The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Savannah is the oldest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Chatham County. Established in 1733 on the Savannah River, the city of Savannah became the British colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and the first state capital of Georgia. A strategic port city in the American Revolution and during the American Civil War, Savannah is today an industrial center and an important Atlantic seaport, it is Georgia's fifth-largest city, with a 2017 estimated population of 146,444. The Savannah metropolitan area, Georgia's third-largest, had an estimated population of 387,543 in 2017; each year Savannah attracts millions of visitors to its cobblestone streets and notable historic buildings: the birthplace of Juliette Gordon Low, the Georgia Historical Society, the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, the First African Baptist Church, Temple Mickve Israel, the Central of Georgia Railway roundhouse complex. Savannah's downtown area, which includes the Savannah Historic District, the Savannah Victorian Historic District, 22 parklike squares, is one of the largest National Historic Landmark Districts in the United States.
Downtown Savannah retains the original town plan prescribed by founder James Oglethorpe. Savannah was the host city for the sailing competitions during the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta. On February 12, 1733, General James Oglethorpe and settlers from the ship Anne landed at Yamacraw Bluff and were greeted by Tomochichi, the Yamacraws, Indian traders John and Mary Musgrove. Mary Musgrove served as an interpreter; the city of Savannah was founded on that date, along with the colony of Georgia. In 1751, Savannah and the rest of Georgia became a Royal Colony and Savannah was made the colonial capital of Georgia. By the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Savannah had become the southernmost commercial port in the Thirteen Colonies. British troops took the city in 1778, the following year a combined force of American and French soldiers, including Haitians, failed to rout the British at the Siege of Savannah; the British did not leave the city until July 1782. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia.
Savannah, a prosperous seaport throughout the nineteenth century, was the Confederacy's sixth most populous city and the prime objective of General William T. Sherman's March to the Sea. Early on December 21, 1864, local authorities negotiated a peaceful surrender to save Savannah from destruction, Union troops marched into the city at dawn. Savannah was named for the Savannah River, which derives from variant names for the Shawnee, a Native American people who migrated to the river in the 1680s; the Shawnee destroyed another Native people, the Westo, occupied their lands at the head of the Savannah River's navigation on the fall line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee, whose Native name was Ša·wano·ki, were known by several local variants, including Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name Savannah refers to the extensive marshlands surrounding the river for miles inland, is derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the Southern Colonies.
Still other theories suggest that the name Savannah originates from Algonquian terms meaning not only "southerners" but "salt". Savannah lies on the Savannah River 20 mi upriver from the Atlantic Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.7 square miles, of which 103.1 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Savannah is the largest port in the state of Georgia, it is located near the U. S. Intracoastal Waterway. Georgia's Ogeechee River flows toward the Atlantic Ocean some 16 miles south of downtown Savannah, forms the southern city limit. Savannah is prone to flooding, due to abundant rainfall, an elevation at just above sea level, the shape of the coastline, which poses a greater surge risk during hurricanes; the city uses five canals. In addition, several pumping stations have been built to help reduce the effects of flash flooding. Savannah's climate is classified as humid subtropical. In the Deep South, this is characterized by long and tropical summers and short, mild winters.
Savannah records few days of freezing temperatures each year. Due to its proximity to the Atlantic coast, Savannah experiences temperatures as extreme as those in Georgia's interior; the extreme temperatures have ranged from 105 °F, on July 20, 1986, down to 3 °F during the January 1985 Arctic outbreak. Seasonally, Savannah tends to have hot and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms that develop in the warm and tropical air masses, which are common. Although summers in Savannah are sunny, half of Savannah's annual precipitation falls during the months of June through September. Average dewpoints in summer range from 67.8 to 71.6 °F. Winters in Savannah are mild and sunny with average daily high temperatures close to 60 °F. November and December are the driest months re
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. an American clergyman and civil rights leader, was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at 6:01 p.m. CST, he was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital, he was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience. James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested on June 8, 1968, in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, charged with the crime. On March 10, 1969, he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary, he made many attempts to withdraw his guilty plea and be tried by a jury, but was unsuccessful. The King family and others believe the assassination was the result of a conspiracy involving the U. S. government and Memphis police, as alleged by Loyd Jowers in 1993. They believe. In 1999, the family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for the sum of $10 million.
During closing arguments, their attorney asked the jury to award damages of $100, to make the point that "it was not about the money." During the trial, both sides presented evidence alleging a government conspiracy. The government agencies accused could not defend themselves or respond because they were not named as defendants. Based on the evidence, the jury concluded Jowers and others were "part of a conspiracy to kill King" and awarded the family $100; the allegations and the finding of the Memphis jury were rejected by the United States Department of Justice in 2000 due to lack of evidence. As early as the mid-1950s, King had received death threats due to his prominence in the Civil Rights Movement, he had confronted the risk of death, including a nearly fatal stabbing in 1958, made its recognition part of his philosophy. He taught. After the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, King told his wife, Coretta Scott King, "This is what is going to happen to me also. I keep telling you, this is a sick society."
King traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking African American city sanitation workers. The workers had staged a walkout on February 11, 1968, to protest unequal wages and working conditions imposed by then-mayor Henry Loeb. At the time, Memphis paid black workers lower wages than white workers. There were no city-issued uniforms, no restrooms, no recognized union, no grievance procedure for the numerous occasions on which they were underpaid. During Loeb's tenure as Mayor, conditions did not improve, the gruesome February 1968 deaths of two workers in a garbage-compacting truck turned mounting tensions into a strike. King participated in a massive march in Memphis on March 1968, that ended in violence. On April 3, King returned to Memphis to attempt a successful new march that week, his airline flight to Memphis was delayed by a bomb threat but he arrived in time to make a planned speech to a gathering at the Mason Temple. There, King delivered the speech, now known as the "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address.
In it, he recalled his 1958 attempted assassination, noting that the doctor who treated him said that because the knife used to stab him was so near to his aorta, any sudden movement a sneeze, might have killed him. He referred to a letter, written by a young girl, he used that reference to say, I, too, am happy. Because if I had sneezed, I wouldn't have been around here in 1960, when students all over the South started sitting-in at lunch counters. If I had sneezed, I wouldn't have been around here in 1961, when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in interstate travel, he repeated the phrase, "If I had sneezed", several more times, recalling numerous other events and acts of civil disobedience of the previous several years: the Albany Movement, the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963, the Selma to Montgomery March. As he neared the close, he referred to the bomb threat: And I got to Memphis, and some began to say the threats... or talk about the threats. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?
Well, I don't know. We've got some difficult days ahead, but it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop, and I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place, but I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will, and He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land! And so I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. My eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord! On Thursday, April 4, 1968, King was staying in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis; the motel was named after his wife. Reverend Ralph Abernathy, a colleague and friend told the House Select Committee on Assassinations he and King had stayed in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so that it was known as the "King–Abernathy Suite". According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's last words were to musician Ben Branch, scheduled to perform that night at a planned event.
King said, "Ben, make sure you play'Take My Precious Lord' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty."King had gone out onto the balcony and was standing near his room when he was struck in the face at 6:01 p.m. by a single.30-06 bullet fired from a Remingt
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane
Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane was established in 1892 as the Matteawan State Hospital by an 1892 law, Matteawan functioned as a hospital for insane criminals. The new hospital confined and treated individuals committed to it by criminal courts and inmates who were declared insane while serving their sentences at State institutions; the Superintendent of State Prisons had control over the hospital. In 1886, a New York State legislative commission recommended the purchase of the 246-acre Dates Farm in the village of Matteawan for $25,000; the site was rural, yet accessible by rail and offered good tillable land, pure water and pleasant scenery between the Hudson River and the Fishkill Mountains. Architect Isaac Perry, known for finishing work on the New York State Capitol, was hired to design the main hospital building with "an abundance of light and ventilation" to accommodate 550 patients. In April 1892, the Asylum for Insane Criminals, with 261 patients, was relocated from Auburn to its new site.
The following year, it was renamed Matteawan State Hospital. In 1899, another prison mental hospital was built on the grounds of Clinton. Dannemora would hold male convicts who became insane while serving their sentences, had the power to retain them if they remained insane at expiration of their sentences. Matteawan would hold unconvicted males as well as females in both categories. Except for tighter security, Matteawan functioned the same as the state's civil hospitals. Doctors prescribed a program of "moral treatment" developed in the early 1800s, it consisted of kind and gentle treatment in a stress-free routine environment. Patients who were capable were assigned to a work program: cooking and making baskets, rugs and bedsheets. Like all institutions of its time, Matteawan included extensive acreage for farming to feed its residents. Up to 700 acres were devoted to vegetable and fruit cultivation, a dairy farm, a piggery and pasture land for the animals. Barns and other farm buildings were built down the hill from the asylum.
These included a tool shed built in 1900, a greenhouse, a large residence hall for male patients and staff assigned to work the farm and a horse stable. In 1906 head attendant Nellie Wicks was killed. Attendant Wicks is the first known female law enforcement officer to be killed in the line of duty in the United States, she had served with the New York State Department of Correctional Services for one year. By the late 1940s, new procedures that included electric and insulin shock treatments were employed at the hospital. Hypnosis and group therapy sessions followed and three lobotomies were performed. By 1949 the facility built for 550, housed 1,500 men and 250 women; the Matteawan "colony farm" was closed in the mid-1960s when the director decided that farming was not relevant training for a patient population drawn principally from New York City. On January 1, 1977, the New York Department of Mental Hygiene opened the Central New York Psychiatric Center a special forensic mental health facility on the grounds of the Beacon complex.
With the creation of CNYPC, Matteawan closed forever. Some buildings from the former Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane now serve as part of the medium-security Fishkill Correctional Facility. Patients were given outdoor exercise in the courtyards twice daily and motion pictures were shown weekly. Radios and phonographs were available on the wards. Patients played softball, bowling, shuffleboard, chess, cards, ping pong and quoits. At Christmas and other special occasions, there were teas for the women, smokes for the men and "vaudeville entertainments" staged by patients and staff; the hospital's cemetery, which includes the remains of nearly 1,000 patients that died there, is just south of Beacon High School on Matteawan Road. Raymond Francis Charles Kieb 1914 to 1942. Lizzie Halliday - Irish-American serial killer who murdered at least four people, including one of the hospital's nurses. Died in 1918. Harry Thaw - murdered Stanford White. Died in 1947. Valerie Solanas - Radical feminist who attempted to murder Andy Warhol and Mario Amaya.
Died in 1988. George Metesky - New York City's "Mad Bomber". Died in 1994. Izola Ware Curry - African American woman who attempted to assassinate civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. Died in 2015. Fishkill Correctional Facility
Manhattan Psychiatric Center
The Manhattan Psychiatric Center is a New York-state run psychiatric hospital on Wards Island in New York City. As of 2009, it held only around 200 patients; the current building is 17 stories tall. The building resembles that of the Creedmoor Psychiatric Center in Queens; the hospital's roots date to 1848 when Wards Island was designated the reception area for immigrants. Some additional structures were part of Blackwell's Island Lunatic Asylum, which opened around 1863; the New York City Asylum for the Insane opened in 1863. The building was enlarged in 1871, a Kirkbride Plan style building was built. After the immigration entry shifted to Ellis Island in 1892, the state took it over from Manhattan in 1899 and expanded it further, renaming it the Manhattan State Hospital. At the time, it was the largest psychiatric hospital in the world. At the time, it was one of two psychiatric hospitals for residents of Manhattan, taken over by the state; the other psychiatric hospital would become the Central Islip Psychiatric Center in Central Islip, New York.
Both hospitals were referred to as "Manhattan State Hospital". It became the Manhattan Psychiatric Center; the current building complex was constructed in 1954. The facility is operated by the New York State Office of Mental Health; the site is surrounded by Wards Island Park, administered by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.-There is a Manned VTS Vessel Traffic Service Radar on one of the Original Hospital buildings: VTS Randalls Island, Manned VTS Louis Pioggi, gangster Martin Hildebrandt, tattoo artist Scott Joplin was hospitalized in 1916 for dementia caused by syphilis, died there on April 1, 1917. Wilhelm Steinitz, the first undisputed world chess champion, was hospitalized with mental illness caused by syphilis, died there on August 12, 1900. Mabel Boll, "The Queen of Diamonds" died of a stroke at the facility in April 1949 at the age of 54. Wards Island Park Social Work in a State Psychiatric Center - A Bridge to Recovery