Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, the scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about, Italian architects had always preferred forms that were clearly defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery, Italy had never fully adopted the Gothic style of architecture. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them and this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, and through Milan, France.
Successive Popes, especially Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy, in the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, by dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, and maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the business of money-lending. The Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming virtually princes themselves as they did so, along the trade routes, and thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. This commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, the construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peters, one of Christendoms most significant churches, were part of this process.
In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual, the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city under her patronage. The dome inspired further religious works in Florence, through Humanism, civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship. Some major ecclesiastical building works were commissioned, not by the church. During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas. The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450 and it was to some degree dependent on Vitruviuss De architectura, a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture, Sebastiano Serlio produced the next important text, the first volume of which appeared in Venice in 1537, it was entitled Regole generali darchitettura.
It is known as Serlios Fourth Book since it was the fourth in Serlios original plan of a treatise in seven books, in all, five books were published
Bellevue Beach, often simply referred to as Bellevue, is a beach at Klampenborg on the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Bellevue is a 700-metre-long sandy beach with adjoining lawns, the characteristic blue-striped, almost cartoonish, lifeguard towers and the geometric kiosks were designed by Danish architect and furniture designer Arne Jacobsen in 1932. In the 1930s, when the right to vacation became legally mandated, gentofte Municipality made plans to develop a piece of coastline north of Copenhagen into a seaside resort complex combining an existing park designed by the landscape architect C. Th. Sørensen with beach facilities catering to some 15,000 paying visitors a day, three architects were invited to submit plans for a Bellevue beach complex. The winner was the young architect Arne Jacobsen, who had just opened his office, the complex included the Bellavista apartment buildings, a restaurant and the Bellevue Theatre, all of which still stand today in the immediate vicinity of the beach.
The quest for recreation by the growing masses called for physical as well as social solutions, a political initiative provided the pre-requisites for creating a beach at Bellevue. In June 1932 the Bellevue beach was inaugurated by Danish Prime Minister Thorvald Stauning and it immediately became the most popular summer resort in Copenhagen. A direct return tram ticket from the city to Bellevue, including the entrance fee, was at the affordable price of 30 øre. In the song Hot, the track on their debut album Nik & Jay, Danish Hip-Hop/pop duo Nik & Jay describe a drive up the coast from Copenhagen. However, situated on an east-facing coast, there is no sunset to be seen at that particular location
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Gentofte is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Major landmarks include Gentofte Town Hall, Gentofte Hospital and Gentofte Church, Gentofte Lake with surrpunding parkland and nature reserves form the most important greenspace. Gentofte is roughly bounded by Lyngbyvej to the west, theS-train line to Hillerød to the northeast, Bernstorffsvej to the east, the southern border with Hellerup is, not clearly defined. Gentofte postal district has a different definition. Gentofte, as defined by Gentofte Municipality, covers circa 335 hectares or 13% of the municipalitys total, on 1 January 2012 the district had 8,289 residents, equaling 11% of the total population of Gentofte Municipality. Gentofte Lake is a dominant geographical feature, the most urban part of the district is centred on the central part of Gentoftegade, Gentofte Torv and part of Baunegårdsvej. Secondary centre are located in the periphery of the district at Bernstorffsvej, the area around Gentofte Lake has been inhabited since the Stone Age.
The name Gentofte is first seen in a letter from Absalon to the Bishop of Roskilde from 11186. The gift comprises extensive parts of what is now Copenhagen, including. mansionem de Gefnetofte cum omnibus pertenentiis suis, Gentofte is most likely considerably older since place names with the suffix -tofte have usually emerged during the 9th century. The area was confiscated by the crown during the Reformation and it was placed under Ibstrup Ladegård which was renamed Jægersborg by Christian V. Tax records show that Gentofte had approximately 450 residents in 1645, in 1685 the village consisted of 19 farms. One of them had given to Queen Charlotte Amalie as a wedding present. A cavalry school, the first of its kund in Denmark, the entire area was acquired by Foreign Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff in 1752 and his new Bernstorff Palace was completed in 1765. Bernstorffsvej, a new road linking Lyngby Kongevej with the palace, Bernstorff was a driving force behind the agricultural reforms of the 1780s and the farmers were there the first in Denmark to get to own their own land.
Most of the farms were moved out of the village to be closer to their land, a parish counvil was established in 1842. The opening of the railway to Lyngby in 1863 resulted in increased growth in Gentofte. In the 1870s, the population increased from 4,158 to 5,106 In 1887 and his plan was to sell it off in lots to developers and private citizens. He purchased Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte, in 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Kongens Lyngby is the seat and commercial centre of Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Lyngby Hovedgade is a shopping street and the site of a branch of Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter. The district is home to several major companies, including COWI A/S. Lyngby station is located on the Hillerød radial of Copenhagens S-train network, Kongens Lyngby borders, the municipality of Gentofte, where the Danish Prime Ministers official residence, Marienborg and the Gladsaxe municipality. The name Kongens Lyngby is first recorded in 1893, at that time large parts of North Zealand belonged to the Catholic Church (represented by Roskilde Cathedral and the name Lyngby was associated with several places. Store Lyngby belonged to Arresø church and our Lyngby, on the other hand, was crown land. It may therefore have been to distinguish it from other places that the name emerged. The original Lyngby village is now known as Bondebyen, Kongens Lyngby was the site of a watermill, Lyngby Watermill, which is first mentioned in 1492 but is probably several hundred years older.
A royal road, Lyngby Kongevej, was created in 1584 to provide a link between Copenhagen and Fredericks new Frederiksborg Castle from where it was extended to Fredensborg and Helsingør. It was the first of a number of royal roads created by Frederick II, in the 18th century, a growing number of country houses were built in the area by civil servants and merchants from Copenhagen. Kongens Lyngby had no rights but developed into a local service centre with an increasing number of craftsmen. In the 1930s, Kongens Lyngby developed into a modern suburb, the North Line was converted into an S-train line with more stations and Kongens Lyngby gradually merged with the neighboring settlements. Kongens Lyngby is the important shopping destination in the northern suburbs, Lyngby Hovedgade is a busy shopping site and is the site of a Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter
Guard Hussar Regiment (Denmark)
The Guard Hussar Regiment is a special cavalry unit of the Royal Danish Army, the primary task is to train the Guard Hussars for various functions in the mobilisation force. The motto of the regiment is in Latin, In actis esto volucris, from 1961 to 1972 the regiment was responsible for two armoured battalions, one recon battalion and three infantry battalions. From 1972–2000 the regiment was responsible for one armoured, one mechanised infantry, one reconnaissance, from 2000–2004 the regiment was responsible for two armoured, two mechanised infantry, one reconnaissance and two infantry battalions. From 1992–2004 the regiment had to form two light Reconnaissance Squadrons assigned to the Brigades
Frederick III of Denmark
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and he instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark and he was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647, in order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden and he was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy and he married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.
Frederick was born at Haderslev in Slesvig, the son of Christian IV, in his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, as his older brother Christian was elected heir apparent in 1608. Frederick was educated at Sorø Academy and studied in the Netherlands, as a young man, he demonstrated an interest in theology, natural sciences, and Scandinavian history. He was a reserved and enigmatic prince who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less, even though he lacked the impulsive and jovial qualities of his father, Frederick possessed the compensating virtues of moderation and self-control. On 1 October 1643 Frederick wed Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who had an energetic, passionate and he was an enthusiastic collector of books and his collection became the foundation for the Copenhagen Royal Library. In his youth, Frederick became the instrument of his fathers political schemes in the Holy Roman Empire and he was granted administration of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and named coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Thus, from an age, he had considerable experience as an administrator. At the age of eighteen, he was the commandant of the Bremian fortress of Stade. During the Torstenson War of 1643–45, Frederick lost control of his possessions within the empire and he was appointed commander in the royal shares in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein by his father. His command was not successful, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille and this was Fredericks first collision with the Danish nobility, who afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 opened the possibility for Frederick to be elected heir apparent to the Danish throne, this issue was still unsettled when Christian IV died on 28 February 1648. After long deliberation among the Danish Estates and in the Rigsraadet, on 6 July, Frederick received the homage of his subjects, and he was crowned on 23 November. The Haandfæstning included provisions curtailing the already diminished royal prerogative in favour of increased influence for the Rigsraadet, in the first years of his reign, the Rigsraadet was the main power center of Danish politics
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death. Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and he was hailed as successor to the Throne of Denmark in 1542 and of Norway in 1548. As king, he visited Norway in 1585, when he came to Båhus, unlike his father, he was strongly affected by military ideals. Already as a man he made friendship with German war princes. Shortly after his succession he won his first victory with the conquest of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein by Johan Rantzau during the summer of 1559, from his predecessor, he inherited the Livonian War. In 1560, he installed his younger brother Magnus of Holstein in the Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Frederick largely tried to avoid conflict in Livonia and consolidated amicable relations to Ivan IV in the 1562 Treaty of Mozhaysk. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, Magnus was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578. His competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic broke out into open warfare in 1563, the start of the Seven Years War and he tried in vain to conquer Sweden, which was ruled by his cousin, King Eric XIV.
It developed into an expensive war of attrition in which the areas of Scania were ravaged by the Swedes. During this war the king led his army personally on the battlefield, the conflict damaged his relationship to his noble councillors, however the Sture Murders of 24 May 1567 by the insane King Eric XIV in Sweden helped stabilize the situation in Denmark. After the war Frederick kept the peace without giving up his attempt of trying to expand his prestige as a naval ruler and his foreign politics were marked by a moral support of the Protestant powers – but at the same time by a strict neutrality. In 1552, Steward of the Realm Peder Oxe had been raised to Councillor of State, during the spring of 1557, Oxe and the King had quarreled over a mutual property exchange. Failing to compromise matters with the king, Oxe had fled to Germany in 1558, financial difficulties arose during the stress of the Northern Seven Years War. After state finances collapsed during the years 1566 to 1567, Frederik called Peder Oxe home to address the kingdoms economy, the taking over of Danish administration and finances by the able councillor, provided a marked improvement for the national treasury.
Councillors of experience including Niels Kaas, Arild Huitfeldt and Christoffer Valkendorff took care of the domestic administration, subsequently government finances were put in order and Denmarks economy improved. One of the chief expedients of the state of affairs was the raising of the Sound Dues. Oxe, as treasurer, reduced the national debt considerably. This was a period of affluence and growth in Danish history, Frederick II rebuilt Kronborg castle in Elsinore between 1574 and 1585
Bernstorff Palace in Gentofte, Denmark, was built in the middle of the 18th century for Foreign Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff. It remained in the possession of the Bernstorff family until 1812, in 1842, it was bought by Christian VIII. For many years, it was used as a residence by Christian IX until his death in 1906. Since and until recently, it was used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency as an academy for non-commissioned officers, but it has now opened as a hotel and conference centre. The palace was designed by the French architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin, who had brought to Denmark to complete Fredericks Church in Copenhagen after the death of Nicolai Eigtved in 1754. It is one of the earliest examples of Neoclassical architecture in Denmark, the elaborately decorated two-storeyed building was completed in May 1765 at considerable cost. At the time, it had four small decorative garrets, attics with decorative vases, on the garden side, there is a dome-covered projection rising the full height of the building.
The palaces many rooms were modest in size and intended primarily for use rather than for display. Most are panelled with parquet floors, large mirrors and decorated ceilings, the four rooms on the south side have overdoors decorated by Johan Edvard Mandelberg. Bernstorff left Denmark in 1770, after being dismissed by the regent, the estate remained in his family’s hands until 1812 but was sold on several occasions. It was about to be demolished in 1842 when Christian VIII bought it, a mezzanine was added and the layout of the first-floor rooms was changed. Fitting Jardins decorative style, Norwegian marble fireplaces are to be found in three of the larger rooms, a sign above the entrance reads, Honesto inter Labores otio sacrum or Reserved for honest rest during periods of work. In 1854, Bernstorff Palace was placed at the disposal of Crown Prince Christian who adopted it as his summer residence. Indeed, it was to become a popular retreat for the royal couple, visitors included Tsar Alexander III of Russia and Edward VII of the United Kingdom.
In 1888, after the Nordic Exhibition, Queen Louise bought the timbered Swedish pavilion and had it fitted out as guest quarters. On Christian IXs death in 1906, Prince Valdemar of Denmark inherited the palace and until very recently, it was used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency as an academy for non-commissioned officers. On 1 May 2009, after an agreement with Gitte Jensen and Kirsten Nielsen, Bernstorff Palace opened as a hotel, the palaces extensive gardens were laid out are in the Romantic landscape style which had just been introduced to Denmark in the 1760s. In addition to the lawns and woods, they include a garden, an orchard