Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Slovakia the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mountainous; the population is over 5.4 million and consists of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, the second largest city is Košice; the official language is Slovak. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe.
The area was recovered thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who settled Germans which became an important ethnic group in the area in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. A coup in 1948 ushered in a totalitarian one-party state under the Communist regime during whose rule the country existed as a satellite of the Soviet Union. Attempts for liberalization of communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.
Slovakia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy and a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leave in the OECD; the country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009. Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes. In 2018, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 10th in the world; as part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the world's 2nd-most-traded currency.
Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia's industrial output, a quarter of its exports; the first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586. It derives from the Czech word Slováky; the native name Slovensko derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic, since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period. Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BCE, in the Early Paleolithic era; these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites.
The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, near the foot of the Vihorlat and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains; the most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and Radošina; these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and central Europe. The Bronze Age in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE.
Major cultural and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper in central Slovakia and northwe
Uwe Seeler is a German former footballer and football official. As a striker, he was a prolific scorer for Hamburger SV and made 72 appearances for the West German national team. Regarded as one of the greatest players in German football history, in 2004 he was named one of FIFA's 125 greatest living players by Pelé, he was the first football player to be awarded the Great Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. His grandson, Levin Öztunalı, is a professional footballer. Seeler followed in his father's footsteps as a player for Hamburger SV, making his first team debut in 1954 in a DFB-Pokal match, aged just under 18, scoring four goals. In years, despite tempting offers from Italian and Spanish clubs, he remained loyal to Hamburg, working on a second career as a merchant besides playing football. Seeler was a gifted and prolific striker who, among other things, was most of all renowned for his leadership, overhead kicks, aerial ability, he scored 137 times in 239 Bundesliga games, 43 times in 72 international games for the German national team, 21 times in 29 European club tournament games.
He was captain of both the national team for many years. He and his club won the German championship in 1960 and the DFB-Pokal in 1963, he was top scorer of the first Bundesliga season in 1963–64 and German Footballer of the Year in 1960, 1964 and 1970. During the 1960–61 season, alongside his brother Dieter, helped to lead Hamburger SV to the semi-finals of the European Cup, where they narrowly missed out on the final against Benfica, losing out to Barcelona in a play-off match. During the 1967–68 season, Seeler helped Hamburg to reach the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup, finishing the competition as top scorer, only to lose out to AC Milan. In 1978, he and his former teammate Franz-Josef Hönig played for Cork Celtic F. C. in a one-off sponsored event. Seeler had ended his active playing career in 1972. However, this match turned out to be an official League of Ireland one and Uwe scored twice. Thus, his overall record of goals scored in league and championship matches adds up to 446, his 404 goals in German Oberliga and Bundesliga league games is a record that stands as today, his 406 goals in league games overall making him the second-best German goalscorer behind Gerd Müller.
Seeler participated in the same four FIFA World Cups as Pelé did: 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970. Of those West German World Cup teams, the 1966 side reached the final, where they controversially lost to host nation England 4–2 in extra time. In 1958, the German team finished in fourth place. Seeler's most important international goal came in the previous round, a backward second-half header against England which tied the score 2–2, a game West Germany went on to win 3–2. Although Seeler never won a World Cup, he had a prolific career in the tournament, he ranks third in all-time minutes played in World Cups, with 1980, behind Paolo Maldini and Lothar Matthäus. In total, he scored 9 goals across the four World Cups in which he played, as well as 3 goals in World Cup Qualifying matches. A photo of Seeler during the 1966 World Cup Final was voted as Photo of the Century by Kicker magazine, he had a two-and-a-half-year tenure as president of Hamburger SV, which began in 1995, ended in resignation due to a financial scandal, for which he took responsibility.
Seeler, was not himself implicated in the irregularities. Seeler was a tremendously popular player due to his fairness and modesty and is still called Uns Uwe in Hamburg and the surrounding area; the DFB made him the second honorary captain of the German national team in 1972. In 2003, he became an honorary citizen of his hometown Hamburg; that year he published his memoirs Danke, Fußball, released as an English version in 2009. 2005 saw the unveiling of a giant monument in front of the HSV stadium depicting his right foot. Seeler has appeared in a cameo role in the popular 1972 Heinz Erhardt comedy Willi wird das Kind schon schaukeln, playing himself. In this film, a manager called. In the end, his club makes a spectacular signing: Seeler himself. Everybody in the club is jubilant, but Jungborn is puzzled and asks "who the devil is that guy?". *Before the Bundesliga, the national champion was determined in a series of knock-out games after the domestic league ended Hamburger SVGerman football championship: 1959–60 DFB-Pokal: 1962–63 West GermanyFIFA World Cup: 1966, 1970 Ballon d'Or – Third place: 1960 Footballer of the Year in Germany: 1960, 1964, 1970 FIFA XI: 1963 Bundesliga Top Scorer: 1964 FIFA World Cup All-Star Team: 1966 kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season: 1969–70 FIFA
World Soccer (magazine)
World Soccer is an English language football magazine published by TI Media. The magazine was established in 1960, it specialises in the international football scene. Its regular contributing writers include Keir Radnedge, Sid Lowe and Tim Vickery. World Soccer is a member of the European Sports Magazines, an umbrella group of similar magazines printed in other languages. Other members include Don Balón, Kicker, La Gazzetta dello Sport and Sport Express; the members of this group elect a European "Team of the Month" and a European "Team of the Year". Since 1982, World Soccer has organised "Player of the Year", "Manager of the Year" and "Team of the Year" awards. In 2005 awards for the best "Young Player of the Year" and "Referee of the Year" were introduced. In the December 1999 issue of World Soccer, a readers' poll listing the 100 greatest football players of the 20th century was published; the magazine marked its 50th anniversary in 2010 with a series of articles looking back on the past 50 years in international football.
Paul Gardner Brian Glanville Mark Gleeson Sid Lowe James Piotr Montague Tim Vickery Jonathan Wilson 2005 – Robinho, Santos 2006 – Lionel Messi, Barcelona 2007 – Lionel Messi, Barcelona 2008 – Lionel Messi, Barcelona & Argentina 2009 – Sergio Agüero, Atlético Madrid & Argentina 2010 – Thomas Müller, Bayern Munich & Germany 2011 – Neymar, Santos & Brazil 2005 – Pierluigi Collina 2006 – Horacio Elizondo The list is based on votes of 73 experts around the world. The list is based on votes of 70 experts around the world; every expert could choose five managers. The following managers only received one vote: Luis Aragonés Leo Beenhakker Matt Busby Jack Charlton Kazimierz Górski Gérard Houllier Tomislav Ivić Ștefan Kovács Udo Lattek Hugo Meisl Otto Rehhagel Carlos Alberto Parreira Antoni Piechniczek Árpád Weisz Walter Winterbottom Rafael Benítez Marcelo Bielsa Bob Bradley Jupp Heynckes Arsène Wenger FIFA World Cup All-Time Team FIFA World Cup Dream Team FIFA 100 FIFA Player of the Century World Team of the 20th Century The online edition of World Soccer Magazine
1958 FIFA World Cup
The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from 8 to 29 June. The tournament was won by Brazil, who beat Sweden 5–2 in the final in the Stockholm suburb of Solna for their first title; the tournament is notable for marking the debut on the world stage of a 17-year-old Pelé. Argentina, Chile and Sweden expressed interest in hosting the tournament. Swedish delegates lobbied other countries at the FIFA Congress held in Rio de Janeiro around the opening of the 1950 World Cup finals. Sweden was awarded the 1958 tournament unopposed on 23 June 1950; the hosts and the defending champions qualified automatically. Of the remaining 14 places, nine were allocated to Europe, three to South America, one to North/Central America, one to Asia/Africa. Aside from the main European zone matches, which finished second in its group behind Czechoslovakia, was drawn into a play-off with Israel after Israel won its group by default because its three opponents, Turkey and Sudan, refused to play.
FIFA had imposed a rule that no team would qualify without playing at least one match, something that had happened in several previous World Cups. Wales won the play-off and qualified for the first, so far only, time. With Northern Ireland making its debut, England and Scotland qualifying, this World Cup was the only one to feature all four of the United Kingdom's Home Nations; this World Cup saw the entry and qualification of the Soviet Union for the first time, while Argentina appeared for the first time since 1934. Until 2018, this FIFA World Cup was the only one. Other teams that failed to qualify included two-time champions and 1954 semifinalists Uruguay, as well as the Spain and Belgium national teams. On 8 February 1958, in Solna, Lennart Hyland and Sven Jerring presented the results of the draw where the qualified teams were divided into four groups. Seeding was geographical rather than by team strength, with each group containing one western European team, one eastern European team, one of the four British teams that had qualified, one from the Americas.
The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. The format of the competition changed from 1954: 16 teams still competed in four groups of four, but this time each team played each of the other teams in its group at least once, without extra time in the event of a draw. Two points were awarded for one point for a draw. If the first two teams finished on equal points goal average would decide, placed first and second; as in 1954, if the second and third placed teams finished on the same points there would be a play-off with the winner going through. If a play-off resulted in a draw, goal average from the group games would be used to determine who went through to the next round. If the goal averages were equal lots would have been drawn; these arrangements had not been finalised by the time the tournament started and were still being debated as it progressed. Some teams complained that a play-off match, meaning three games in five days, was too much, before the second round of group matches FIFA informed the teams that goal average would be used before resorting to a play-off.
This was overturned when the Swedish Football Association complained, ostensibly that it was wrong to change the rules mid-tournament, but because it wanted the extra revenue from playoff matches. This was the first time, it was used to separate the teams finishing second in one of the groups. However, all three playoffs finished with decisive results and so it was not needed to separate the teams involved in a tied playoff. All the matches kicked off in each of the three rounds of the group phase, as did the quarter-finals and semi-finals; the exceptions were Sweden's three group matches. Apart from these, one match per round was televised, relayed across Europe by the European Broadcasting Union. Many Swedes bought their first television for the World Cup; the official ball was the "Top-Star VMbollen 1958" model made by Sydsvenska Läder & Remfabriks AB in Ängelholm. It was chosen from 102 candidates in a blind test by four FIFA officials. In Group 4, Pelé did not play against the Soviet Union.
He failed to score. They had drawn 0–0 with England in what was the first goalless game in World Cup history; the Soviet Union and England went to a playoff game, in which Anatoli Ilyin scored in the 67th minute to knock England out, while Austria had been eliminated. The English side had been weakened by the Munich air disaster earlier in the year, which killed three internationals on the books of Manchester United, including England's young star Duncan Edwards. Playoffs were needed in Group 1 and Group 3. Hungary had become a spent force after their appearance in the final of the previous tournament, they had lost their best players two years before, when they fled in the wake of the failed uprising against the communist regime. In a rather restrictive sense, from the 1954 team, only goalkeeper Gyula Grosics, defender Jozsef Bozsik and
Raymond Kopa was a French footballer, integral to the French national team of the 1950s. At club level he was part of the legendary Real Madrid team of the 1950s, winning three European Cups. Considered one of the leading players of his generation, Kopa was a free-role advanced playmaker, quick and known for his love of dribbling, he was a renowned playmaker, as well as a prolific scorer. In 1958, Kopa was awarded the Ballon d'Or. In 1970, he became the first football player to receive the Légion d'honneur, in 2004, Pelé named him one of the 125 Greatest Living Footballers at a FIFA Awards Ceremony. Kopa was born to a family of Polish immigrants, his grandparents were from Kraków and migrated to Germany, where his parents were born. They migrated to France after the First World War, his surname was shortened to Kopa whilst he was at school. At the age of 14 he followed in the footsteps of his grandfather and brother by working in the coal mines of Nœux-les-Mines. During this time Kopa lost a finger in a mining accident.
Kopa married the sister of a team-mate of his at Angers. After retiring from the game he launched his own sportswear brand settling in Corsica. Kopa died in Angers on 3 March 2017, aged 85. Kopa was mentored by Paul Sinibaldi. Sinibaldi was godfather to Kopa's son. After finishing second in the French national youth football trials in 1949, Kopa began his professional career at age 17 with Angers in Ligue 2 and was transferred two years to Reims, with whom he won French championships in 1953 and 1955, he won the 1953 Latin Cup with Reims, where they defeated Milan 3–0 in the final, helped them reach the 1956 European Cup Final, which the team lost to Alfredo Di Stéfano's Real Madrid, 4–3. Kopa had first attracted attention in Spain when he played for France against Spain in a match in Madrid in March 1955, which led to the Spanish sports newspaper Marca nicknaming him "Little Napoleon". Kopa was transferred to Real Madrid for the 1956–57 season, where he was soon joined by Ferenc Puskás. Despite playing as an inside right, Kopa's time at Real Madrid was successful as he helped the club to three successive European cup victories, being influential in the Spanish capital.
Playing with the Spanish giants, Kopa won the Spanish league in 1957 and 1958. Kopa was the first French player to win the European Cup when Madrid defeated Fiorentina 2–0 in the 1957 final, he would go on to be European champion again in 1958 and 1959, the last against former side Reims, where Just Fontaine played. In the 1959–60 season, Kopa returned to France to finish his career with Reims, where he won further Championnats in 1960 and 1962. In total, he scored 75 goals in 346 matches in France's top flight, was awarded the Ballon d'or by France Football in 1958. With the France national team, Kopa scored 18 goals in 45 matches between 1952 and 1962, he played in the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, where he performed outstandingly and was one of the players of the tournament, scoring three goals as he led France to the semi-finals, where they succumbed to a strong Brazil team. The French team finished third in the tournament. In March 2004, Kopa was named by Pelé as one of the top 125 greatest living footballers.
In 2018, France Football's Kopa Trophy, awarded to the best young football player in the calendar year was named in Raymond's honor. The first recipient was fellow Frenchman Kylian Mbappe. Reims French League: 1953, 1955, 1960, 1962 Latin Cup: 1953 French second division: 1966Real Madrid Spanish League: 1957, 1958 European Cup: 1957, 1958, 1959 Latin Cup: 1957France FIFA World Cup Third place: 1958Individual Ballon d'or: 1958.
Bernolákovo is a village and municipality in western Slovakia in Senec District in the Bratislava Region. The German name Lanschütz comes from Slavic/Slovak Lǫžnica. Proto-Slavic lǫgъ, modern Slovak luh - riparian forest; the Slovaks adopted Hungarian name Cseklész. It is named after Anton Bernolák. Population by nationality: List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Ján Popluhár, Slovak football player The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bratislava, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1687-1930 Reformated church records: 1787-1924 Media related to Bernolákovo at Wikimedia Commons Municipal website Surnames of living people in Bernolakovo