En plein air
En plein air, or plein air painting, is a phrase borrowed from the French equivalent meaning open air. It is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors, called French, peinture sur le motif and this method contrasts with studio painting or academic rules, those might create a predetermined look. En plein air can be used to other activities where a person partakes in an outdoor environment. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the century, working in natural light became particularly important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School. The Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century, the popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Previously, painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the century that the box easel, typically known as the French box easel or field easel, was invented.
It is uncertain who developed it, but these highly portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store. The Pochade Box is a box that allows the artist to keep all of their supplies. Some designs allow for a canvas which can be held by clamps built into the lid. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid. These boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs, acrylic paint may harden and dry quickly in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation, the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics.
The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air, american impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, and Arthur Hill Gilbert
January Suchodolski was a Polish painter and Army officer. Suchodolski was born in Grodno and was the brother of Rajnold Suchodolski and he joined the Warsaw Cadet Corps in 1810. In 1812 he stood guard on the Hotel Angielski, Warsaw when Napoleon stayed there incognito, in 1823 he became adjutant to Wincenty Krasiński a former officer in Napoleons Army who at the time was with the Royal Regiment of Grenadier Guards. Through Krasińskis connections he got access to the Palaces art galleries and he got to know Antoni Brodowski and succeeded in an art competition with compositions called Taking the banner of Muhammad in Vienna and Death of Ladislaus of Varna. In 1830 January and his brother took part in the November Uprising, January fought at the First Battle of Wawer, the Battle of Olszynka Grochowska and the Battle of Iganie. In his spare time he sketched the scenes of soldiers and made portraits of his colleagues, following the defeat of the uprising — in which his brother died — he went to Rome where he became a pupil of Horace Vernet from 1832 to 1837.
Here he socialised with Zygmunt Krasinski, Wincentys son, Juliusz Słowacki, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Peter von Cornelius and he returned to Warsaw in 1837 and was soon offered membership of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts for his painting Siege of Akhaltsikhe. He was invited to St Petersburg by Tsar Nicholas I to paint famous battles of the Russian Army, after returning to Poland, he next went to Paris in 1844. In 1852 he moved to Kraków, where he met Wincenty Pol and he provided some illustrations for Pols poem Mohorta. In 1860 Suchodolski joined the committee of the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, January Suchodolski died in Bojmie on March 20,1875. List of Polish artists K. Sroczyńska, January Suchodolski, Warszawa 1984
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia and its total length is 1,094 kilometres. The Elbes major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Havel, Schwarze Elster, the Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres, the fourth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, with its largest parts in Germany, much smaller parts lie in Austria and Poland. The basin is inhabited by 24.5 million people, the Elbe rises at an elevation of about 1,400 metres in the Krkonoše on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic near Labská bouda. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí, and continues on southwards through Hradec Králové and to Pardubice, where it turns sharply to the west. At Kolín some 43 kilometres further on, it bends gradually towards the north-west, at the village of Káraný, a little above Brandýs nad Labem, it picks up the Jizera.
At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, or Moldau, upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer, and has a greater discharge and a larger drainage basin. Some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře, in its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat, very fertile marshlands, former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, from the sluice of Geesthacht on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Low Elbe. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Northern Elbe, Reiherstieg. Some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe was separated from the stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme. The Dove Elbe was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort and these hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, and to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg.
The Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel, a bit more downstream the Low Elbes two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel, the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe used to reunite, leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe passes between Holstein and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with Stade until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the Kiel Canal at Brunsbüttel before it debouches into the North Sea, the Elbe has been navigable by commercial vessels since 1842, and provides important trade links as far inland as Prague
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Polands highest military decoration for heroism, Warsaw is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world, in 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in the “Human capital and life style”. It was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central, Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural and economic hub.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union, the city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra and the University of Warsaw. The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, baroque and modern periods, the city is positioning itself as Europes chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and renowned restaurants. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, according to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.
In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland, the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka, other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Варшава /Varšava /Varshava, Varšuva, Varsó. The first fortified settlements on the site of todays Warsaw were located in Bródno, after Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa
Bogdan Pavlovich Willewalde was a Russian artist, emeritus Professor of military art, and a fellow of the Imperial Academy of Arts. Bogdan Willewalde was born in Pavlovsk, Saint Petersburg on January 12,1819, from childhood, he was acquainted with and a playmate of the Russian Grand Dukes and intimately connected to the Imperial family and its official hierarchy. His initial art studies were with Jungstedt, following which he was admitted to the St Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts in 1838 and he studied under Karl Bryullov and Alexander Sauerweid. In the 1840s, having achieved success in his academic studies, in 1844, he was recalled to St Petersburg upon the death of Sauerweid, to finish the latters cycle of the Russian war against Napoleon. In 1848, he was appointed as professor in the Imperial Academy of Arts, most of the material in this section has been taken from the Encyclopedia of War edited by K. I. At the beginning of his career, Willewalde was influenced by German masters, especially the Munich-based Peter von Hess.
He became a follower of the French artist Horace Vernet, although he could not quite match the latters ease of brush-stroke, Willewalde joined the Russian army as well, and made sketches and etudes whilst on service, after which he would complete his monumental canvases. Having been commissioned to paint The Capture of Shamil, he travelled to the Caucasus to observe the landscape, in Dagestan, he created several hundred watercolours and sketches that today hold immense historical importance. Willewalde painted some of the wars of the 1870s, although to an extent, Battle on the Danube. In his final period, Willewalde returned to his favourite and most thoroughly researched topic, Willewalde was held in high esteem by the Imperial court and received several commissions to depict the members of the court in various ceremonial situations. In 1859, he created a monumental canvas Ceremonial Entry of Their Imperial Majesties into Moscow before their Sacred Coronation August 17,1859 in honour of the coronation of Czar Alexander II.
Following this success, he was asked to depict the anointment of Grand Duke Nicholas as heir to the Imperial throne, the painting titled The Oath of His Imperial Highness Prince Nikolai Alexandrovich at the Georgiev Throne Hall of the Winter Palace. Willewalde remained the head of the art division of the Imperial Academy of Arts till its reform in the 1890s. The excellence of his teaching served to train nearly the entire following generation of Russian military artists, although Willewalde himself was a man of strictly-held consistent views on art and he disliked the younger generation for its various innovations, he was able not to thwart their talents. Such diverse talents as Charlemagne, Kovalevsky, Popov, Willewalde is one of the main representatives of the dominant type of battle painting of the 19th century, combining its strengths and weaknesses. He remained dependent on the academy which at the supported and maintained the genre of military art. Willewaldes entire oeuvre was circumscribed by these demands, depicting the truth as represented by the Russian authorities, finely finished, but never causing worry.
The Imperial family and nobility appreciated Willewaldes amazing ability for accurate depiction, to put on canvas the beauty of the world, of fabrics
Émile Jean-Horace Vernet was a French painter of battles and Orientalist Arab subjects. Vernet was born to Carle Vernet, another painter, who was himself a son of Claude Joseph Vernet. He was born in the Paris Louvre, while his parents were staying there during the French Revolution, Vernet quickly developed a disdain for the high-minded seriousness of academic French art influenced by Classicism, and decided to paint subjects taken mostly from contemporary culture. Therefore, he began depicting the French soldier in a familiar, vernacular manner rather than in an idealized. Some of his paintings that represent French soldiers in a direct, less idealizing style, include Dog of the Regiment, Trumpeters Horse. He gained recognition during the Bourbon Restoration for a series of paintings commissioned by the duc dOrleans. Critics marvelled at the speed with which he painted. Many of his paintings made during early phase of his career were noted for their historical accuracy as well as their charged landscapes.
Examples of paintings in style include his Four Battles series, The Battle of Jemappes, The Battle of Montmirail, The Battle of Hanau. Over the course of his career, Horace Vernet was honoured with dozens of important commissions. King Louis-Philippe was one of his most prolific patrons and his depictions of Algerian battles, such as the Capture of the Smahla and the Capture of Constantine, were well-received, as they were vivid depictions of the French army in the heat of battle. After the fall of the July Monarchy during the Revolution of 1848 and he continued to paint representations of the heroic French army during the Second Empire and maintained his commitment to representing war in an accessible and realistic way. He accompanied the French Army during the Crimean War, producing paintings, including one of the Battle of the Alma. Vernet died in his hometown of Paris in 1863, in Arthur Conan Doyles Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter Holmes claims to be related to Vernet, stating, My ancestors were country squires.
Was the sister of Vernet, the French artist, without further clarifying whether this is Claude Joseph Vernet, Carle Vernet, or Horace Vernet. Harkett and Katie Hornstein, Horace Vernet and the Thresholds of Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture. Dartmouth College Press/University Press of New England Ruutz-Rees, Janet E. Horace Vernet, works by Horace Vernet at Open Library
Tygodnik Ilustrowany was a Polish language weekly magazine published in Warsaw from 1859 to 1939. The magazine focus was on literary and social issues and it is said to have been one of the most important and popular Polish magazines of the period and widely respected. It was particularly popular among the social group. It was the oldest cultural periodical published in Warsaw, the magazine was first published by Józef Unger, it was taken over by the company Gebether i Wolff. Editors included, L. Jenike, J. Wolff, A. Oppman, A. Grzymała-Siedlecki, Z. Dębicki, P. Choynowski, W. Gebethner, J. Gebethner, W. Czarski, in 1909 its circulation was reported to be about 20,000. The magazine commonly published articles on history of Poland and Polish society, including archeological, ethnographic and it published texts on the progress of technology and on voyages and explorations. It serialized some novels, including Orzeszkowas Nad Niemnem, Reymonts Chłopi Żeromskis Popioły, texts published in it are still seen as high quality.
The magazine history ends with the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, among its contributors most prominent were Polish literary figures such as Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Bolesław Prus and Nobel Prize winner Henry Sienkiewicz. Others included, T. Boy-Żeleński, Władysław Skoczylas, W. Sabowski, J. Zachariasiewicz, Z. Miłkowski, P. Chmielewski, W. Bogusławski, M. Gawalewicz, J. Wieniawski. It is credited with popularizing woodcut illustrations in Poland, publishing works by such as Wojciech Gerson, Henryk Pillati, Franciszek Kostrzewski. Digitally scanned library of the magazine Another collection
Juliusz Fortunat Kossak was a Polish historical painter and master illustrator who specialized in battle scenes, military portraits and horses. He was the progenitor of a family that spanned four generations, father of painter Wojciech Kossak. Juliusz Kossak grew up in Lwów during the partitions of Poland. He obtained a degree in law at the Lwów University encouraged by his mother, at the same time he studied painting with Jan Maszkowski and Piotr Michałowski. Beginning in 1844 Kossak worked on commissions for the aristocracy in Małopolska, Podolia. He married Zofia Gałczyńska in 1855 and together left for Paris where they spent five years. His sons were there, the twin brothers and Tadeusz. The family came to Warsaw in 1860 where Kossak obtained a position as the head illustrator and they moved to Munich for a year and in 1868 settled in Kraków blessed with five children already. Kossak bought an estate there, known as Kossakówka, famed for artistic and literary salon frequented by Adam Asnyk, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Stanisław Witkiewicz, Józef Chełmoński.
Juliusz Kossak lived and worked till the end of his life. In 1880 he was awarded the Cross of Order of Merit by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria–Hungary for his achievements as an artist. Kossak exhibited his work on Polish soil and abroad since 1854 and his preferred medium was watercolour, both in smaller and larger formats. He was the precursor of a Polish school of battle-scene painting and he was the author of over a dozen panoramic paintings depicting Polish cavalry in battle and on military actions against foreign invaders. Kossak produced a series of portraits in oil for Polish noble families including Fredro, Tyszkiewicz and his rustic and pastoral scenes included horse fairs, country weddings, winter hunting excursions, mythological scenes and horse stables. He produces a series of illustrations of Polish epic literature such as Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz, novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz, works by Wincenty Pol, Jan Chryzostom Pasek and he designed various honorary medals for Kraków foundries.
Maciej Masłowski, Juliusz Kossak, Warsaw 1984, ed. „Auriga” - Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe ISBN 83-221-0294-1
Jan Feliks Piwarski
Jan Feliks Piwarski – was a Polish painter, curator and graphic artist, one of the earliest lithographers in Poland. He came from a family of craftsmen and studied painting with Józef Richter, in 1816, he moved to Warsaw, where he took employment as a clerk for the Komisji Sprawiedliwości. Two years later, he was appointed Curator of the print collection at the University of Warsaw and, shortly after and he would hold both of these positions until the University was closed by the Russian authorities in 1832. In 1819, he travelled to Vienna as an advisor for the Komisji Wyznań Religijnych i Oświecenia Publicznego, while there, he studied graphic techniques at the Imperial print collection with Adam von Bartsch. After returning, he worked to enlarge and organize the Universitys collection and wrote articles on art. From 1820 to 1830, he worked with the Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk as artistic director for their Monumenta Regnum Poloniae Cracoviensis, together with Seweryn Oleszczyński, he worked to promote a new lithographic technology, the zincograph.
In 1825, he took a trip to Berlin and Dresden to study new methods of museum curating, during the next decade, he wrote several works on art and art education, including Wzory i nauka rysunków, published in 1840 and reprinted several times. He taught at an academy for young ladies and an art school operated by Aleksander Kokular. Later, he took a role in helping to establish the Szkoła Sztuk Pięknych in Warsaw. When it opened in 1844, he was given the chair of drawing and landscape painting and he is credited with introducing the practice of painting en plein aire. His oil paintings were largely composed of landscapes and genre scenes, among his best-known students were Wojciech Gerson, Franciszek Kostrzewski, Henryk Pillati, Józef Simmler and Józef Szermentowski. His son, was a well-known miniaturist, teresa Sulerzyska, Elżbieta Budzińska, Jadwiga Trenklerówna, Jan Feliks Piwarski. 1794-1859, Volume 4 of Prace Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej w Warszawie, University of Warsaw,1961 Media related to Jan Feliks Piwarski at Wikimedia Commons