The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Ryvangen Memorial Park
The location in Ryvangen, which means rye field, was acquired in 1893 by the army for a barracks and exercise field. On 29 August 1943, when the Danish cooperation with Germany broke down the German occupying forces seized the army, while the German army used the barracks for themselves, part of the exercise field was used as an execution and burial site for members of the Danish resistance. The execution site consisted of three poles to which the condemned were tied and executed by firing squad. In a number of cases, the parish registers cited below state that the remains were brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the university of Copenhagen for an inquest. 27 bodies were actually found weeks after 5 May, with 25 found between one and two months after the liberation, one of the bodies found could not be identified while one exhumed body was identified as a Rottenführer of the SS. The inquests at the Department of Forensic Medicine showed that at least 19 men mentioned in the registers of Bethlehem, Holmen, Vor Frelser, Års.
Markus, Ålborg were executed with shots to the chest, with seven men each receiving from three to seven gunshot wounds, after the liberation the site was converted to a cemetery and memorial park for the resistance members who were executed there or were otherwise killed. In connection with the burials there, the site was referred to as Mindekirkegaarden i Ryvangen, the bereaved could choose to have the remains buried at the memorial park or at a cemetery closer to home. Bishop Hans Fuglsang-Damgaard inaugurated the park as a cemetery with the Danish Royal Family, in the center of the grave field lies a memorial stone for the 91 resistance members who were exhumed in Ryvangen and buried in a cemetery closer to home. The remains of 31 Danes who died in German prisons and concentration camps are buried here, the pergola along the eastern border of the park has a memorial wall with 151 plaques, one for each of the 151 Danish resistance members whose remains have never been found. On 24 December 1949 the newly formed Home Guard held a service for the victims of the occupation in the memorial park.
Every Christmas Eve since the Home Guard holds a service there. Arne Sørensen, minister for ecclesiastical affairs, took the initiative to create the park at the former execution. The park was designed by Kaj Gottlob, the garden by Aksel Andersen, on 5 May 1950, five years after the liberation, the park was finished and officially inaugurated. On every liberation day since then, the Comrades Help Foundation holds a service in the park. The sculptor Axel Poulsen created the monument For Denmark / The mother with the slain son located centrally in the park, in addition to the tombstones, the park has a number of memorial stones and plaques, with a large communal plaque at the center. At the execution site the wooden poles were replaced by bronze duplicates. The inscription translates literally to, Boys you boys who died You lit for Denmark in the darkest gloom a shining rosy dawn, in addition to the 105 resistance members listed below, Harald Christensen was buried in Mindelunden on 29 August 1945
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Amaliehaven is a small park located between Amalienborg Palace and the waterfront in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark. A relatively new park, it was established in 1983 as a gift from the A. P. Møller, the park is now part of the so-called Frederiksgade axis, the shorter but more distinctive of the two axes on which Frederiksstaden is centred. Amaliehaven is located on a site where there used to be an established in 1802 by a wealthy ship-owner named Lars Larsen. The shipyard and its large lumberyard were situated right beside Amalienborg Palace, in 1898 the Thingvalla Line was acquired by DFDS, another Danish based shipping company, and the Scandinavian-American passenger service was operated under the name Scandinavian America Line. The park is the result of a donation from the A. P. Møller, construction started in 1981 and it was inaugurated in 1983. The garden was designed by the Belgian landscape architect Jean Delogne, amaliehaven is a rectangular park built to a stringent, symmetrical design centred on a large fountain to respect and accentuate the Frederiksgade axis which unifies the entire area.
On both sides of the fountain, the gardens continue on two levels, with shrubs and walls enclosing it from the waterfront on one side and the street on the other. The garden abounds with different varieties of plants and fragrant flowers whose colours, japanese cherry trees, blooming in April, plays a particularly distinctive role among the parks vegetation. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Christianshavns Vold is a former rampart which was part of the bastioned fortification ring which used to surround Copenhagen, Denmark. Running along the full perimeter of Christianshavn and Holmen, it used to form a protective barrier towards the island of Amager. It consists of earthworks with 12 bastions and in front of it ran a moat, Stadsgraven, on the other side of Stadsgraven. On Amager, was a system of outworks called Christianshavns Enveloppe of which only the northern half survives. Along with Kastellet on the side of the harbour, it is the only intact part of the fortification system. Today Christianshavns Vold serves as an important greenspace for Christianshavns inhabitants, the southern half of the rampart is a municipal park whereas the northern portion is part of Freetown Christiania, a self-built, semi-autonomous community which has existed since the early 1970s. Part of Christiania is located on the far side of Stadsgraven, the town was laid out with low earthworks facing Amager.
The rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a city gate, known as Amagerport, through which all traffic to, in the 1670s, when Vestervold was extended to reach the sea, Christiansvold was moved and extended to match the new course of Vestervold. Only the two northernmost bastions, today known as Løvens Bastion and Elefantens Bastion, remained on their original location, the new Christianshavns Vold had 5 very large bastions. Around the entire complex was a moat with a protecting counterscarp, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was again extended this time in northwards, to guard the entrance to the harbour and protect the new base for the Royal Fleet at what was to become known as Nyholm. The extension included 7 new bastions, named for members of the Royal family, the last extension of Christianshavns Vold was constructed as late as 1878-82, when a rampart was constructed along the eastside of the newly reclaimed Refshaleø. Kalvebod Bastion takes its name after Kalveboderne, the waters which were located to the south of Copenhagen in what is now its Southern Docklands.
Magasinbygningen, the larger of the two, is a two-storey, L-shaped storage building from 1800, the other one is a small forge from 1757. Both are today owned by Karberghus, a privately owned property which mainly invests in historic properties, the bastion contains a gunpowder magazine from c.1675 which was formerly used as a storage space by Copenhagen Municipalitys park authority. It now serves as club house for Qajaq København, a kayak cluv, the bastion has for centuries housed various industrial enterprises. A large defunct chimney is left at the site, panterens Bastion contains a former military training facility for shooting with hand guns. The buildings, a complex of red brick buildings, has now converted into apartments. Am unnamed footbridge connects the bastion to Amager Boulevard on the side of Stadsgraven