click links in text for more info


Jāti is a group of clans, tribes and sub-communities, religions in India. Each Jāti has an association with a traditional job function or tribe. Religious beliefs or linguistic groupings may define some Jātis. A person's surname reflects a community association: thus Gandhi = perfume seller, Dhobi = washerman, Srivastava = military scribe, etc. Professor Madhav Gadgil has described Jātis as self-governing, closed communities, based on his research in rural Maharashtra: Indian society is today an agglomeration of numerous castes and religious communities; the tribal and caste groups are endogamous, reproductively isolated populations traditionally distributed over a restricted geographical range. The different caste populations, unlike tribes, have extensive geographical overlap and members of several castes constitute the complex village society. In such a village society, each caste, traditionally self regulated by a caste council, used to lead a autonomous existence; each caste used to pursue a hereditarily prescribed occupation.

The several castes were linked to each other through a traditionally determined barter of services and produce. These caste groups retained their identity after conversion to Islam or Christianity; each of the caste groups was thus the unit within which cultural and genetic evolution occurred, at least for the last 1500 years when the system was crystallized and much longer. Over this period the various castes had come to exhibit striking differences in cultural traits like skills possessed, food habits, language, religious observances as well as in a number of genetic traits. Under the Jāti system, a person is born into a Jāti with ascribed social roles and endogamy, i.e. marriages take place only within that Jāti. The Jāti provides identity and status and has been open to change based on economic and political influences. In the course of Indian history, various economic and social factors have led to a continuous closing and churning in the prevailing social ranks which tended to become traditional, hereditary system of social structuring.

This system of thousands of exclusive, endogamous groups, is called Jāti. Though there were several variations across the breadth of India, the Jāti was the effective community within which one married and spent most of one's personal life, it was the community which provided support in difficult times, in old age and in the resolution of disputes. It was thus the community which one sought to promote. From 1901 onwards, for the purposes of the Decennial Census, the British classified all Jātis into one or the other of the varna social-status related categories as described in Brahminical literature. Herbert Hope Risley, the Census Commissioner, noted that "The principle suggested as a basis was that of classification by social precedence as recognized by native public opinion at the present day, manifesting itself in the facts that particular castes are supposed to be the modern representatives of one or other of the castes of the theoretical Indian system."This deliberately ignored the fact that there are innumerable Jātis that straddled two or more Varnas, based on their occupations.

As a community in south India commented, "We are soldiers and saddle makers too" - but it was the enumerators who decided their caste. Since pre-historic times, Indian society had a complex, inter-dependent, cooperative political economy. One well known text, the Laws of Manu, c. 200, codified the social relations between communities from the perspective of the Varna castes. Although this book was unknown during the Islamic period, it gained prominence when the British administrators and Western scholars used it to gain an understanding of traditional Hindu law in India and translated it into English. Crispin Bates noted in 1995 that In India, anthropologists now more speak of'sub-castes' or Jatis, as the building blocks of society. However, unless there is a strong element of political control or territoriality associated with such groups these too tend to disintegrate upon closer inspection as soon as exogamous practices such as hypergamy are taken into account. Needless to say, all such endogamous groupings are irrelevant when talking about modern India, where large-scale migrations are commonplace, where economic and social change is radically re-shaping society, where marriage taboos are being overthrown at an accelerating rate.

All Jātis across the spectrum, from the so-called upper castes to the lowest of castes, including the so-called Untouchables, a group nomenclature after the next census, tended to avoid intermarriage, sharing of food and drinks, or close social interaction with a Jāti other than their own. The Jātis did not see themselves as inferior to the others. If at all, it was the other way round and many had folk narratives, traditions and legends to bolster their sense of identity and cultural uniqueness. For instance, the Yadavs, a prominent backward class believe that "Even in the Vedic age the Yadavs were upholders of the Republican ideals of government.... The Mahabharata furnishes interesting details regarding the functioning of the republic form of government among the Yadavs.... It is now an agreed fact that Sri Krishna, the central figure of the epic narratives tried to defend the republican ideas against the imperialistic movement led by Jara


KBLF is an American radio station based in Red Bluff, California. It is owned by Huth Broadcasting of Marysville and Cal Hunter serves as the station's managing partner, general manager, main on-air talent, morning personality. KBLF is an America's Best Music and CBS News affiliate. KBLF first signed on the air in 1946. In 1962, their transmitter was relocated to gravel beds just north of the Sacramento River. KBLF and KRAC remain as Tehama County's ONLY AM radio stations. Cal Hunter, general manager and main on-air talent of KBLF, is a 40-year veteran television and Radio broadcaster; as a journalist, he has interviewed many business leaders and presidents. For his news management he was nominated for three Northern California Emmy Awards, he has provided play-by-play for the Feather River College Golden Eagles, based in Quincy and is best remembered as the former news director and anchor of ABC affiliate, KRCR-TV Channel 7 in Redding, California. He is joined with former Red Bluff Mayor Earl Wintle, conservative columnist Don Polson, owner of Trophy Traditions and West Valley High School head baseball coach and teacher Paul Vietti, for the KBLF Morning Show on weekday mornings.

He is joined in the mornings with local mortgage broker Bob Martin for "Cal and Bob in the Morning". Several well-known radio figures spent the early part of their careers at KBLF, including San Francisco radio veteran Carter B. Smith, Los Angeles radio personality Jeff Serr. KBLF is the official flagship station for Red Bluff High School Spartan football with Cal Hunter and John Gentry providing the commentary. 1490 AM at one time aired Spartans basketball play-by-play with the late Lance Fellman on the call. KBLF Facebook KBLF website FCC History Cards for KBLF Huth Broadcasting website Query the FCC's AM station database for KBLF Radio-Locator Information on KBLF Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KBLFQuery the FCC's FM station database for K284CL Radio-Locator information on K284CL


Supergold was an oldies radio sustaining service operated by the Telstar Satellite Music Network and by Chiltern Radio Group in the United Kingdom. Devised by entrepreneur and DJ Graham Kentsley, it was one of Europe's first satellite delivered radio stations, receiving a Satellite Television Technology International award for satellite communication innovation; the Supergold oldies radio format was a creation of Mike Harvey the US Disk Jockey in the mid 80's. Mike could to be heard on weekday mornings on WEBG-FM 100.3 and on Saturday nights coast to coast in the US as the host of "SuperGold". In 2017 Harvey still has two syndicated programs broadcast in the US; the nightly Mike Harvey Show and SuperGold Weekend. The format was acquired from Transtar Radio by the "Satellite Music Network" of Dallas, Texas USA - Supergold became one of SMN's many radio formats. In 1987 Graham Kentsley a young entertainment music and media entrepreneur and satellite communication expert from St Albans UK. Decided that with the launch of several new European satellites there was now a need for a Pan European satellite sustaining radio service and set about with his brother Steven Kentsley in launching the Telstar Satellite Music Network.

Kentsley being a music and radio enthusiast had installed the first Satellite TV/Radio system in any licensed premises. In 1987 Kentsley visited the studios of the SMN in Dallas and reached an agreement with SMN to take the "Supergold" format to Europe on a trial basis. Supergold was launched in the UK in November 1988 from the EAP studios in Frinton Essex UK and broadcast on the Intelsat Satellite 27.5 heard between the hours of 11 pm and 6 am UK time. "Supergold" was put off the air for a whole night on one occasion when a cow chewed the ISDN line somewhere outside Clacton in Rural Essex UK. TSMN offered the remaining daytime broadcast time for Satellite audio distribution and a private radio user group a European first. TSMN was planning a second radio format "Country" Gold - This was a European first. On the first night on air, Supergold was opened by CEO Graham Kentsley, followed by the first show presented by Tony Gillham the programme director. Telstar by the Tornados was the stations signature tune.

Supergold used an innovative sub-audio tone switching system to allow local stations on the network to opp in and out of the program's the system was developed by Graham Kentsley and his brother technical director Steven Kentsley - to the listener it sounded as if they were listening to their own local radio station during this overnight period allowing affiliates to cut their operating costs. Supergold broadcast its experimental service for approx 6 months signing up several European affiliates including stations in Spain, the Channel Islands /France Contact 94 - Gibraltar and Vienna in Austria; however it became clear to Kentsley and to the TSMN management that they would not be able to reach the critical mass of radio affiliates required to make the station commercially viable after this initial trial period. Kentsley discussed the position with another St Albans UK resident Peter Burton Chairman of the local radio group Chiltern Radio and the SuperGold format moved homes from the TSMN to the Chiltern Radio group.

Tony Gilliam went on to work for the New Supergold format. Kentsley tendered without success for the St Albans Local radio franchise along with Verulam radio and Chiltern Radio. Tony Gillham was again the proposed programme director for StAR FM. Tony Gillham is now with the community radio stations Black Cat BBC Radio Jersey; the St Albans radio franchise was awarded by the Radio Authority to the largest commercial radio operator in the area Chiltern Radio. The Chiltern Radio Supergold service was launched at 10 am on Sunday 24 June 1990, following requests from the Radio Authority for radio stations to split frequencies into separate AM and FM services or lose them; the first presenters heard were Colin Wilsher. It was broadcast from Studio 1 at the Studio HQ in Dunstable and was first heard on Chiltern Radio's 792 kHz AM, 828 kHz AM transmitters and Northants Radio's 1557 kHz AM transmitter. Chiltern acquired Gloucestershire's Severn Sound in 1989 and this led to the rebranding of their 774 kHz AM service as Severn Sound Supergold in 1992.

Elsewhere, Coast AM, Invicta FM's medium wave AOR/soft rock station, was renamed Coast Classics and began playing more'oldies'. By 1990 it became a fledged'Golden Oldies' station and in 1991 it started taking the SuperGold service on its 1242 kHz and 603 kHz AM frequencies; as a result, the station was renamed Invicta Supergold. However, just before this change took place, for most of Summer 1991, presenters referred to the station Coast Classics Invicta Supergold on air, to allow listeners to get used to the change, it achieved a 17% reach in a JICRAR survey. Radio Maldwyn in Mid Wales, western Shropshire, north western Herefordshire took Supergold as a sustaining service overnight; the original wee

Norman Bel Geddes

Norman Bel Geddes was an American theatrical and industrial designer. Bel Geddes was born Norman Melancton Geddes in Adrian and raised in New Philadelphia, the son of Flora Luelle and Clifton Terry Geddes, a stockbroker; when he married Helen Belle Schneider in 1916, they combined their names to Bel Geddes. Their daughters were writer Joan Ulanov. Bel Geddes began his career with set designs for Aline Barnsdall's Los Angeles Little Theater in the 1916–17 season in 1918 as the scene designer for the Metropolitan Opera in New York, he designed and directed various theatrical works, from Arabesque and The Five O'Clock Girl on Broadway to an ice show, It Happened on Ice, produced by Sonja Henie. He created set designs for the film Feet of Clay, directed by Cecil B. DeMille, designed costumes for Max Reinhardt, created the sets for the Broadway production of Sidney Kingsley's Dead End. Bel Geddes opened an industrial-design studio in 1927, designed a wide range of commercial products, from cocktail shakers to commemorative medallions to radio cabinets.

His designs extended to unrealized futuristic concepts: a teardrop-shaped automobile, an Art Deco House of Tomorrow. In 1929, he designed "Airliner Number 4," a 9-deck amphibian airliner that incorporated areas for deck-games, an orchestra, a gymnasium, a solarium, two airplane hangars, his book Horizons had a significant impact: "By popularizing streamlining when only a few engineers were considering its functional use, he made possible the design style of the thirties." He wrote forward-looking articles for popular American periodicals. In the classic science fiction film of H. G. Wells' Things to Come, he assisted production designer William Cameron Menzies on the look of the world of tomorrow. Bel Geddes designed the General Motors Pavilion, known as Futurama, for the 1939 New York World's Fair. For that famous and enormously influential installation, Bel Geddes exploited his earlier work in the same vein: he had designed a "Metropolis City of 1960" in 1936. Bel Geddes's book Magic Motorways promoted advances in highway design and transportation, foreshadowing the Interstate Highway System, along with aspects of driver assist and autonomous driving.

The case for the Mark I computer was designed by Norman Bel Geddes. IBM's Thomas Watson presented it to Harvard. At the time, some saw it as a waste of resources, since computing power was in high demand during this part of World War II and those funds could have been used to build additional equipment. Bel Geddes died in New York on May 8, 1958, his autobiography, Miracle in the Evening, was published posthumously in 1960. Bel Geddes is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame, a distinction he shares with his daughter, actress Barbara Bel Geddes; the United States Postal Service issued a postage stamp honoring Bel Geddes as a "Pioneer Of American Industrial Design". The archive of Norman Bel Geddes is held by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin; this large collection includes models, watercolor designs, research notes, project proposals, correspondence. The Ransom Center holds the papers of Bel Geddes' wife, the noted costume designer and producer Edith Lutyens Bel Geddes.

Horizons Little Brown, Boston, 1932. "Streamlining", Atlantic Monthly, No. 154, pp. 553–558. Magic Motorways. Random House, New York, 1940. Miracle in the Evening: An Autobiography. Doubleday, New York, 1960. Edited by William Kelley. Texaco Doodlebug Norman Bel Geddes Collection at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin To New Horizons, film about Geddes' display at the 1939/40 World's Fair

C10k problem

The C10k problem is the problem of optimising network sockets to handle a large number of clients at the same time. The name C10k is a numeronym for concurrently handling ten thousand connections. Note that concurrent connections are not the same as requests per second, though they are similar: handling many requests per second requires high throughput, while high number of concurrent connections requires efficient scheduling of connections. In other words, handling many requests per second is concerned with the speed of handling requests, whereas a system capable of handling a high number of concurrent connections does not have to be a fast system, only one where each request will deterministically return a response within a finite amount of time; the problem of socket server optimisation has been studied because a number of factors must be considered to allow a web server to support many clients. This can involve a combination of web server software limitations. According to the scope of services to be made available and the capabilities of the operating system as well as hardware considerations such as multi-processing capabilities, a multi-threading model or a single threading model can be preferred.

Concurrently with this aspect, which involves considerations regarding memory management, strategies implied relate to the diverse aspects of the I/O management. The term was coined in 1999 by Dan Kegel, citing the Simtel FTP host,, serving 10,000 clients at once over 1 gigabit per second Ethernet in that year. The term has since been used for the general issue of large number of clients, with similar numeronyms for larger number of connections, most "C10M" in the 2010s. By the early 2010s millions of connections on a single commodity 1U server became possible: over 2 million connections, 10–12 million connections Common applications of high number of connections include pub/sub servers, file servers, web servers, software-defined networking. Nginx was created to solve the C10k problem. Load balancing Event-driven architecture Event-driven programming Reactor pattern

12 cm felthaubits/m32

The 12 cm felthaubits/m32 was a howitzer used by Norway in World War II. Captured guns were given a German designation after the Invasion of Norway as the 12 cm leFH 376. Two batteries of Artillerie-Abteilung 477, which served in Finland during the war, were equipped with 12 cm Norwegian howitzers, which might included these guns. Eight were built during the 1930s to replace the obsolescent Rheinmetall 12 cm leFH 08, known in Norwegian service as the 12 cm felthaubits/m08, they served with the single heavy artillery battalion of the Norwegian Army in 1940, but were unable to get ammunition during the campaign and were evacuated into Sweden, according to one source. It was equipped with rubber-rimmed steel wheels for motorized towing. Gander and Chamberlain, Peter. Weapons of the Third Reich: An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday, 1979 ISBN 0-385-15090-3 Chamberlain, Peter & Gander, Terry. Heavy Artillery. New York: Arco, 1975 ISBN 0-668-03898-5 Norwegian artillery on Norway 1940 Independent Artillery Units on Panzerkeil