefited from the educational reforms of the Dutch Ethical Policy. The occupation of Indonesia by Japan for three and a half years during World War II was a crucial factor in the subsequent revolution.
The Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, within only three months of their initial attacks, the Japanese had occupied the Dutch East Indies. In Java, to a lesser extent in Sumatra, the Japanese spread and encouraged nationalist sentiment. Although this was done more for Japanese political advantage than from altruistic support of Indonesian independence, this support created new Indonesian institutions and elevated political leaders such as Sukarno. Just as for the subsequent revolution, the Japanese destroyed and replaced much of the Dutch-created economic and political infrastructure. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, but no date was set. For supporters of Sukarno, this announcement was seen as vindication for his collaboration with the Japanese. Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda groups and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence, on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific.
The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee elected Sukarno as President, Hatta as Vice-President. PROCLAMATION We, the people of Indonesia, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters which concern the transfer of power etc. will be executed by careful means and in the shortest possible time. Djakarta, 17 August 1945 In the name of the people of Indonesia, Soekarno—Hatta It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it; as the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, a mood of revolution swept across the country. External power had shifted; these strikes were only broken in July 1946. The Japanese, on the other hand, were required by the terms of the surrender to both lay down their arms and maintain order; the resulting power vacuums in the weeks following the Japanese surrender, created an atmosphere of uncertainty, but one of opportunity for the Republicans.
Many pemuda joined pro-Republic struggle groups. The most disciplined were disbanded Giyugun and Heiho groups. Many groups were undisciplined, due to both the circumstances of their formation and what they perceived as revolutionary spirit. In the first weeks, Japanese troops withdrew from urban areas to avoid confrontations. By September 1945, control of major infrastructure installations, including railway stations and trams in Java's largest cities, had been taken over by Republican pemuda who encountered little Japanese resistance. To spread the revolutionary message, pemuda set up their own radio stations and newspapers, graffiti proclaimed the nationalist sentiment. On most islands, struggle committees and militia were set up. Republican newspa
Kupang is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara, has an estimated population in 2011 of 349,344. It is port on the island of Timor. Kupang is a part of the Timor Leste–Indonesia–Australia Growth Triangle free trade zone. Kupang was an important trading point during the Portuguese and Dutch colonial eras. There are ruins and remnant signs of the colonial presence in the city. Representatives of the Dutch East India Company approached Kupang in 1613 after having conquered the Portuguese fort on Solor. At this time the place and its hinterland was governed by a raja of the Helong tribe which claimed descent from Ceram in Maluku. Kupang was well situated for strategic control over parts of Timor, since it was possible to monitor shipping activities to the south coast of the island. Moreover, the Koinino River provided fresh water for the inhabitants. A VOC-Helong agreement was made, but due to the lack of VOC commitment on Timor, Kupang was influenced by the Portuguese mestizo population of Flores, the Topasses.
A Portuguese stronghold was established by the 1640s. However, the VOC was established on Solor in 1646, renewed contacts with the local raja. In January 1653 a Dutch fortification, Fort Concordia, was built on a height to the left of the river estuary. Kupang became the base of the Dutch struggle against the Portuguese. After a series of Dutch defeats in 1655, 1656 and 1657, large refugee groups from the VOC allies Sonbai and Amabi settled in the vicinity of Kupang in 1658 and formed small kingdoms on land that traditionally belonged to the Helong, they were followed by two other groups and Taebenu. The Helong raja remained the "lord of the land" but was dependent on the VOC authorities. Apart from the old Helong territory, Timor was dominated by the Portuguese up to 1749; the Dutch set up a European administration with a council. Affairs with the indigenous populations were regulated through regular meetings; the Kupang administration handled affairs with the VOC-allied islands Rote and Solor.
Chinese traders and artisans settled by the early 18th century and soon became indispensable for the economic life. The town area was settled by various indigenous groups from the region, by mardijkers who were non-whites under Dutch jurisdiction. In 1752 the population was an unspecified number of non-Christians; the political importance of Kupang on a Timor-wide level increased in 1749 when the Topasses were decisively defeated by the Dutch and their allies, which led to the extension of VOC influence over wide areas of western and central Timor. Some of this influence contracted after 1761 due to incompetence and inaction on the part of the colonial administration. Kupang was the final destination of William Bligh, set adrift in an open boat during the Mutiny on the Bounty; the Mutiny on the Bounty took place about 30 nautical miles from Tofua in the Tonga islands. Lt William Bligh navigated the overcrowded 23 foot open launch on an epic 41-day voyage first to Tofua and to the West Timor city of Kupang equipped only with a sextant and a pocket watch — no charts or compass.
He recorded the distance as 3,618 nautical miles. He landed on 14 June; the only casualty of his voyage was a crewman named John Norton, stoned to death by the natives of Tofua, the first island they tried to land on. News of the journey of Captain Bligh inspired the escape of a party of convicts from the penal colony at Sydney Cove, Australia. A group of nine convicts and two children, led by William Bryant, stole a small uncovered government boat and escaped from Port Jackson, Australia. Ten weeks they arrived at Kupang, having covered 3,254 nautical miles; as a consequence of the occupation of the Netherlands at the hands of the French revolutionary armies in 1795, the VOC possessions in East India were attacked by British forces. Kupang was assaulted in 1797; the British were expelled although the town was reduced to rubble. A new British attack was defeated in 1811. After the British occupation of Java, Kupang surrendered in January 1812; the British returned the town to the Dutch in 1816. The political strongman in the early 19th century was Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart who governed Dutch Timor as Resident in 1810-12, 1814–18 and 1819–32 and handled matters without much interference from the colonial government in Batavia.
During his time the Christian mission made a deeper impact through the efforts of the missionary Reint LeBruyn. The town was opened to foreign trade in 1825 and fees were abolished three years later. Kupang was visited by whalers from Britain and North America. However, the relocation of whale hunting areas made Kupang a less lively place in the late 19th century, although it was a free port after 1866; the five small kingdoms that surrounded the town area were merged into the zelfbesturend landschap Kupang in 1917, but in spite of the name it did not include the town itself. From 1918 to 1955 it was governed by a branch of the Sonbai Dynasty. In the early twentieth century, the city was used for landing and refueling by long distance airplane flights between Europe and Australia, it was occupied by the Japanese in 1942-1945, much of the old town was destroyed by allied bombing. During the time of the Indonesian revolution 1945-1949 there was nationalist agitation in Kupang, but no actual fighti
Adnan Kapau Gani
Adnan Kapau Gani abbreviated as A. K. Gani, was an Indonesian politician. Born in West Sumatra, he spent much of his youth in Java, where he studied medicine and became involved with the nascent nationalist movement before going to South Sumatra to work as a doctor. During the Indonesian National Revolution he served three terms as Minister of Welfare. Afterwards Gani went to Palembang, South Sumatra, where he remained active in politics until his death. In November 2007 Gani was made a National Hero of Indonesia. Gani was born in Palembajan, West Sumatra, west of Bukittinggi, on 16 September 1905; the son of a teacher, he finished his early studies in Bukittinggi in 1923 before going to Batavia, first for his secondary studies and to study medicine. He graduated from STOVIA, a school for prospective doctors, in 1926. From his teens Gani was active in social organisations, he was a member of several groups for native youth, including Jong Sumatera. By the late 1920s he had several enterprises running, including book reseller.
This revenue enabled him to donate funds to the Youth Congress of 1928, where the Youth Pledge was first read and "Indonesia Raya" was first played. In 1931 he joined Partindo, which had split off from the Indonesian National Party shortly after Sukarno's arrest by the colonial government. Gani became acquainted with Sukarno after the latter's release from prison the following year and joined the Indonesian Political Federation with him. Long interested in theatre, in 1941 Gani starred in Union Film's Asmara Moerni after being invited by the film's director, Rd. Ariffien. At the time the country's film industry was beginning to cater to well-educated audiences. Although some of the audience considered Gani's involvement in Asmara Moerni as besmirching the independence movement, Gani considered it necessary to improve how the people viewed local productions; the film, the only one Gani made, was a commercial success. That year Gani received his medical degree. After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Gani refused to collaborate.
As such, he was held until October of the following year. He spent the rest of the occupation as a private practitioner. After the country's independence and during the ensuing revolution, Gani gained greater political power while serving with the military. From 1945 to 1947 he was the commissioner for the PNI in South Sumatra serving on that party's board, he coordinated military efforts in the province. He considered Palembang a viable economic powerhouse for the newly independent nation, arguing that with oil they could gather international support, he negotiated sales with international interests, including the Dutch-owned Shell while smuggling weapons and military supplies past the Dutch blockade. He had numerous connections in the Chinese community in Singapore, which assisted him in these tasks. From 2 October 1946 until 27 June 1947 Gani served as Minister of Welfare under Sutan Sjahrir in the prime minister's third cabinet. While serving as minister of welfare Gani, with Sjahrir and Mohammad Roem, served as the Indonesian delegation to the third plenary session for the Linggadjati Agreement, becoming a signatory on 25 March 1947.
He worked to establish a national banking network, the BTC, as well as several trade organisations. With Amir Sjarifuddin and Setijadji, Gani was a formateur for the new cabinet, which received its mandate on 3 July, he stayed on as Minister of Welfare while serving as a deputy prime minister under Sjarifuddin. Gani was the first cabinet member arrested during Operation Product, a Dutch assault on Indonesian-held territory in mid-July, but was released, he attended a trade conference in Havana, Cuba. In Sjarifuddin's second cabinet, Gani continued to serve as a deputy prime minister and minister of welfare until the cabinet collapsed on 29 January 1948 owing to dissatisfaction with the Renville Agreement. After the revolution ended in 1949, Gani became the Military Governor of South Sumatra. In 1954, while still involved in politics as minister of transportation in the First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet, he became the rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, he was buried in Siguntang Heroes' Cemetery in Palembang.
Gani was survived by Masturah. On 9 November 2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gave Gani the title National Hero of Indonesia. Footnotes Bibliography
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century; this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects; the term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, set the stage for an independence movement. Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution.
The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea, ceded to Indonesia 14 years in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement. The word Indies comes from Latin: Indus; the original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s. Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, colonial Indonesia interchangeably. Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states; the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia.
When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company; the VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, make treaties across Asia. A capital was established in Batavia. To their original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers and cinnamon, the company and colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, cacao, rubber and opium, safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory. Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century; the company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalized under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies. From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous.
Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. In the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1806, with the Netherlands under Imperial French domination, Emperor Napoleon I appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshal Herman Willem Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Following Napoleon's defeat at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, independent Dutch control was restored in 1816.
Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between former British and Dutch possessions remain today between modern Malaysia and Indonesia. Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java and Bangka. However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands. Motivations included: the protection of areas held.
State of East Indonesia
The State of East Indonesia was a post-World War II federal state formed in eastern Netherlands East Indies by the Netherlands. It was established in 1946, became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949, was dissolved in 1950 with the end of the USI, it comprised all the islands of Java. The Dutch authorities, after various changes to the administration of the eastern islands of the East Indies, established the Great East region in 1938. Four years the Japanese invaded, this area was placed under the control of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Following the Japanese surrender and the Indonesian declaration of independence in August 1945, Indonesian republicans began fighting to secure Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial control. However, Dutch administrators backed by Australian troops arrived in the area controlled by the Japanese Navy, prevented republicans from establishing an administration. From 16–25 July 1946, the Dutch organised a conference in the town of Malino on Celebes as part of their attempt to arrange a federal solution for Indonesia.
The Malino Conference resulted in plans for a state in Borneo and another for East Indonesia, areas where the Dutch held both de facto and de jure control. That year, the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia with the Linggadjati Agreement of 15 November; the Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December was held to work out the specifics of a state to be called the State of the Great East.. That state, on 27 December, renamed the State of East Indonesia. With the realisation of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949, East Indonesia became a constituent of the new federation. In much of Indonesia, the federal USI was seen as an illegitimate regime foisted on the islands by the Dutch, many of the federal states began to merge with the Republic of Indonesia; however many in East Indonesia, with its non-Javanese population and greater number of Christians, opposed moves toward a unitary state. East Indonesia had dealt with the "Twelfth Province" secessionist movement in Minahasa in 1948.
The formation of East Indonesia's last cabinet in May 1950 with the intention of dissolving the state into the Republic of Indonesia led to open rebellion in the Christian Moluccas and the proclamation of an independent Republic of the South Moluccas. The USI was dissolved on 17 August 1950 and the rebellion in the Moluccas was crushed in November of the same year; the Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December 1946 approved the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia which supplemented the 1927 Dutch colonial law and established the provisional governmental framework of the new state until a constitution was approved on 1 March 1949. The state was to have an executive president who would appoint a legislature. A number of powers were explicitly reserved for the future United States of Indonesia, of which East Indonesia would be a constituent member. Balinese nobleman Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati was elected president at the Denpasar Conference that established the state, held that position for the duration of the state's existence.
The Provisional Representative Body for the State of East Indonesia consisting of the 70 participants of the Denpasar Conference, opened its first session on 22 April 1947. The state had a parliamentary cabinet appointed by the president but much real power remained with the Dutch East Indies authorities. 13 Jan 1947 – 2 Jun 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – First Cabinet 2 Jun 1947 – 11 Oct 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – Second Cabinet 11 Oct 1947 – 15 Dec 1947 — Warouw Cabinet 15 Dec 1947 – 12 Jan 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – First Cabinet 12 Jan 1949 – 27 Dec 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – Second Cabinet 27 Dec 1949 – 14 Mar 1950 — J. E. Tatengkeng Cabinet 14 Mar 1950 – 10 May 1950 — D. P. Diapari Cabinet 10 May 1950 – 17 Aug 1950 — J. Poetoehena Cabinet The State of East Indonesia was divided into five residencies which were in turn divided into districts and subdistricts, an administrative structure inherited from the Dutch. Within the residencies were 13 autonomous regions.
These regions, listed in Article 14 of the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia, were South Celebes, Minahasa and Talaoed, North Celebes, Central Celebes, Lombok, Flores, Soemba and surrounding islands, South Moluccas, North Moluccas. The residencies were to be eliminated after the construction of functioning administration in the 13 regions. Complicating this structure was the fact that More than 75% of the State of East Indonesia comprised autonomous regions, in total 115 autonomous regional governments under the rule of rajas; the position of these autonomous governmental heads was regulated by what were called korte verklaring and lange kontrakten.