In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Most of these were emirates; the origins of the taifas must be sought in the administrative division of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, as well in the ethnic division of the elite of this state, divided among Arabs, the more numerous Berbers, Iberian Muslims and the Eastern European former slaves. During the late 11th century the Christian rulers of the northern Iberian peninsula set out to take over the Muslim territories, defining them as Christian lands, conquered by infidels, now needed to be reconquered; the caliphate of Cordova, at this time among the richest and most powerful states in Europe, underwent civil war, known as fitna. As a result, it "broke into taifas, small rival emirates fighting among themselves."However, the political decline and chaos was not followed by cultural decline.
To the contrary, intense intellectual and literary activity grew in some of the larger taifas. There was a second period when taifas arose, toward the middle of the 12th century, when the Almoravid rulers were in decline. During the heyday of the taifas, in the 11th century and again in the mid 12th century, their emirs competed among themselves, not only militarily but for cultural prestige, they tried to recruit the most famous artisans. Reversing the trend of the Umayyad period, when the Christian kingdoms of the north had to pay tribute to the Caliph, the disintegration of the Caliphate left the rival Muslim kingdoms much weaker than their Christian counterparts the Castilian–Leonese monarchy, had to submit to them, paying tributes known as parias. Due to their military weakness, taifa princes appealed for North African warriors to come fight Christian kings on two occasions; the Almoravid dynasty was invited after the fall of Toledo, the Almohad Caliphate after the fall of Lisbon. These warriors did not in fact help the taifa emirs but rather annexed their lands to their own North African empires.
Taifas hired Christian mercenaries to fight neighbouring realms. The most dynamic taifa, which conquered most of its neighbours before the Almoravid invasion, was Seville. Zaragoza was very powerful and expansive, but inhibited by the neighbouring Christian states of the Pyrenees. Zaragoza and Badajoz had been the border military districts of the Caliphate. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031 about 33 independent taifas emerged out the civil war and conflict in Al-Andalus; the strongest and largest taifas in this first period were the Taifa of Zaragoza, Taifa of Toledo, Taifa of Badajoz and the Taifa of Seville. The only taifa which conquered most of its weak neighbours was the Taifa of Seville under the Abbadid dynasty; this region includes Extremadura region of Spain. Badajoz 1013-1022/1034-1094. Mértola 1033-1044. Toledo: 1010/1031–1085 This region only includes the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca of Spain; this region includes the autonomous region of Andalucia in Spain Algeciras: 1035–1058 Arcos: 1011–1068 Carmona: 1013–1091 Ceuta: 1061–1084 Córdoba: 1031–1091 Granada: 1013–1090 Málaga: 1026–1057/1058.
Albarracín: 1011–1104 Alpuente: 1009–1106 Rueda: 1118–30 Tortosa: 1039–1060. Almería: 1011–1091 Denia: 1010/1012–1076 Jérica: 11th century Lorca: 1051–1091 Majorca: 1018–1203 Molina:?–1100 Murcia: 1011/1012–1065 Murviedro and Sagunto: 1086–1092 Segorbe: 1065–1075 Valencia: 1010/1011–1094 Almería: 1145–1147 Arcos: 1143 Badajoz: 1145–1150 Beja and Évora: 1144–1150 Carmona: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Constantina and Hornachuelos: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Granada: 1145 Guadix and Baza: 1145–1151 Jaén: 1145–1159. Purchena: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Ronda
Duke of Berwick
Duke of Berwick is a title, created in the Peerage of England on 19 March 1687 for James FitzJames, the illegitimate son of King James II and Arabella Churchill. The titles of Baron Bosworth and Earl of Tinmouth were created at the same time, they are subsidiary to the English dukedom. Since 13 December 1707, the dukedom is a title of Spanish nobility, accompanied by the dignity of Grandee of Spain; the title's name refers near the border with Scotland. The peerage and its subsidiary titles were considered to have been forfeit by the English parliament in 1695, when James FitzJames was attainted following the enforced exile of his father; the College of Arms in its Roll of the Peerage does not list any such title, which means that it is non-existent today in England. The titles were recognized in France as de facto Jacobite peerages by King Louis XIV, to please the exiled King James II & VII, along with other Jacobite peerages recognized in France, like Duke of Perth, Duke of Melfort, etc. On 13 December 1707, King Philip V confirmed or issued the title in Spain, he conferred the dignity of Grandee of Spain on James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick.
The grandeeship is attached to the Spanish title of Duke of Berwick. If the English peerage title was still extant, that title is only inheritable in the male line. At the death of Don Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba and 10th Duke of Berwick, the English title would have been inherited by his nephew Don Fernando FitzJames Stuart, 15th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero, subsequently by Fernando's son Don Jacobo FitzJames Stuart, 16th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero and current head of the House of FitzJames; the Spanish title, with the accompanying dignity of Grandee of Spain, follows the inheritance rules of that country. Spanish noble titles have followed the rule of male-preference primogeniture, which allows a female to succeed if she has no living brothers and no deceased brothers who left surviving legitimate descendants. With the death of the 10th Duke of Berwick in September 1953, his only child, Doña Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba, succeeded him in his Spanish titles, including the Spanish dukedom of Berwick.
With her death in November 2014, the dukedom passed to her eldest son, Don Carlos Fitz-James Stuart y Martínez de Irujo. Before 1953, the Spanish Dukes were the Jacobite Dukes of Berwick; the line split due to the differences between the Jacobite succession laws. The Family of the Dukes of Berwick, by Noel S. McFerran Hernando Fitzjames-Stuart in Spanish An Online Gotha - Berwick
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. The Moors called him El Cid, which meant the Lord, the Christians, El Campeador, which stood for "Outstanding Warrior" or "The one who stands out in the battlefield", he was born in a town near the city of Burgos. After his death, he became Castile's celebrated national hero and the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem, El Cantar de Mio Cid. Born a member of the minor nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of King Ferdinand the Great and served Ferdinand's son, Sancho II of León and Castile, he rose to become the commander and royal standard-bearer of Castile upon Sancho's ascension in 1065. Rodrigo went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sancho's brothers, Alfonso VI of León and García II of Galicia, as well as in the Muslim kingdoms in Al-Andalus, he became renowned for his military prowess in these campaigns, which helped expand Castilian territory at the expense of the Muslims and Sancho's brothers' kingdoms.
When conspirators murdered Sancho in 1072, Rodrigo found himself in a difficult situation. Since Sancho was childless, the throne passed to his brother Alfonso, the same whom El Cid had helped remove from power. Although Rodrigo continued to serve the Castilian sovereign, he lost his ranking in the new court which treated him at arm's length and suspiciously. In 1081, he was ordered into exile. El Cid found work fighting for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, whom he defended from its traditional enemy, Aragon. While in exile, he regained his reputation as formidable military leader, he turned out victorious in battle against the Muslim rulers of Lérida and their Christian allies, as well as against a large Christian army under King Sancho Ramírez of Aragon. In 1086, an expeditionary army of North African Almoravids inflicted a severe defeat to Castile, compelling Alfonso to overcome the resentments he harboured against El Cid; the terms for the return to the Christian service must have been attractive enough since Rodrigo soon found himself fighting for his former Lord.
Over the next several years, however, El Cid set his sights on the kingdom-city of Valencia, operating more or less independently of Alfonso while politically supporting the Banu Hud and other Muslim dynasties opposed to the Almoravids. He increased his control over Valencia; when the Almoravids instigated an uprising that resulted in the death of al-Qadir, El Cid responded by laying siege to the city. Valencia fell in 1094, El Cid established an independent principality on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, he ruled over a pluralistic society with the popular support of Muslims alike. El Cid's final years were spent fighting the Almoravid Berbers, he inflicted upon them their first major defeat in 1094, on the plains of Caurte, outside Valencia, continued resisting them until his death. Although Rodrigo remained undefeated in Valencia, his only son, heir, Diego Rodríguez died fighting against the Almoravids in the service of Alfonso in 1097. After El Cid's death in 1099, his wife, Jimena Díaz, succeeded him as ruler of Valencia, but she was forced to surrender the principality to the Almoravids in 1102.
To this day, El Cid remains a Spanish popular folk-hero and national icon, with his life and deeds remembered in plays, folktales and video games. The name El Cid is a modern Spanish denomination composed of the article el meaning "the" and Cid, which derives from the Old Castilian loan word Çid borrowed from the dialectal Arabic word سيد sîdi or sayyid, which means "Lord" or "Master"; the Mozarabs or the Arabs that served in his ranks may have addressed him in this way, which the Christians may have transliterated and adopted. Historians, have not yet found contemporary records referring to Rodrigo as Cid. Arab sources use instead Ludriq al-Kanbiyatur or al-Qanbiyatur; the cognomen Campeador derives from Latin campi doctor, which means "battlefield master". He gained it during the campaigns of King Sancho II of Castile against his brothers King Alfonso VI of León and King García II of Galicia. While his contemporaries left no historical sources that would have addressed him as Cid, they left plenty of Christian and Arab records, some signed documents with his autograph, addressing him as Campeador, which prove that he used the Christian cognomen himself.
The whole combination Cid Campeador is first documented ca. 1195 in the Navarro-Aragonese Linage de Rodric Díaz included in the Liber Regum under the formula mio Cid el Campeador. El Cid was born Rodrigo Díaz circa AD 1043 in Vivar known as Castillona de Bivar, a small town about six miles north of Burgos, the capital of Castile, his father, Diego Laínez, was a courtier and cavalryman who had fought in several battles. Despite the fact that El Cid's mother's family was aristocratic, in years the peasants would consider him one of their own. However, his relatives were not major court officials; as a young man in 1057, Rodrigo fought against the Moorish stronghold of Zaragoza, making its emir al-Muqtadir a vassal of Sancho. In the spring of 1063, Rodrigo fought in the Battle of Graus, where Ferdinand's half-brother, Ramiro I of Aragon, was laying siege to the Moorish town of Cinca, which w
Peter IV of Aragon
Peter IV, called the Ceremonious, was from 1336 until his death the King of Aragon and King of Sardinia and Corsica, King of Valencia, Count of Barcelona. In 1344, he made himself King of Majorca, his reign was occupied with attempts to strengthen the crown against the Union of Aragon and other such devices of the nobility, with their near constant revolts, with foreign wars, in Sardinia, the Mezzogiorno and the Balearics. His wars in Greece made him Duke of Athens and Neopatria in 1381. Peter was born at Balaguer, the eldest son and heir of Alfons IV Count of Urgell, his first wife, Teresa d'Entença. Peter was designated to inherit all of his father's title save that of Urgell, which went to his younger brother James. Upon succeeding his father he called a corts in Zaragoza for his coronation, he crowned himself, disappointing the Archbishop of Zaragoza and thus rejecting the surrender Peter II had made to the Papacy, in an otherwise traditional ceremony. According to his own reports, this act caused him some "distress".
He did, affirm the liberties and privileges of Aragon. While he was at Zaragoza an embassy from Castile had met him and asked that he promise to uphold the donations of land his father had made to his stepmother Eleanor, but he refused to give a clear answer as to the legitimacy of the donations. After the festivities in Zaragoza, Peter began on his way to Valencia to receive coronation there. En route he stopped at Lleida to affirm the Usatges and Constitutions of Catalonia and receive the homage of his Catalan subjects; this offended Barcelona, at which the ceremony had been performed, the citizens of that city complained to the king, who claimed that Lleida was on his way to Valencia. While in Valencia he decided on the case of his stepmother's inheritance, depriving her of income and outlawing her Castilian protector, Peter Ponce of León and Jérica. However, Jérica had enough supporters within Peter's domains that Peter was unable to maintain his position and in 1338, through papal mediation, Jérica was reconciled to the king and Eleanor received her land and jurisdictional rights.
Peter was forced to capitulate by a new invasion from Morocco aimed at Castile and Valencia. In 1338 he married second daughter of Philip III and Joan II of Navarre. In May 1339 he allied with Alfonso XI of Castile against Morocco, but his contribution of a fleet had no effect at the pivotal Battle of Río Salado. Early on in his reign, a thorn in Peter's side had been James III of Majorca, his brother-in-law, the husband of his sister Constance. James had twice postponed performing the ceremony of homage to Peter, his feudal overlord, when he performed it in 1339 it was on his terms; the rising economic star of Majorca, whose merchants were establishing independent markets and gaining trading privileges in the western Mediterranean, threatened the supremacy of Barcelona. The gold coinage of Majorca and the diplomatic equality granted it by the powers of France and Italy irked Peter further, while James allied with Abu Al-Hassan, the king of Morocco and Peter's enemy. Peter's outrage, was given no outlet until 1341, when James, threatened with invasion by the French over disputed rights to the Lordship of Montpellier, called on his suzerain Aragon for aid.
In order not to offend France nor to support James, Peter summoned the king of Majorca to a cort at Barcelona, to which he knew he would not come, when James or a representative of his failed to appear, Peter declared himself free from the obligations of an overlord to James. Peter opened a legal process against James, with the intent of dispossessing him of his kingdom, he alleged that the circulation of James' coinage in the Counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne to be an infringement on the royal right of monopoly of coinage. This was open to question, considering the ancient customs of Roussillon and Cerdagne, but Peter was prepared to move forward anyway; the interference of Pope Clement VI, granted James a hearing in Barcelona in front of papal delegates. Peter, for his part, spread rumours. James, fearing that Peter would stoop to invading Majorca and seizing it by force, returned to the island to prepare its defence. In February 1343 Peter declared James his kingdom and lands forfeit; the legal process being terminated, Peter went to war, on the advice that the islanders were burdened by taxes and would rise in his support.
In May a fleet, blockading Algeciras landed at Majorca and defeated James' army at the Battle of Santa Ponça. Peter received the submission of all the Balearics and confirmed the privileges of the islands as they had been under James I. Though James sued for peace and Pope Clement attempted to mediate it, Peter returned to Barcelona prepared to invade Roussillon and Cerdagne. After these were conquered in 1344 James surrendered on a safe conduct, only to find himself ignominiously reduced to the status of a petty lord. In March Peter had declared his realm incorporated into the Crown of Aragon in perpetuity and ceremoniously had himself crowned its king. By the Pact of Madrid, Peter was constrained to aid Alfonso XI of Castile in his successful attack on Algeciras and his failed attempt on Gibraltar by defending against a Moroccan counterattack; as Peter had no male issue, his brother Count James of Urgell was the presumptive heir to the Aragonese throne. Peter grew to mistrust the intentions of James over time.
Peter decided that he would instead name his daug
The Iberians were a set of people that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians; the term Iberian, as used by the ancient authors, had two distinct meanings. One, more general, referred to all the populations of the Iberian peninsula without regard to ethnic differences; the other, more restricted ethnic sense, refers to the people living in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, which by the 6th century BC had absorbed cultural influences from the Phoenicians and the Greeks. This pre-Indo-European cultural group spoke the Iberian language from the 7th to the 1st century BC. Other peoples related to the Iberians are the Vascones, though more related to the Aquitani than to the Iberians; the rest of the peninsula, in the northern, northwestern and southwestern areas, was inhabited by Celts or Celtiberians groups and the Pre-Celtic or Proto-Celtic Indo-European Lusitanians and the Turdetani.
The Iberian culture developed from the 6th century BC, as early as the fifth to the third millennium BC in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula. The Iberians lived in villages and oppida and their communities were based on a tribal organization; the Iberians in the Spanish Levant were more urbanized than their neighbors in the central and northwestern regions of the Iberian peninsula. The peoples in the central and northwest regions were Celtic, semi-pastoral and lived in scattered villages, though they had a few fortified towns like Numantia, they had a knowledge of writing, including bronze, agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization; this process was aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians. By the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC a series of important social changes led to the consolidation of an aristocracy and the emergence of a clientele system.
"This new political system led, among other things, to cities and towns that centered around these leaders known as territorial nucleation. In this context, the oppidum or fortified Iberian town became the centre of reference in the landscape and the political space."The settlement of Castellet de Banyoles in Tivissa was one of the most important ancient Iberian settlements in the north eastern part of the Iberian peninsula, discovered in 1912. The'Treasure of Tivissa', a unique collection of silver Iberian votive offerings was found here in 1927. Lucentum was another ancient Iberian settlement, as well as Castelldefels Castle. Mausoleum of Pozo Moro near the town of Chinchilla de Monte-Aragón in Castile-La Mancha seems to mark the location of another big settlement. Sagunto is the location of an ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, where a big fortress was built in the 5th century BC. Greek colonists made the first historical reference to the Iberians in the 6th century BC, they defined Iberians as non-Celtic peoples south of the Ebro river.
The Greeks dubbed as "Iberians" another people in the Caucasus region known as Caucasian Iberians. It is thought; the Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery and metalwork has been found in France and North Africa; the Iberians had extensive contact with Greek colonists in the Spanish colonies of Emporion and Hemeroskopeion. The Iberians may have adopted some of the Greeks' artistic techniques. Statues such as the Lady of Baza and the Lady of Elx are thought to have been made by Iberians well acquainted with Greek art. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul; the Iberians had contacts with the Phoenicians, who had established various colonies in southern Andalucia. Their first colony on the Iberian Peninsula was founded in 1100 BC and was called Gadir renamed by the Romans as Gades. Other Phoenician colonies in southern Iberia included Malaka and Abdera.
After the First Punic war, the massive war debt suffered by Carthage led them to attempt to expand their control over the Iberian peninsula. Hamilcar Barca began this conquest from his base at Cádiz by conquering the Tartessian Guadalquivir river region, rich in silver. After Hamilcar's death, his son-in-law Hasdrubal continued his incursions into Iberia, founding the colony of Qart Hadasht and extending his influence all the way to the southern bank of the river Ebro. After Hasdrubal's assassination in 221 BC, Hannibal assumed command of the Carthaginian forces and spent two years completing the conquest of the Iberians south of the Ebro. In his first campaign, Hannibal defeated the Olcades, the Vaccaei and the Carpetani expanding his control over the river Tagus region. Hannibal laid siege to Roman ally of Saguntum and this led to the beginning of the Second Punic War; the Iberian theater was a key battleground during this war and many Iberian and Celtiberian warriors fought for both Rome and Carthage, though most tribes sided with Carthage.
Rome sent Publius Cornelius Scipio to conquer Iberia from Carthage. Gnaeus subsequently defeated the Iberian Ilergetes tribe north of the Ebro who