Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Russian composer and pianist. He is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Soviet chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but had a complex and difficult relationship with the government, he received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. A polystylist, Shostakovich developed a hybrid voice, combining a variety of different musical techniques into his works, his music is characterized by sharp contrasts, elements of the grotesque, ambivalent tonality. Shostakovich's orchestral works include six concerti, his chamber output includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two piano trios, two pieces for string octet. His solo piano works include two sonatas, an early set of preludes, a set of 24 preludes and fugues. Other works include three operas, several song cycles, a substantial quantity of film music.
Born at Podolskaya street in Saint Petersburg, Shostakovich was the second of three children of Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich and Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina. Shostakovich's paternal grandfather surnamed Szostakowicz, was of Polish Roman Catholic descent, but his immediate forebears came from Siberia. A Polish revolutionary in the January Uprising of 1863–4, Bolesław Szostakowicz would be exiled to Narym in 1866 in the crackdown that followed Dmitri Karakozov's assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II; when his term of exile ended, Szostakowicz decided to remain in Siberia. He became a successful banker in Irkutsk and raised a large family, his son Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich, the composer's father, was born in exile in Narim in 1875 and studied physics and mathematics in Saint Petersburg University, graduating in 1899. He went to work as an engineer under Dmitri Mendeleev at the Bureau of Weights and Measures in Saint Petersburg. In 1903 he married another Siberian transplant to the capital, Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, one of six children born to a Russian Siberian native.
Their son, Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich, displayed significant musical talent after he began piano lessons with his mother at the age of nine. On several occasions he displayed a remarkable ability to remember what his mother had played at the previous lesson, would get "caught in the act" of playing the previous lesson's music while pretending to read different music placed in front of him. In 1918 he wrote a funeral march in memory of two leaders of the Kadet party, murdered by Bolshevik sailors. In 1919, at the age of 13, he was admitted to the Petrograd Conservatory headed by Alexander Glazunov, who monitored Shostakovich's progress and promoted him. Shostakovich studied piano with Leonid Nikolayev after a year in the class of Elena Rozanova, composition with Maximilian Steinberg, counterpoint and fugue with Nikolay Sokolov, with whom he became friends. Shostakovich attended Alexander Ossovsky's music history classes. Steinberg tried to guide Shostakovich on the path of the great Russian composers, but was disappointed to see him'wasting' his talent and imitating Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev.
Shostakovich suffered for his perceived lack of political zeal, failed his exam in Marxist methodology in 1926. His first major musical achievement was the First Symphony, written as his graduation piece at the age of 19; this work brought him to the attention of Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who helped Shostakovich find accommodation and work in Moscow, sent a driver around in "a stylish automobile" to take him to a concert. After graduation, Shostakovich embarked on a dual career as concert pianist and composer, but his dry style of playing was unappreciated, he won an "honorable mention" at the First International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw in 1927. He attributed the disappointment at the competition to suffering from appendicitis and the jury being all-Polish, he had his appendix removed in April 1927. After the competition Shostakovich met the conductor Bruno Walter, so impressed by the composer's First Symphony that he conducted it at its Berlin premiere that year. Leopold Stokowski was impressed and gave the work its U.
S. premiere the following year in Philadelphia and made the work's first recording. Shostakovich concentrated on composition thereafter and soon limited his performances to those of his own works. In 1927 he wrote a patriotic piece with a great pro-Soviet choral finale. Owing to its experimental nature, as with the subsequent Third Symphony, it was not critically acclaimed with the enthusiasm given to the First. 1927 marked the beginning of Shostakovich's relationship with Ivan Sollertinsky, who remained his closest friend until the latter's death in 1944. Sollertinsky introduced the composer to the music of Mahler, which had a strong influence on h
2007 European Figure Skating Championships
The 2007 European Figure Skating Championships was a senior international figure skating competition. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing; the event was held at Torwar Hall in Warsaw, Poland from January 22 through 28. The competition was open to skaters from European ISU member nations who reached the age of 15 before July 1, 2006; the corresponding competition for non-European skaters was the 2007 Four Continents Championships. Based on the results of the 2006 European Championships, each country was allowed between one and three entries per discipline. National associations selected their entries based on their own criteria. In men's singles, Brian Joubert won his second European title. In ladies, Carolina Kostner won her first European title. Sarah Meier became the first Swiss woman to medal at the event since Denise Biellmann in 1981. In pair skating, Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy won their first European title, it was Germany's first gold in the event since 1995 when their coach Ingo Steuer won with Mandy Woetzel.
In ice dancing, Isabel Delobel / Olivier Schoenfelder won their only European title. 2007 European Figure Skating Championships BAD 2007 European Figure Skating Championships at the International Skating Union Figure Skating Today: The Next Wave of Stars by Steve Milton and Gerard Chataigneau
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Secret Garden (duo)
Secret Garden is an Irish-Norwegian band specialized in new instrumental music, led by the duo consisting of Irish violinist and singer Fionnuala Sherry and Norwegian composer and pianist Rolf Løvland. The group has sold over 3 million albums since having won the 1995 Eurovision Song Contest, representing Norway with the composition "Nocturne"; the group won the Eurovision Song Contest for Norway's second time in 1995 with the composition "Nocturne". It was the only time to date that a predominantly instrumental piece has won the Eurovision Song Contest, although a few Norwegian lyrics, written by screenwriter Petter Skavlan, were included to ensure that the entry adhered to the contest's rules. Norwegian singer Gunnhild Tvinnereim sang the song in the Eurovision Song Contest, with Hans Fredrik Jacobsen on penny whistle and Swedish nyckelharpist Åsa Jinder guesting on the occasion, although none of them are regular members of the group. Ten years earlier, Rolf Løvland wrote the song "La det swinge" that secured Norway its first Eurovision Song Contest victory in 1985.
Their success at Eurovision spearheaded the success of their first album Songs from a Secret Garden. It sold a million copies around the world going platinum in Norway and Korea, gold in Ireland, Hong Kong and New Zealand and spending two years in the Billboard new-age charts in 1996 and 1997. Barbra Streisand adapted "Heartstrings" from this album as the song "I've Dreamed of You" on her A Love Like Ours album, she used "Heartstrings" in her wedding to James Brolin. The album White Stones followed in 1997 making the top ten on Billboard New Age charts. Dawn of a New Century, again with lyrics by Norway's Petter Skavlan, in 1999, Dreamcatcher in 2001 and Once in a Red Moon enjoyed success around the world including reaching top ten on the Billboard, their most famous song "You Raise Me Up", performed by Johnny Logan and Brian Kennedy, has been recorded by more than a hundred other artists including Josh Groban, Russell Watson, Sissel Kyrkjebø, Becky Taylor, Celtic Woman, Lena Park, Robert Tremlett, Il Divo and Sergio Dalma.
Secret Garden has released a Dreamcatcher: Best Of album for its tour through Australia and New Zealand in 2004. It reached the top of the Australian New Age charts and the ARIA top 50 album charts, their piece "Adagio", with a cor anglais solo, was used in the Wong Kar-wai film 2046 released in 2004. In 2010, Fionnuala Sherry released her solo debut entitled Songs From Before. In 2015, Secret Garden published a book entitled You Raise Me Up: The Story of Secret Garden co-written by Rolf Løvland with Fionnuala Sherry; the book tells their story of their triumphs as well as the trials and tribulations they endured along two decades. Official webpage Official YouTube channel
Gurgen Vardanjan is an Armenian figure skating coach and former competitor for the Soviet Union. He is the 1983 Grand Prix International St. Gervais silver medalist and a two-time Prague Skate bronze medalist. Vardanjan was born on 18 October 1963 in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, Soviet Union, his sister, Asmik, is a former figure skater, his wife, Jeranjak Ipakjan, is a skating coach and choreographer. Their son, Tigran Vardanjan, was skated for Hungary. Vardanjan lived in Hungary from 1989 until April 2010, when he moved to England. Vardanjan began skating in 1976 at an outdoor rink in Yerevan, his first coach was Elena Slepova. After moving to Moscow, he was coached by Edouard Pliner and by Elena Tchaikovskaya, from 1980 to 1986. Vardanjan returned to Armenia in 1987 and became a coach at the same school where he had started skating, he began working in Hungary in December 1989, teaching at an outdoor rink before relocating to the capital, Budapest. He was based in Budapest until April 2010, when he was appointed Director of Skating at the National Ice Centre in Nottingham, England.
Vardanjan is best known for his work with Júlia Sebestyén, whom he began teaching in late 1989. He has coached Diána Póth, Tamara Dorofejev, Tigran Vardanjan, David Richardson
Miskolc (Hungarian pronunciation: is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 Miskolc is the fourth largest city in Hungary, it is the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary. The name derives from Slavic form of Michael. Miškovec → Miskolc with the same development as Lipovec → Lipólc, Lipóc; the name is associated with the Miskolc clan named after the vice versa. Earliest mentions are que nunc vocatur Miscoucy, de Myschouch, Ponyt de genere Myscouch, in Miscovcy; the city lies at the meeting point of different geographical regions – east from the Bükk mountains, in the valley of the river Sajó and the streams Hejő and Szinva. According to the 2001 Census the city has a total area of 236.68 km2. The ground level slopes gradually; the lowest areas are the banks of the river Sajó, with an altitude of 110–120 m. The area is made up of sedimentary rocks. Between the Avas hill and Diósgyőr lies the hilly area of the Lower Bükk consisting of sandstone, clay, layers of coal, from the tertiary period, volcanic rocks from the Miocene.
The Central Bükk, a sloping mountainous area with an altitude between 400 and 600 m, is situated between Diósgyőr and Lillafüred. The surface was formed by karstic erosions; the highest area, the 600 -- 900 m high Higher Bükk bore. This consists of sea sediments from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, volcanic rocks like diabase and porphyry. Several caves can be found in the area; the city is known for lowest measured temperature in Hungary with −35 °C. Summers are sometimes warm and humid in Miskolc. Daytime temperatures of 20–30 °C or higher are commonplace. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season. Miskolc receives about 120 centimetres of snowfall annually. Days below freezing and nights below −20 °C both occur in the winter; the area has been inhabited since ancient times – archaeological findings date back to the Paleolithic, proving human presence for over 70,000 years. Its first known dwellers were one of the Celt tribes; the area has been occupied by Hungarians since the "Conquest" in the late 9th century.
It was first mentioned by this name around 1210 AD. The Miskóc clan lost their power when King Charles I centralized his power by curbing the power of the oligarchs. Miskolc was elevated to the rank of oppidum in 1365 by King Louis I, he had the castle of the nearby town Diósgyőr transformed into a Gothic fortress. The city developed in a dynamic way, but during the Ottoman occupation of most of Hungary the development of Miskolc was brought to a standstill; the Turks burnt Miskolc in 1544 and the city had to pay heavy taxes until 1687. It was ruled by Ottomans after Battle of Mezőkeresztes in 1596 as part of Eyalet of Egir until 1687, it was during these years. By the end of the 17th century the population of the city was as large as that of Kassa, 13 guilds had been founded. During the war of independence against Habsburg rule in the early 18th century, Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the leader of the Hungarians put his headquarters in Miskolc; the imperial forces sacked and burnt the city in 1707.
Four years half of the population fell victim of a cholera epidemic. Miskolc recovered and another age of prosperity began again. In 1724, Miskolc was chosen to be the city. Many other significant buildings were built in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the city hall, schools such as Lévay József Református Gimnázium és Diákotthon, the synagogue, the theatre; the theatre is regarded as the first stone-built theatre of Hungary, although the first one was built in Kolozsvár. According to the first nationally held census the city had a population of 14,719, 2,414 houses; these years brought prosperity, but the cholera epidemic of 1873 and the flood of 1878 took many lives. Several buildings were destroyed by the flood, but bigger and grander buildings were built in their places. World War I did not affect the city directly, but many people died, either from warfare or from the cholera epidemic, it was occupied by Czechoslovak troops between 1919 after the First World War. After the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost Kassa and Miskolc became the sole regional center of northern Hungary.
This was one of the reasons for the enormous growth of the city during the 1940s. Early in World War II Hungary became an ally of Nazi Germany. Unhappy with the Hungarian government, the Germans troops occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944 and put the anti-semitic Arrow Cross Party in charge of the government. Jews in Miskolc and elsewhere were ordered to wear yellow stars on their clothing. Under the supervision of Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann, "deportations" from Miskolc began on June 11 or 12th, 1944. Over 14,000 Jewish adults and children were sent by cattle car to Auschwitz, where most were gassed on arrival. After the war
2006 Winter Olympics
The 2006 Winter Olympics known as the XX Olympic Winter Games and known as Turin 2006 or Torino 2006, was a winter multi-sport event, held in Turin, Italy from February 10 to 26, 2006. This marked the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games, the first being the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo. Italy hosted the Summer Olympics in 1960 in Rome. Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 Games in June 1999; the official motto of the XX Olympic Winter Games was "Passion lives here". The official logo depicts a stylized profile of the Mole Antonelliana building, drawn in white and blue ice crystals, signifying the snow and the sky; the crystal web was meant to portray the web of new technologies and the Olympic spirit of community. The Olympic mascots of the Games were Neve, a female snowball, Gliz, a male ice cube. Turin was chosen as the host of the Olympics on June 19, 1999, at the 109th IOC Session in Seoul, South Korea; this was after the IOC had adopted new election procedures during the 108th Extraordinary IOC Session in light of the controversies surrounding the votes for the 1998 and 2002 Winter Olympics.
Since IOC members were forbidden from visiting the candidate cities, the 109th IOC Session elected a special body, the Selection College, to choose finalist cities from the pool of candidate cities after each had made their final presentations to the full IOC Session. The full IOC Session voted on the cities chosen as finalist cities by the Selection College. Although six cities launched candidacies and made presentations to the full IOC Session, the Selection College chose only two cities to go forward to be voted upon by the full IOC Session: Sion and Turin; the candidacies of Helsinki, Finland. The selection of Turin over Sion came as a surprise, since Sion was the overwhelming favorite in part because the IOC is based in Switzerland. Turin's selection came two years after Rome's unsuccessful 2004 Summer Olympics bid; those games were awarded to Athens, Greece. The information below comes from the International Olympic Committee Vote History web page; the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Torino 2006 Winter Olympics at USD 4.4 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 80% in real terms.
This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games; the cost and cost overrun for Torino 2006 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.
The 2006 Winter Olympics featured 84 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Events that made their Olympic debut in Turin included mass start biathlon, team sprint cross-country skiing, snowboard cross and team pursuit speed skating. Most of the cross-country skiing events at these Games involved different distances from those at the previous Winter Games in 2002; the classical men's 50 km and women's 30 km distances, which were held at Salt Lake 2002, were not included in these Games, as these events were alternated with freestyle events of the same distances. The following list shows the disciplines that were contested at the 2006 Games. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. All dates are in Central European Time The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. Host country To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title. Stefania Belmondo, a 10-time Olympic medalist in cross-country skiing, lit the Olympic Flame during the opening ceremony on February 10.
Before that, the ceremony celebrated the best of Italy and Sport including a segment honoring the Alps. The FilmMaster Group K-events created and produced the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the XX Winter Olympic Games in Turin in 2006. Executive Producer Marco Balich, Content Supervisor Alfredo Accatino, Art Direction Lida Castelli. Monica Maimone of Studio Festi directed the section From Renaissance To Baroque, part of the Opening Ceremony; the first gold medal of the 2006 Games was awarded in the 20 kilometre biathlon, won by German Michael Greis on the first day of competition. Ice hockey began with the women's competition. On February 12, Latvia won its first winter Olympic medal when Mārtiņš Rubenis took the bronze in the men's luge. Armin Zöggeler's win in that event gave Italy its first gold medal of the Games, his fourth in a row. Chinese figure skating pair Zhang Dan and Zhang Hao, trailing a