There are two types of clothing that the Japanese wear: the Japanese clothing, such as kimonos, Western clothing. Japanese traditional fashion combines multiple styles, it represents the culture's visible artistic and traditional values and joins them together to create a form of fashion recognizable to foreign cultures. The most well known form of Japanese traditional fashion is the kimono, but other types include the yukata and the hakama; the different styles have been produced and transformed by artists well known in Japan, including fashion designers Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, Rei Kawakubo. Their works have influenced numerous designers outside of the country that showcase their designs in fashion shows exposed internationally. From the intricate patterns to the layers of fabric, the essence of beauty, found in traditional wear has influenced the modern fashion, immersed in Japan's community on a daily basis, specially found in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Although the traditional wear for Japan became popularized during the Heian period and was worn casually at the time, it is now rare to find people doing so due to the difficult process associated with the wardrobe.
Each type of garment corresponds to a special occasion, such as ceremonies, or weddings. The materials and layers used for the clothing differentiate them and their significance, as the looks are often worn seasonally; the clothing that embodies the culture represents Japan's traditional values that remain in their community to this day. As it became popular in the Western world, there has been controversy regarding cultural appropriation with the costumes of the culture the "Kimono Wednesday" event held at the Boston Museum of Arts. Traditional garments are now worn for ceremonies and special events. In more recent years, western clothing is worn in day-to-day life. Social segregation of clothing was noticeable in the Nara period, through the division of upper and lower class. Women of higher social status wore clothing that covered the majority of their body, or as Svitlana Rybalko states, "the higher the status, the less was open to other people's eyes". For example, the full-length robes would cover most from the collarbone to the feet, the sleeves were to be long enough to hide their fingertips, fans were carried to protect them from speculative looks.
When the Heian period began, the concept of the hidden body remained, with ideologies suggesting that the clothes served as "protection from the evil spirits and outward manifestation of a social rank". This proposed the held belief that those of lower ranking, who were perceived to be of less clothing due to their casual performance of manual labor, were not protected in the way that the upper class were in that time period; this was the period in which Japanese traditional clothing became introduced to the Western world. As time passed, new approaches to the costume were brought up, but the original mindset of a covered body lingered; the new trend of tattoos competed with the social concept of hidden skin and led to differences in opinion among the Japanese community and their social values. The dress code, once followed on a daily basis reconstructed into a festive and occasional trend. In Japan, modern fashion history might be conceived as the gradual westernization of Japanese clothes.
The woolen and worsted industries were a product of Japan's re-established contact with the West in the 1850s and 1860s. Before the 1860s, Japanese clothing consisted of a great variety of kimono; these first appeared with no distinction between male and female. After Japan opened up for trading with the outside world, other clothing options started to come in; the first Japanese to adopt western clothing were officers and men of some units of the shōgun's army and navy. Sometime in the 1850s these men adopted woolen uniforms worn by English marines stationed at Yokohama. To produce them domestically was not easy, cloth had to be imported; the most significant of this early adoption of Western styles was its public origin. For quite a while, the public sector remained as major champion of the new garb; the style only grew from there. Soon and bureaucrats were urged to adopt Western clothing, thought to be more practical; the Ministry of Education ordered that Western-style student uniforms be worn in public colleges and universities.
Businessmen, doctors and other leaders of the new society wore suits to work and at large social functions. Although western-style dress was becoming more popular for workplaces and streets, it was not worn by everybody. Since World War II most areas have been taken over by western clothing. Thus, by the opening of the twentieth century, western dress was a symbol of social dignity and progressiveness. However, the vast majority of Japanese stuck to their fashions, in favor of the more comfortable kimono. Western dress for street wear and Japanese dress at home remained the general rule for a long time. An example of Eastern influence from Japan that spread to the rest of the world is evident in the late 1880s. An ordinary wool blanket was used as a shawl for women, a red blanket was featured in Vogue for winter wear; until the 1930s, the majority of Japanese wore the kimono, Western clothes were still restricted to out-of-home use by certain classes. The Japanese have interpreted western clothing styles from the United States and Europe and made it their own.
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Shitagi, a type of shirt worn by the Samurai class of feudal Japan when they were wearing full armour. The shitagi was the second garment to be put on; the shitagi was like a short kimono with a button at a thin attached waist cord. There are several different types of shitagi; the shitagi would be put on as though it were a kimono, the left hand being put first into its sleeve, the right, the neck would buttoned and the waist cord tied at the back. Anthony Bryant's samurai armor web site
Tomesode is a type of kimono. It is a formal dress worn by married women. There was a custom that the long sleeves of the Furisode were shortened after marriage, thereby creating Tomesode; this was because the long swinging sleeves would be impractical when the married woman worked in the kitchen. The word "Tomesode" itself consists of two kanji meaning "to fasten" and "sleeve" (袖）. Tomesode distinguishes itself from other kimono by only having patterns under the waistline, it has five or sometimes kamon, which indicates the formality of the kimono. Kuro-Tomesode are worn for wedding ceremonies by married female relatives of the bride or groom; the eri and obiage are always white, the obi matches the colourful pattern of the kimono to signify a happy occasion. It is believed that the black colour is to match the clean white colour of the bride, as this kimono is used at other occasions than weddings of near family members. A friend of the bride or groom would not wear Homongi or Iro-tomesode. Iro-Tomesode is similar to Kuro-Tomesode except that the basic colour is not black and is now worn by both married and unmarried women.
It is a semi formal kimono with the only exception. In the events held at the Imperial palace, it is forbidden to wear Kuro-Tomesode as black is considered to be a colour of mourning. Tomesode GoJapanGo Antique kimono flea market
Kyahan are cloth leggings worn by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan. In Japanese the word is used for western soldier's gaiters. Kyahan were worn as padding underneath the samurai greaves; some types of kyahan could be covered with mail armour, these were worn by foot soldiers ashigaru or by samurai as protection. Kyahan were worn by ordinary travelers as protection from cold and underbrush. Kyahan are made of linen, but other materials such as cotton can be employed. Kyahan components depend on the season; when tying kyahan, the inner cords are shorter than the outer ones. This helps prevent discomfort. Suneate Turnbull, Stephen; the Samurai Sourcebook. London: Arms & Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-371-1
Fundoshi is the traditional Japanese undergarment for adult males, made from a length of cotton. Before World War II, the fundoshi was the main form of underwear for Japanese adult males; however it fell out of use after the war with the introduction of new underwear to the Japanese market, such as briefs and boxer briefs. Nowadays, the fundoshi is used not as underwear but as festival clothing at Hadaka Matsuri or, sometimes, as swimwear; the fundoshi is first mentioned in the classic Japanese history text the Nihongi. They are depicted on clay figures, haniwa; the fundoshi was the underwear of choice of every Japanese adult male, rich or poor, high or low status, until after the Second World War, when Americanization popularized elasticized underpants. There are several types of fundoshi, including rokushaku, kuroneko and etchū; the fundoshi comes in several basic styles. The most relaxed type consists in a strip of cloth, wound around the hips, secured at the small of the back by knotting or twisting, with the excess brought forward between the legs, tucked through the cloth belt in front to hang as an apron.
The second style, for people who are active, is formed when the cloth is wound around the hips so that there is an excess of apron, brought back again between the legs and twisted around the belt-cloth in back. The rokushaku fundoshi is a length of the dimensions being one shaku wide and six shaku long; the fundoshi is twisted to create a thong effect at the back. It was the standard male bathing suit. Male children learning to swim during the early 1960s were told to wear this kind of fundoshi because a boy in trouble could be lifted out of the water by the back cloth of his fundoshi; the third style, called Etchū fundoshi, which originated in the vicinity of Toyama Prefecture, is a long rectangle of cloth with tapes at one narrow end. Etchū fundoshi is a length of cloth, however it has a strip of material at the waist to form a fastening or string; the dimensions are 14 inches width by about 40 inches length, it is tied with the material strip in front of the body. One ties the tapes around the hips, with the cloth at the small of the back, pulls the cloth between the legs and through the belt, letting the remainder hang as an apron.
Such fundoshi were issued to Japanese troops in World War II, were the sole garb of Allied POWs in tropic areas. The best material for this is white cotton. Silk crepe may be used according to one's taste. In winter it may be lined with similar material. Both ends are hemmed to put cords through. One of the cords forms a loop to suspend the front end from the neck, the other secures the back end by being tied in the front; the length of the fundoshi is about 5 feet. There are many other varieties of fundoshi as there are many variations on the principle of a loincloth. For example, the mokko-fundoshi, is made without a front apron; the kuro-neko fundoshi is like the mokko-fundoshi except that the portion that passes from front to back is tailored to create a thong effect. Men do not however wear fundoshi as everyday clothing; that would be seen as eccentric. Fundoshi are worn on specific, traditional occasions when participating in a Hadaka Matsuri. During February nearly 10,000 men will gather at Saidaiji Temple in Okayama wearing only fundoshi to participate in the festival in hopes of gaining luck for the entire year.
The samurai wore it as underwear combined with a shitagi shirt. Sumo wrestlers wear a form of this garment, mawashi. Fundoshi are worn with a hanten or happi during summer festivals by men who carry mikoshi in Shinto processions. Outside Japan it is best known from the drumming groups Ondekoza and Kodo, who appear dressed in only a white fundoshi and a head band. Fundoshi are sometimes used as traditional swimsuits. In some high schools, boys swim wearing fundoshi; the present Crown Prince of Japan swam in fundoshi in his childhood. In the pools and beaches of Japan, fundoshi-wearing swimmers can be seen. In late 2008 the Japanese firm, began marketing fundoshi for women and have had greater than expected sales; the loincloths for women come in two designs -- plain and chequered. The Japanese idiom fundoshi o shimete kakaru means the same as the English phrase "roll up your sleeves" — in other words, get ready for some hard work; the Japanese idiom tanin no fundoshi means use tools or materials of anyone else.
Loincloth Kaupina Hadaka Matsuri List of Japanese clothing Ondekoza Kodō Mawashi, loincloth worn in sumo wrestling "The Loincloth of Borneo" by Otto Steinmayer—A scholarly article on the wearing of loincloths, with brief mentions of fundoshi. Includes social and cultural connotations, modesty issues, etc. Fundoshi- Japanese Loincloth—the three basic types of fundoshi FUNDOSHI —brief history and types Tying fundoshi: How to tie a Fundoshi—via the Wayback Machine Knotting the Rokusyaku Fundoshi—diagram How to put on a Fundoshi 褌 Japanese loin cloth video—via the Wayback Machine
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
Kanzashi are hair ornaments used in traditional Japanese hairstyles. Some models may have been modified for self-defense. In the English-speaking world, the term "kanzashi" is sometimes applied to the folded cloth flowers that traditionally adorned tsumami kanzashi or to the technique used to make those flowers. Kanzashi were first used in Japan during the Jōmon period. During that time, a single thin rod or stick was considered to have mystical powers which could ward off evil spirits, so people would wear them in their hair; this is when some of the first predecessors of the modern Japanese hair comb began to appear. During the Nara period, a variety of Chinese cultural aspects and items were brought to Japan, including zan and other hair ornaments. During the Heian period, the traditional style of putting hair up was changed to wearing it long, tied back low, it was at this time that kanzashi began to be used as a general term for any hair ornament, including combs and hairpins. During the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the hairstyles changed from the taregami, or long straight hair, to the wider variety of "Japanese hair" which made more use of hair ornaments.
Kanzashi came into wide use during the Edo period, when hairstyles became larger and more complicated, using a larger number of ornaments. Artisans began to produce more finely crafted products, including some hair ornaments that could be used as defensive weapons. During the latter part of the Edo period, the craftsmanship of kanzashi reached a high point, with many styles and designs being created. Nowadays, kanzashi are most worn by brides. However, there is a revival among young Japanese women who wish to add an elegant touch to their business suit. There are many styles of wearing kanzashi; the way a geisha wears her kanzashi indicates her status to an informed audience according to the type and location of the kanzashi. Maiko wear more numerous and elaborate kanzashi than more senior geisha and progress through several hairstyles where the kanzashi must be worn in a fixed pattern. Tsumami kanzashi has been designated as a traditional Japanese handcraft in the Tokyo region since 1982. Traditionally trained professional artisans undergo five to ten years of apprenticeship.
However, the petal-folding technique has become a popular hobby, due to instructional books and lessons from sources such as the Tsumami Kanzashi Museum in Shinjuku. Some students have bypassed the traditional apprenticeship system to establish themselves as independent professional artisans of tsumami kanzashi in Japan. Kanzashi are fabricated from a wide range of materials such as lacquered wood and silver plated metal and silk, plastic. In fact, early bakelite kanzashi are valued as collectibles. There are several basic kanzashi styles that traditionally followed more complex hana and seasonal arrangements. Today these arrangements are only followed by maiko. Bira-bira – called Fluttering or Dangling style, these are composed of metal strips attached by rings to the body of the ornament so that they move independently, pleasantly tinkling. Kogai – A two piece kanzashi made of Bekko or other materials such as ceramics or metals that feature a design on each end. Kogai refers to the shape of two pieces make up this kanzashi.
They are sold as a set with an accompanying kushi comb. Tama – Ball style kanzashi; these prong style kanzashi are decorated with only a simple colored bead on the end. Traditionally a red tama is worn October–May and a green tama is worn June–September. Kushi are comb kanzashi; these are rounded or rectangular combs made of tortoiseshell or lacquered wood that are inlaid with mother of pearl or gilding and placed into a mage. The spine of the comb is wide in order to allow maximum space for a design, in many cases, the design will extend into the teeth. "Flower-combs" called hanagushi, are made by gluing folded pieces of silk to a wooden base comb and are a popular, non-formal alternative. Kanoko Dome – are jeweled accessories crafted with some or all of the following: gold, tortoiseshell, coral and other semi-precious stones. While the general shape is rounded, they are found in other shapes, with flowers and butterflies being the most popular; the kanoko dome is worn at the back of the wareshinobu hairstyle of the junior maiko and has two prongs that hold it securely in the mage.
Ōgi – Also called Princess style, are metal, fan-shaped and kamon-imprinted kanzashi with aluminum streamers held in place by a long pin. These are worn by maiko in the hair just above the temple. New maiko wear two on the day of their debut. Tachibana – Is a kanzashi made with two silver pins, it is worn by maiko with the wareshinobu hairdo. Hirauchi – Ornament with a flat rounded decoration. Maezashi – Also called Bira dome, is an ornament worn over the Bira-bira. Miokuri – Is a Metal strips shaped ornament. Bonten – Round silver ornament with a pink touch. Kanoko – Bright colored fabric tube. Chirimen tegarami – Is a triangular fabric node. With hana kanzashi, the long fluttering flower is characteristic of maiko; these are created from squares of silk by a technique known as tsumami. Each square is folde