Lewis Mumford was an American historian, philosopher of technology, literary critic. Noted for his study of cities and urban architecture, he had a broad career as a writer. Mumford was influenced by the work of Scottish theorist Sir Patrick Geddes and worked with his associate the British sociologist Victor Branford. Mumford was a contemporary and friend of Frank Lloyd Wright, Clarence Stein, Frederic Osborn, Edmund N. Bacon, Vannevar Bush. Mumford was born in Flushing, New York and graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1912, he studied at the City College of New York and The New School for Social Research, but became ill with tuberculosis and never finished his degree. In 1918 he was assigned as a radio electrician, he was discharged in 1919 and became associate editor of The Dial, an influential modernist literary journal. He worked for The New Yorker where he wrote architectural criticism and commentary on urban issues. Mumford's earliest books in the field of literary criticism have had a lasting impact on contemporary American literary criticism.
The Golden Day contributed to a resurgence in scholarly research on the work of 1850s American transcendentalist authors and Herman Melville: A Study of His Life and Vision launched a revival in the study of the work of Herman Melville. Soon after, with the book The Brown Decades, he began to establish himself as an authority in American architecture and urban life, which he interpreted in a social context. In his early writings on urban life, Mumford was optimistic about human abilities and wrote that the human race would use electricity and mass communication to build a better world for all humankind, he would take a more pessimistic stance. His early architectural criticism helped to bring wider public recognition to the work of Henry Hobson Richardson, Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1963, Mumford received the Frank Jewett Mather Award for art criticism from the College Art Association. Mumford received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964. In 1975 Mumford was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
In 1976, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. In 1986, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts, he served as the architectural critic for The New Yorker magazine for over 30 years. His 1961 book, The City in History, received the National Book Award. Lewis Mumford died at the age of 94 at his home in Amenia, New York on January 26, 1990. Nine years it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, his wife Sophia died in 1997, at age 97. In his book The Condition of Man, published in 1944, Mumford characterized his orientation toward the study of humanity as "organic humanism"; the term is an important one because it sets limits on human possibilities, limits that are aligned with the nature of the human body. Mumford never forgot the importance of air quality, of food availability, of the quality of water, or the comfort of spaces, because all these things had to be respected if people were to thrive. Technology and progress could never become a runaway train in his reasoning, so long as organic humanism was there to act as a brake.
Indeed, Mumford considered the human brain from this perspective, characterizing it as hyperactive, a good thing in that it allowed humanity to conquer many of nature's threats, but a bad thing if it were not occupied in ways that stimulated it meaningfully. Mumford's respect for human "nature", to say, the natural characteristics of being human, provided him with a platform from which to assess technologies, technics in general, thus his criticism and counsel with respect to the city and with respect to the implementation of technology was fundamentally organized around the organic humanism to which he ascribed. It was from the perspective of organic humanism that Mumford launched a critical assessment of Marshall McLuhan, who argued that the technology, not the natural environment, would shape the nature of humankind, a possibility that Mumford recognized, but only as a nightmare scenario. Mumford believed that what defined humanity, what set human beings apart from other animals, was not our use of tools but our use of language.
He was convinced that the sharing of information and ideas amongst participants of primitive societies was natural to early humanity, had been the foundation of society as it became more sophisticated and complex. He had hopes for a continuation of this process of information "pooling" in the world as humanity moved into the future. Mumford's choice of the word "technics" throughout his work was deliberate. For Mumford, technology is one part of technics. Using the broader definition of the Greek tekhne, which means not only technology but art and dexterity, technics refers to the interplay of social milieu and technological innovation—the "wishes, ideas, goals" as well as "industrial processes" of a society; as Mumford writes at the beginning of Technics and Civilization, "other civilizations reached a high degree of technical proficiency without being profoundly influenced by the methods and aims of technics." In The Myth of the Machine Vol II: The Pentagon of Power, Mumford criticizes the modern trend of technology, which emphasizes constant, unrestricted expansion and replacement.
He contends that these goals work against technical perfection, social efficiency, overall human satisfaction. Modern technology, which he called "megatechnics", fails to produce lasting, quality products by using devices such as consumer credit, installment buying, non-functi
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the latter called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, he served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada, he referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, where he had spent some time as a miner; the short story brought international attention and was translated into French. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty.
Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—such as the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers, he chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full after he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well, he was lauded as the "greatest humorist this country has produced", William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, the sixth of seven children born to Jane, a native of Kentucky, John Marshall Clemens, a native of Virginia, his parents met when his father moved to Missouri, they were married in 1823. Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent.
Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion and Pamela. His sister Margaret died when Twain was three, his brother Benjamin died three years later, his brother Pleasant Hannibal died at three weeks of age. When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, it became a theme in these writings, his father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851 he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned; when he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union.
He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Pilot was the grandest position of all; the pilot in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, no board to pay. As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain; the pilot had to:...get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents and how to read the river and its shifting channels, submerged snags, rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that floated", it was. Piloting gave him his pen name from "mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, safe water for a steamboat.
As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer A. B. Chambers with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River; the two liked each other, admired one another, maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat Pennsylvania. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat's boiler exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, which inspired his interest in parapsychology. Twain held himself responsible for the rest of his life, he continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curta
La Cienega, New Mexico
La Cienega is a census-designated place in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 3,007 at the 2000 census. La Cienega is located at 35°35′33″N 106°6′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.4 square miles, all land. The South End of the Rockies Historical Marker, marking the southern terminus of the Rocky Mountains, is about three miles west of La Cienega; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,007 people, 1,033 households, 761 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 225.3 people per square mile. There were 1,079 housing units at an average density of 80.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 60.86% White, 0.50% African American, 1.43% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 31.19% from other races, 5.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 70.80% of the population. There were 1,033 households out of which 44.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families.
19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.35. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 4.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,028, the median income for a family was $46,578. Males had a median income of $31,178 versus $30,092 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,329. About 7.2% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.3% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. The name La Cienega refers to an important feature, a cienega that supplies water to El Rancho de las Golondrinas and the Santa Fe River Canyon at the foot of the Caja del Rio.
The cienega itself is managed by the Santa Fe Botanical Garden as the Leonora Curtin Wetland Preserve. La Cienega is an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and has been a focus of recent efforts to create an open space corridor between Santa Fe and the Rio Grande
Jesse B. Jackson
Jesse Benjamin Jackson was a United States consul and an important eyewitness to the Armenian Genocide. He served as consul in Aleppo. Jackson concluded that the policies towards the Armenians were "without doubt a planned scheme to extinguish the Armenian race." He considered the "wartime anti-Armenian measures" to be a "gigantic plundering scheme as well as a final blow to extinguish the race." By September 15, 1915, Jackson estimated that a million Armenians had been killed and deemed his own survival a "miracle". After the Armenian Genocide, Jackson led a relief effort and was credited with saving the lives of "thousands of Armenians." After serving as consul in Aleppo, Jackson served in Canada. He was awarded numerous medals, including the Order of Merit of Lebanon, he died on December 4, 1947, at the age of 76. Jesse Benjamin Jackson was born in Paulding, Ohio, on November 19, 1871, to Andrew Carl Jackson and Lucy Ann Jackson. Jackson attended the local Paulding public schools and served as a quartermaster sergeant in the U.
S. Army during the Spanish–American War. Jackson enrolled as a clerk of the House of Representatives from 1900–01 and was employed in the insurance and real estate business. Jackson was appointed as the American consul at İskenderun on March 15, 1905; this position lasted until 1908 when he became the U. S. consul at Aleppo. As early as November 19, 1912, after four years as consul in Aleppo, Jackson had his staff raise concerns with the foreign embassies in Constantinople that the Turkish government was determined to place the Vilayet of Aleppo under martial law, warning that Muslims, who had abandoned their duties from the army, were engaged in "depredations" in the province, which the Turkish authorities accused the Armenians of carrying out, so that the latter "shall be at the mercy of the Moslems." Jackson requested that the embassies raise the issue with the Ottoman government, so as to prevent massacres against the Armenians "which, under the present strained conditions, would spread like wildfire, engulf Christians of all denominations far and wide."In April 1915, some months after the outbreak of World War I, a copy of a thirty-page "seditious" pamphlet was sent by Jackson to Henry Morgenthau, the U.
S. ambassador in Constantinople. Published and printed in Arabic by the National Society of Defense for the Seat of the Caliphate and entitled "A Universal Proclamation to All the People of Islam", the pamphlet was distributed by the Germans and encouraged every Muslim to free the believers "in the Unity of God" from "the grasp of the infidels." It encouraged Muslims to boycott Armenian businesses: The Muslims labored and toiled wearily and bore hardness of life that they might gain something with which to satisfy their needs, the oppressive conquerors of the Christians subdued them and robbed them of that, in their hands of the means of living. And they spend this booty in the West upon churches and upon the priests and places of shame and iniquity, in short, the Muslims work and the infidels eat, the Muslims are hungry and suffer, the infidels are satiated and live in luxury; the Islamic world sinks down and goes backward, the Christian world progresses and is exalted. And now, O people of Islam, O beloved brothers... rise up, this weakness and this subjection has reached its limit, this humiliation and this belittling has arrived at its end.
By spreading the pamphlet, Jackson believed. He added: "Surely something should be done to prevent the continuation of such propagandas in the future, or one day the result sought will be obtained, it will be disastrous." In April 20, 1915, Jackson relayed to Morgenthau, to the secretary of state, to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, a report prepared by the Reverend John E. Merrill, president of Central Turkey College at Aintab, on the situation in the region stretching from Aintab to Marash and Zeitun; the nine-page document described the similarities between the contemporary situation in the Marash region and that during the previous Hamidian massacre and the Adana massacre of 1909. As during the massacres of 1895–96, it noted, the Turkish government was spreading false rumors that the Armenians in the Marash region were threatening law and order. Jackson claimed that the local officials deceived the Armenians in Zeitun and in nearby Furnus into surrendering their arms in hopes of averting punishment, as during the Adana massacres of 1909, while causing the death of innocent women and children.
He further asserted that the conscription of young male Armenians into the Turkish army was followed by imprisonment and massacres. Merrill believed that the deportation of the Marash region was "a direct blow at American missionary interests, menacing the results of more than fifty years of work and many thousands of dollars of expenditure." By June 5, 1915, Jackson wrote to ambassador Morgenthau that the Ottoman government policy towards Armenians "is without doubt a planned scheme to extinguish the Armenian race." In the same report, he wrote that a large influx of Armenians were pouring into Aleppo from Marash, Adana and other localities. Each group consisted of 300–500 old men and children, as the young and the middle-aged had been ordered into military service, he added that thousands were being "scattered over the desert to starve or die of disease in burning heat". Jackson estimated that more than 25,000 Armenian refugees were in northern Syria and that "in the interior a
PEN International is a worldwide association of writers, founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. The association has autonomous International PEN centers in over 100 countries. Other goals included: to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; the first PEN Club was founded in London in 1921 by Catherine Amy Dawson Scott, with John Galsworthy as its first president. Its first members included Joseph Conrad, Elizabeth Craig, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells. PEN stood for "Poets, Novelists", but now stands for "Poets, Editors, Novelists", includes writers of any form of literature, such as journalists and historians; the club established the following aims: To promote intellectual co-operation and understanding among writers. Past presidents of PEN International have included Alberto Moravia, Heinrich Böll, Arthur Miller, Mario Vargas Llosa, Homero Aridjis, Jiří Gruša and John Ralston Saul.
The current president is Jennifer Clement. PEN International is headquartered in London and composed of autonomous PEN Centres in over 100 countries around the world, each of which are open to writers, translators and others engaged in any branch of literature, regardless of nationality, colour, or religion, it is a non-governmental organization in formal consultative relations with UNESCO and Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The PEN Charter is based on resolutions passed at its International Congresses and may be summarised as follows:Literature knows no frontiers and must remain common currency among people in spite of political or international upheavals. In all circumstances, in time of war, works of art and libraries, the patrimony of humanity at large, should be left untouched by national or political passion. Members of PEN should at all times use what influence they have in favour of good understanding and mutual respect among nations.
PEN stands for the principle of unhampered transmission of thought within each nation and between all nations, members pledge themselves to oppose any form of suppression of freedom of expression in the country and community to which they belong, as well as throughout the world wherever this is possible. PEN opposes arbitrary censorship in time of peace, it believes that the necessary advance of the world toward a more organized political and economic order renders a free criticism of governments and institutions imperative. And since freedom implies voluntary restraint, members pledge themselves to oppose such evils of a free press as mendacious publication, deliberate falsehood, distortion of facts for political and personal ends. PEN International Writers in Prison Committee works on behalf of persecuted writers worldwide. Established in 1960 in response to increasing attempts to silence voices of dissent by imprisoning writers, the Writers in Prison Committee monitors the cases of as many as 900 writers annually who have been imprisoned, threatened, made to disappear, killed for the peaceful practice of their profession.
It publishes a bi-annual Case List documenting free expression violations against writers around the world. The committee coordinates the PEN International membership's campaigns that aim towards an end to these attacks and to the suppression of freedom of expression worldwide. PEN International Writers in Prison Committee is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of 90 non-governmental organisations that monitors censorship worldwide and defends journalists, internet users and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression, it is a member of IFEX's Tunisia Monitoring Group, a coalition of twenty-one free expression organisations that began lobbying the Tunisian government to improve its human rights record in 2005. Since the Arab Spring events that led to the collapse of the Tunisian government, TMG has worked to ensure constitutional guarantees of free expression and human rights within the country. On 15 January 2016, PEN International joined human rights organisations Freemuse and the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, along with seven other organisations, to protest against the 2013 imprisonment and 2015 sentencing of musicians Mehdi Rajabian and Yousef Emadi, filmmaker Hossein Rajabian, called on the head of the judiciary and other Iranian authorities to drop the charges against them.
The various PEN affiliations offer many literary awards across a broad spectrum. A grove of trees beside Lake Burley Griffin forms the PEN International memorial in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; the dedication reads: "The spirit dies in all of us who keep silent in the face of tyranny." The memorial was opened on 17 November 1997. A cast-iron sculpture entitled Witness, commissioned by English PEN to mark their 90th anniversary and created by Antony Gormley, stands outside the British Library in London, it depicts an empty chair, is inspired by the symbol used for 30 years by Englis
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Institut Le Rosey
Institut Le Rosey referred to as Le Rosey or Rosey, is a boarding school in Rolle, Switzerland. It was founded by Paul-Émile Carnal in 1880 on the site of the 14th-century Château du Rosey in the town of Rolle in the Canton of Vaud, it is one of the oldest boarding schools in Switzerland. Le Rosey is the world's most expensive boarding school; the school owns a campus in the ski resort village of Gstaad in the Canton of Bern, to where the student body and staff move during the months of January through March. In 2015, Christophe Gudin, the son of the fourth director of Le Rosey Philippe Gudin, became the fifth one. Michael Gray is the headmaster. In 2014, Le Rosey inaugurated the Paul & Henri Carnal Hall, an arts and learning centre for Le Rosey and the La Côte region; the school is planning the sale of its Gstaad winter campus, a move to a location that can accommodate more personnel and students. Le Rosey's secondary education is neither approved as a Gymnasium by the bureau for gymnasial and vocational education MBA, administration for education, canton of Berne, nor by the Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education and Innovation.
Le Rosey's philosophy is inspired by what Harvard educationalist Howard Gardner has called "multiple intelligences": "its aim is to develop all Roseans’ talents through academic and artistic programmes." The school offers a demanding bilingual and bicultural education with the language of instruction being French or English depending on the student's academic program. Students may sit either the International Baccalaureate, the most recognized pre-university educational program, or the Francophone-oriented French Baccalaureate. To sustain an international atmosphere at Le Rosey, there exists a quota where no more than 10% of the students may come from a single country; the student body, ages 7 through 18, is composed of pupils from 58 different countries, with 60% of the students being European. The school's current enrollment, over 400 pupils, is divided between male and female; the majority of students are between the ages of 14 and 18. The student-teacher ratio is 5:1 with the average class size being fewer than 20 students, the average teacher's length of stay at Le Rosey is over ten years.
Students at Le Rosey are nicknamed "Roséens" or "Roseans", former students are labeled "Les Anciens Roséens". The school's campus has 28 hectares of landscaped grounds; the school's sailing center, the "Fleur d'Eau", is situated along 100 meters of shoreline on Lake Geneva. Le Rosey is the only boarding school in the world to change campuses seasonally. In spring and autumn, classes are held at the Château du Rosey campus in the village of Rolle in the Canton of Vaud, located between Geneva and Lausanne in southwestern Switzerland. For the winter months of January through March, the entire student body moves to a group of chalets in the ski resort town of Gstaad in the Canton of Berne. Le Rosey offers a wide range of sports, including: football, volleyball, cross-country running, rowing, competitive swimming, water skiing during the spring and autumn terms. During the winter term, sports options are skiing, ice-hockey and snowshoeing. Château du Rosey, a Feudal chateau located on Le Rosey's main campus at Rolle, dates to the Middle Ages and houses Le Rosey's central reception area.
In 1880, the site of the Le Rosey campus was chosen by the school's founder, Paul-Emile Carnal, "a lover of nature and the countryside". The Le Rosey campus at Rolle is situated adjacent to the famous Lake Geneva. In 1911, the founder passed the ownership of Le Rosey to Henri-Paul Carnal. In 1917, the school began to go to Gstaad in the German-speaking Canton of Berne for the winter months to escape the dense fog that settles in on Lake Geneva. In 1947, the third generation of directors, Louis Johannot and Helen Schaub, assumed ownership of Le Rosey. Under the same ownership, in 1967, Le Rosey admitted girls for the first time and opened a separate girls' campus. In 1980, the current owners and Anne Gudin de la Sablonnière, became the fourth generation of Directors at Le Rosey. Louis Johannot, in an interview with Life Magazine in 1965, made a comment that received considerable attention: "The only reason I always try to meet and know the parents better is because it helps me to forgive their children."Prior to the introduction of the 10% quota, wherein no more than 10% of the student body may come from one country, different nationalities made up the majority of students at Le Rosey.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the majority of students were Americans and Greeks, in the 1970s came the Arabs and Iranians, in the 1980s came the Japanese and Koreans, in the 1990s came the Russians. During the 1990s, the children of Russian oligarchs, who made up a third of the student body, gained notoriety for "terrorizing" other students, resulting in the withdrawal of at least one non-Russian student. Institut Le Rosey's academic curriculum is designed to "provide education of breadth and quality for an international student body." Le Rosey offers a rigorous bilingual and bicultural education with the principal language of instruction being French or English depending on the student's academic program. Beginning in Class 9 and ending in Class 7, Junior students at Le Rosey follow the Primary Bilingual Programme; the Programme follows the French national curriculum for classes taught in French and the Briti