Kjell Magne Bondevik
Kjell Magne Bondevik is a Norwegian Lutheran minister and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Norway from 1997 to 2000, from 2001 to 2005, making him Norway's longest serving non-Labour Party Prime Minister since World War II, he is President of the Oslo Centre for Peace and Human Rights. On 31 October 2006, he published his memoir, called Et liv i spenning. On 31 January 2017, he was the first high-ranking politician from another country detained and questioned in the United States as a result of President Donald Trump's executive orders banning immigration from seven predominantly Muslim nations, because of a diplomatic visit to Iran he had made in 2014. Bondevik was born in Molde, the son of Johannes Bondevik, a principal at the Christian folk high school Rauma folkehøyskole, a local politician for the Christian Democratic Party, Margit, née Hæreid, he became a theological candidate from MF Norwegian School of Theology in 1975. In 1979 he was ordained as pastor in the Church of Norway.
He has three children: Bjørn, Hildegunn and John Harald. Kjell Magne Bondevik is the nephew of politician Kjell Bondevik, the cousin of former bishop Odd Bondevik and brother in law of author and priest Eyvind Skeie. In 2008, Bondevik said that he regards himself as a "68'er", that he was "influenced by the radical wind of the time". While he remained in the movement of Young Christian Democrats, he claims to have "radicalized the organization to great despair in the party", he has said that he would rather have "oriented" himself towards the Socialist People's Party, had his radicalization of the Christian Democratic Party not gone through. Representing the Christian Democratic Party, Bondevik was a member of the Storting from 1973 to 2005, he was his party's parliamentary leader in the periods of 1981–1983, 1986–1989, 1993–1997, 1997, 2000–2001, party leader from 1983 to 1995. In this position, he was succeeded by Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs in Jan P. Syse's government of 1989–1990, Minister of Church and Education in Kåre Willoch's government 1983–1986 Prime Minister Willoch's deputy 1985–1986, state secretary at the Office of the Prime Minister during Lars Korvald's government 1972–1973.
Bondevik's first term as Prime Minister lasted from 17 October 1997 to 3 March 2000, in a coalition cabinet consisting of the Christian Democratic Party, the Centre Party and the Liberal Party. While serving his first term as Prime Minister, Bondevik attracted international attention in August 1998 when he announced that he was suffering from depressive episode, becoming the highest ranking world leader to admit to suffering from a mental illness while in office. Upon this revelation, Anne Enger Lahnstein became acting Prime Minister for three weeks, from 30 August to 23 September, while he recovered from the depressive episode. Bondevik returned to office. Bondevik received thousands of supportive letters, said that the experience had been positive overall, both for himself and because it made mental illness more publicly acceptable. Bondevik's first cabinet was defeated by a motion of no confidence in March 2000 as a result of a dispute over the construction of gas-fired power stations and was replaced by a Labour Party government led by Jens Stoltenberg until their defeat in the 2001 parliamentary election.
Bondevik formed his second cabinet, consisting of the Christian Democratic Party, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party, which took office on 19 October 2001. The second Bondevik government left a booming economy. Bondevik announced his retirement from national-level politics at the end of his term as prime minister, did not seek re-election for his seat in parliament; the Oslo Centre for Peace and Human Rights was founded by Kjell Magne Bondevik in January 2006. The purpose of the centre is to work for world peace, human rights and inter-religious tolerance worldwide; the centre cooperates with the Carter Center in Atlanta, the Kim Dae Jung Library in Seoul and the Crisis Management Initiative in Helsinki. Bondevik was awarded the Grand Cross of St. Olav in 2004, the first sitting Norwegian Prime Minister to receive the Order of St. Olav in 80 years; the award happened due to a change in the Statutes of the Order with automatic awards to the Prime Minister and Ministers of the Government that stirred some debate and criticism.
With the succeeding Stoltenberg Government, the practice was halted. He is a full member of the Club de Madrid, a group of former leaders of democratic states that works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership. Kjell Magne Bondevik is an Honorary Member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. In 2009, Bondevik was awarded an honorary degree from the University of San Francisco; the Oslo Centre for Peace and Human Rights The Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav
Labour Party (Norway)
The Labour Party the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It was the senior partner of the governing Red-Green Coalition from 2005 to 2013, its leader, Jens Stoltenberg, was Prime Minister of Norway during that time; the party is led by Jonas Gahr Støre. The Labour Party is committed to social-democratic ideals, its slogan since the 1930s has been "everyone shall take part", the party traditionally seeks a strong welfare state, funded through taxes and duties. Since the 1980s, the party has included more of the principles of a social market economy in its policy, allowing for privatization of government-held assets and services and reducing income tax progressivity, following the wave of economic liberalization in the 1980s. During the first Stoltenberg government, the party's policies were inspired by Tony Blair's New Labour and saw the most widespread privatization by any Norwegian government to that date; the party has been described as neoliberal since the 1980s, both by political scientists and opponents on the left.
The Labour Party profiles itself as a progressive party that subscribes to cooperation on a national as well as international level. Its youth wing is the Workers' Youth League; the party is a member of the Party of Progressive Alliance. The Labour Party has always been a strong supporter of Norway's NATO membership and has supported Norwegian membership in the European Union during two referendums. During the Cold War, when the party was in government most of the time, the party aligned Norway with the United States at the international level and followed an anti-communist policy at the domestic level, in the aftermath of the 1948 Kråkerøy speech and culminating in Norway being a founding member of NATO in 1949. Founded in 1887, the party increased in support until it became the largest party in Norway in 1927, a position it has held since; this year saw the consolidation of conflicts surrounding the party during the 1920s following its membership in the Comintern from 1919 to 1923. It formed its first government in 1928, has led the government for all but 16 years since 1935.
From 1945 to 1961, the party had an absolute majority in the Norwegian parliament, the only time this has happened in Norwegian history. The domination by the Labour Party, during the 1960s and early 1970s, was broken by competition from the left from the Socialist People's Party. From the end of the 1970s however, the party started to lose voters to the right, leading to a turn to the right for the party under Gro Harlem Brundtland during the 1980s. In 2001 the party achieved its worst electoral results since 1924. Between 2005 and 2013, Labour returned to power after committing to a coalition agreement with other parties in order to form a majority government. Since losing nine seats in the 2013 election, Labour has been in opposition; the party lost a further six seats in the 2017 election, yielding the second lowest number of seats Labour has held since 1924. The party was founded in 1887 in Arendal and first ran in elections to the Parliament of Norway in 1894, it entered Parliament in 1904 after the 1903 election, increased its vote until 1927, when it became the largest party in Norway.
The party were members of Comintern, a Communist organisation, between 1918 and 1923. From the establishment of Vort Arbeide in 1884, the party had a growing and notable organisation of newspapers and other press outlets; the party press system resulted in Norsk Arbeiderpresse. In January 1913 the party had 24 newspapers, 6 more newspapers were founded in 1913; the party had the periodical Det 20de Aarhundre. In 1920 the party had 6 semi-affiliated newspapers; the party had its own publishing house, Det norske Arbeiderpartis forlag, succeeded by Tiden Norsk Forlag. In addition to books and pamphlets, Det norske Arbeiderpartis forlag published Maidagen, Arbeidets Jul and Arbeiderkalenderen. From its roots as a radical alternative to the political establishment, the party grew to its current dominance through several eras: The party experienced a split in 1921 caused by a decision made two years earlier to join the Communist International, the Social Democratic Labour Party of Norway was formed.
In 1923 the party left the Communist International, while a significant minority of its members left the party to form the Communist Party of Norway. In 1927, the Social Democrats were reunited with Labour; some Communists joined Labour, whereas other Communists tried a failed merger endeavor which culminated in the formation of the Arbeiderklassens Samlingsparti. In 1928, Christopher Hornsrud formed Labour's first government. During the early 1930s Labour set a reformist course. Labour returned to government in 1935 and remained in power until 1965. During most of the first twenty years after World War II, Einar Gerhardsen led the party and the country, he is referred to as "Landsfaderen", is considered one of the main architects of the rebuilding of Norway after World War II. This is considered the "golden age" of the Norwegian Labour Party; the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1938 and 1940. In 1958 two Workers' Youth League members contacted MPs of the Labour Party, to have MPs sign a petition, as a part of what is known as the Easter Uprising of
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning and financing. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager manages the job, a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it; those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, budgeting, construction-site safety and transportation of building materials, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding. Large construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects. Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations, comes from Latin constructio and Old French construction.
To construct is the verb: the act of building, the noun construction: how a building was built, the nature of its structure. In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings and industrial. Building construction is further divided into residential and non-residential. Infrastructure is called heavy civil or heavy engineering that includes large public works, bridges, railways, water or wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation and manufacturing plants. There are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets. Engineering News-Record, a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments divided as transportation, buildings, industrial, manufacturing, sewer/waste, hazardous waste and a tenth category for other projects. In their reporting, they used data on transportation, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors.
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building construction and civil engineering construction, specialty trade contractors. There are categories for construction service firms and construction managers. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings; the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. The owner of the property acts as laborer and design team for the entire project. Although building construction projects consist of common elements such as design, financial and legal considerations, projects of varying sizes may reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Commercial building construction is procured or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging. Residential construction practices and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials available in the area dictate the construction materials used. Cost of construction on a per square meter basis for houses can vary based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale and the availability of skilled tradesmen. Residential construction as well as other types of construction can generate waste such that planning is required. According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the 1960s.
The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are: Obtain an engineered soil test of lot where construction is planned. From an engineer or company specializing in soil testing. Develop floor plans and obtain a materials list for estimations Obtain structural engineered plans for foundation and structure. To be completed by either a licensed engineer or architect. To include both a foundation and framing plan. Obtain lot survey Obtain government building approval if necessary If required obtain approval from HOA or ARC Clear the building site Survey to stake out for the foun
Johan Jørgen Holst
Johan Jørgen Holst was a Norwegian politician representing Labour, best known for his involvement with the Oslo Accords. Holst was Minister of Defence from 1987 to 1989 and from 1991 to April 1993, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position he held to his death. During his time in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs he was involved in the process that led to the Oslo Accords, he was admitted to a hospital. He never recovered and died a month later, his wife Marianne Heiberg said that he had worked himself to death with the peace process. In his memory, the city of Gaza created the Holst Park, an activity center for children of Gaza from 6 to 16. Holst was educated at Oslo Cathedral School, where he completed his examen artium in 1956, he completed his mandatory military service at the prestigious Russian language program of the Norwegian Armed Forces. He studied at Columbia College of Columbia University, where he obtained his A. B. and where he was honored him with its John Jay Award for Distinguished Professional Achievement shortly after his death—the first time the prize had been given posthumously.
Through his marriage Mr. Holst was the uncle of Jens Stoltenberg, the prime minister of Norway throughout central parts of the 2000s. Friends of Israel in the Norwegian Labour Movement, planted a forest to his memory in Israel. "Johan Jørgen Holst". Storting. Civilian-Based Defense in a New Era, a short monograph by Holst