Khuzestan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the southwest of the country, bordering Iraq and its capital is Ahvaz and it covers an area of 63,238 km2. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4, as the Iranian province with the oldest history, it is often referred to as the birthplace of the nation, as this is where the history of the Elamites begins. Historically, one of the most important regions of the Ancient Near East, Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, the Achaemenid Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā when they conquered it from the Elamites, which is present in the modern name. Khuzestan, meaning the Land of the Khuz refers to the inhabitants of this province. In Middle Persian the term evolves into Khuz and Kuzi, the pre-Islamic Partho-Sasanian Inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khwuzestan. The seat of the province has for the most of its history been in the reaches of the land, first at Susa. This town is now known as Ahvaz, however, in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period.
With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzistan, the River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz. The town was refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him. Shushtar quickly declined, while Ahvaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day, Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Irans parliament, the Majlis, and 6 representatives in the Assembly of Experts. Khuzestan is known for its diversity, the population of Khuzestan consists of Lurs, Iranian Arabs, Qashqai people, Afshar tribe, indigenous Persians. Khuzestans population is predominantly Shia Muslim, but there are small Christian, Sunni, half of Khuzestans population is Lurs. The name Khuzestan means The Land of the Khuzi, and refers to the inhabitants of this province. The name of the city of Ahvaz has the same origin as the name Khuzestan, being an Arabic broken plural from the compound name, Suq al-Ahvaz --the medieval name of the town, that replaced the Sasanian Persian name of the pre-Islamic times.
The entire province was known as the Khudhi or the Khooji until the reign of the Safavid king Tahmasp I. The southern half of the province—south, southwest of the Ahwaz Ridge, had come by the 17th century to be known—at least to the imperial Safavid chancery as Arabistan. The contemporaneous history, the Alamara-i Abbasi by Iskandar Beg Munshi, written during the reign of king Abbas I, the northern half continued to be called Khuzestan
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Izeh County is a county in Khuzestan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Izeh, Izeh is a town in east of Khuzestan province in Iran. This town is a historical town, the vast majority of its population, are from Bakhtiari tribe which is one of the biggest tribes in Iran. At the 2006 census, the population was 193,510. The county is subdivided into three districts, the Central District, Susan District, and Dehdez District, the county has two cities and Dehdez
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice
Kul-e Farah is the site of six Elamite rock reliefs that are located in a gorge on the plains east side. Kul-e Farah is located near the city of Izeh in Khuzestan, the reliefs were first visited in European research by Austen Henry Layard in 1841. Layard copied the 24-line cuneiform inscription on relief I, and five of the epigraphs on some of the figures. It has been suggested that this is a kind of sanctuary for religious ceremonies involving the sacrifice of animals. Three are on rock faces, while the three are on large boulders. They depict scenes of sacrifice, processions and a banquet, the inscription on relief I mentions Hanni, the son of Tahhi, and is therefore dated to Hannis time. But the reliefs may belong to several periods, with reliefs III, IV, Kul-e Farah Neo-Elamite rock relief is cut in the rock and is about 1.10 -1,30 m high and about 1.66 m wide. The field is dominated by a person named Hanni, who looks to the right and it is the first minister of the army and vizier Schutruru Schutrurura, both of which are identified by incised inscriptions.
The right side of the field is divided into two registers, at the top you will find musicians in the lower sacrificial scenes. The upper part of the field is covered with an inscription of 24 lines. The text begins with an invocation of Elamite gods including Shilhite and that is followed by the authors introduction of himself as hanni son of tahhi. The next passages are unclear but contain a reference to king Shutur-Nahhunte, the text is concluded with a request that the inscription be given divine protection and a curse to any who dare damage it. Kul-e Farah II represents a single person probably a ruler or priest, behind him are four little people, cattle are slaughtered before him. The whole scene is showing a victim. There will be no explanatory inscriptions, Kul-e Farah III is located on a detached rock, which bears a relief decoration on all sides. The south side measuring about 4.9 x 3 meters, right turn is a major figure, perhaps a king. Behind and in front of him are found in four rows of small figures that look all right.
On the north there is a similar view, only that now all people look to the left
The name Salman and Solaiman appears at many ancient sights in Iran, it is necessary to explain that both the names are fictitious and have no relation at all with such an old buildings and remains. Examples, Goore-solaiman Takht-e solaiman Masjid e Salman etc, Eshkaft-e Salman, or Shikaft-i Salman, is a cave with four reliefs inside and outside the cave on the south of the Izeh, near the city in Khuzestan, southwest Iran. A well preserved 36-line cuneiform inscription stands to the left of the figure in relief IV. In relief I a line of two men, a child and a woman face an incense burner or altar, while relief II shows a man, a child and a woman facing to the left. In both reliefs the men wear helmets of characteristic Elamite type, and plaits of hair are hanging down to their shoulders, Reliefs III and IV are now in very bad condition, but Layard described them in some detail. Layard thought that an inscription had existed to the left of this figure and he recognized a fragmentary cuneiform inscription on the figure’s dress.
About the figure in relief IV Layard noted that it has a long robe descending to its ankles, the beards descend in curls almost to the breast, and the head-dress resembles that worn by the priests of the Magi. It appears to consist of a cap fitted close to the head, the dress of this figure was inscribed with a cuneiform inscription, and only to the left of this figure did Layard find the above mentioned cuneiform inscription. The style of the figures in all four reliefs seems to indicate a date in the 12th century BCE and it is therefore thought that the inscriptions were added by Hanni at a date. Atlas of Eshkaft-e Salman List of Elamite Rock Reliefs
Abadan is a city in and the capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province which is located in central west of Iran. The earliest mention of the island of Abadan, if not the port itself is found in works of the geographer Marcian, the classical geographer, Ptolemy notes Apphana as an island off the mouth of the Tigris. An etymology for this name is presented by B, farahvashi to be derived from the Persian word ab and the root pā thus coastguard station). In the subsequent centuries, the Persian version of the name had begun to come into use before it was adopted by official decree in 1935. The civilian population of the city dropped close to zero during the eight years of the Iran–Iraq War, the 1986 census recorded only 6 people. In 1991,84,774 had returned to live in the city, by 2001, the population had jumped to 206,073, and it was 217,988, in 48,061 families, according to 2006 census. Abadan Refinery is one of the largest in the world. The population today has reached almost 350,000 people, only 9% of managers were from Khuzestan.
There is a single Armenian church in the centre of the city, Abadan is thought to have been further developed into a major port city under the Abbasids rule. In this time period, it was a source of salt. The siltation of the river forced the town further away from water, In the 14th century, however. Politically, Abadan was often the subject of dispute between the states, in 1847, Persia acquired it from Turkey, in which state Abadan has remained since. From the 17th century onward, the island of Abadan was part of the lands of the Arab Kaab tribe, one section of this tribe, had its headquarters at Mohammara, until the removal of Shaikh Khazal Khan in 1924. It was not until the 20th century that rich oil fields were discovered in the area, on 16 July 1909, after secret negotiation with the British consul, Percy Cox, assisted by Arnold Wilson, Sheik Khazal agreed to a rental agreement for the island including Abadan. The Sheik continued to administer the island until 1924, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company built their first pipeline terminus oil refinery in Abadan, starting in 1909 and completing it in 1912, with oil flowing by August 1912.
Refinery throughput numbers rose from 33,000 tons in 1912-1913 to 4,338,000 tons in 1931, by 1938, it was the largest in the world. During World War II, Abadan was the site of combat between Iranian forces and British and Indian troops during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. Later, Abadan was a logistics centre for Lend-Lease aircraft being sent to the Soviet Union by the United States. In 1951, Iran nationalized all oil properties and refining ground to a stop on the island, rioting broke out in Abadan, after the government had decided to nationalize the oil facilities, and three British workers were killed
Ahvaz or Ahwaz is a city in the southwest of Iran, and the capital of the oil and natural gas wealthy Khuzestan province. At the 2011 census, its population was 1,112,021, Irans only navigable river, Karun passes by the middle of the city. It has a history dating back to the Achaemenid period. In the ancient times, it had one of the main centers of the Academy of Gondishapur. It is home to several universities, prominent companies, in Iran, it is known for its ethnic diversity. It is home to Persians, Iranian Arabs, Iranian Armenians and Mandaeans, the word Ahvaz is a Persianized form, which in turn itself is derived from a Persian word. Thus, Ahvaz in Persian means the Huz-i people, which refers to the original inhabitants of Khūzestān. The name of the region appears in medieval Syriac sources as ܒܝܬ ܗܘܙܝܐ Beṯ Huzáyé, the term Huz, meanwhile, is the Old Persian rendition of Suz, the native Elamite name of the region. See Origin of the name Khuzestan and Elam#Etymology for more details, Ahvaz is the analog of Avaz and Avaja which appear in Dariuss epigraph.
This word appears in Naqsh-Rostam inscription as Khaja or Khooja too and it became the seat of the province, and was referred to as Hūmšēr. During the Sassanid era, a system and several dams were constructed. Examples of Sassanid-era dams are Band-e Bala-rud, Band-e Mizan, Band-e Borj Ayar, the city replaced Susa, the ancient capital of Susiana, as the capital of what was called Khuzestān. The city had two sections, the nobles of the city lived in one part while the other was inhabited by merchants. When the Arabs invaded the area in 640, the part of the city home to the nobility was demolished but the Hūj-ī-stānwāčār Market of Khūz State, the merchant area, remained intact. During the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, Ahvaz flourished as a center for the cultivation of sugarcane and it is discussed by such respected medieval historians and geographers as ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Yaqubi and Mostowfi Qazvini. Nearby stood the Academy of Gundishapur, where the teaching hospital is said to have been first established.
Ahvaz was devastated in the bloody Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries, the dam and irrigation channels, no longer maintained and finally collapsed early in the 19th century. During this time Ahvaz was primarily inhabited by the original Khuzhis, although most Arab migrants fled the city, a few stayed