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J. C. Penney

JCPenney Company, Inc is an American department store chain with 865 locations in 49 U. S. states and Puerto Rico. In addition to selling conventional merchandise, JCPenney stores house several leased departments such as Sephora, Seattle's Best Coffee, auto centers, optical centers, portrait studios, jewelry repair. Most JCPenney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas; as shopping malls became more popular during the half of the 20th century, JCPenney followed the trend by relocating and developing stores to anchor the malls. In more recent years, the chain has continued to follow consumer traffic, echoing the retailing trend of opening some freestanding stores, including some next door to competitors. Certain stores are located in power centers; the company has been an Internet retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its catalog and distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level. James Cash Penney was born in Missouri.

After graduating from high school, Penney worked for a local retailer. He relocated to Colorado at the advice of a doctor, hoping that a better climate would improve his health. In 1898, Penney went to work for Thomas Callahan and Guy Johnson, who owned dry goods stores called Golden Rule stores in Colorado and Wyoming. In 1899, Callahan sent Penney to Evanston, Wyoming, to work with Johnson in another Golden Rule store. Callahan and Johnson asked Penney to join them in opening a new Golden Rule store. Using money from savings and a loan, Penney joined the partnership and moved with his wife and infant son to Kemmerer, Wyoming, to start his own store. Penney opened the store on April 14, 1902, he participated in the creation of two more stores and purchased full interest in all three locations when Callahan and Johnson dissolved their partnership in 1907. In 1909, Penney moved his company headquarters to Salt Lake City, Utah to be closer to banks and railroads. By 1912, Penney had 34 stores in the Rocky Mountain States.

In 1913, all stores were consolidated under the J. C. Penney banner; the so-called "mother store", in Kemmerer, opened as the chain's second location in 1904. It still operates, as of 2018, albeit with shorter hours than many other locations, is closed on Sundays. In 1913, the company was incorporated under the new name, J. C. Penney Company, with William Henry McManus as a co-founder. In 1914, the headquarters was moved to New York City to simplify buying and transportation of goods. By 1917, the company operated 175 stores in 22 states in the United States. J. C. Penney acquired The Crescent Corset Company in 1920, the company's first wholly owned subsidiary. In 1922, the company's oldest active private brand, Big Mac work clothes, was launched; the company opened its 500th store in 1924 in Hamilton, James Cash Penney's hometown. By the opening of the 1,000th store in 1928, gross business had reached $190,000,000. In 1940, Sam Walton began working at a J. C. Penney in Iowa. Walton went on to found future retailer Walmart in 1962.

By 1941, J. C. Penney operated 1,600 stores in all 48 states. In 1956, J. C. Penney started national advertising with a series of advertisements in Life magazine. J. C. Penney credit cards were first issued in 1959. In 1962, J. C. Penney entered discount merchandising with the acquisition of General Merchandise Company which gave them The Treasury stores; these discount operations proved unsuccessful and were shuttered in 1981. In 1963, J. C. Penney issued its first catalog; the company operated in-store catalog desks in eight states. The catalogs were distributed by the Milwaukee Catalog distribution center; the company dedicated its first full-line, shopping center department store in 1961. This store was located in Audubon, New Jersey; the second full-line shopping center store was dedicated, at King of Prussia Plaza, in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania in late 1962. Those stores expanded the lines of merchandise and services that an average J. C. Penney carried to include appliances, sporting goods, garden merchandise, beauty salons, portrait studios, auto parts, auto centers.

J. C. Penney expanded to include Hawaii in the 1960s; the company opened stores in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska in 1962. The Penney Building in Anchorage collapsed and was damaged beyond repair in the 1964 Alaska earthquake; the company rebuilt the store as a shorter building on a larger footprint and followed up by building Anchorage's first public parking garage, which opened in 1968. In 1966, J. C. Penney "finished" its national expansion with the opening of its Honolulu, Hawaii store, at Ala Moana Center; the Penney store at Plaza Las Américas mall in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which opened in 1968, featured three levels and 261,500 square feet. It was the largest J. C. Penney until a 300,000-square-foot store was dedicated at Greater Chicago's Woodfield Mall in 1971; the Woodfield Mall store served as the largest in the chain until a replacement store opened at Plaza Las Américas in 1998, 350,000 square feet in size. In 1969, the company acquired Thrift Drug, a chain of drugstores headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

It acquired Supermarkets Interstate, an Omaha-based food retailer which operated leased departments in J. C. Penney stores, The Treasury stores, Thrift Drug stores. On February 12, 1971, James Cash Penney died at the age of 95. Out of respect for his death, the company's stores were closed for the morning of February 16 during his funeral; that year, the company's revenues reached $5 billion for the first time and catalog business

Jamila dan Sang Presiden

Jamila and the President is a 2009 Indonesian film directed by Ratna Sarumpaet and starring Atiqah Hasiholan and Christine Hakim. It follows the story of a prostitute sentenced to death for killing a government minister; the film was adapted from a stage play entitled Pelacur dan Sang Presiden, which Sarumpaet had written after receiving a grant from UNICEF to study child trafficking trends in Indonesia and promote awareness of the problem. In preparing the script, she spent several months interviewing prostitutes in several cities. Released on 30 April 2009, the film received mixed to positive reception in Indonesia. Internationally the film featured in several film festivals and won awards in France and Taiwan, it was submitted to the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, but not nominated. Jamila and the President opens with narration from Jamila, a victim of human trafficking, followed by several scenes showing her living a glamorous yet unfulfilling night life. After hearing a news report that a government minister, has been murdered, Jamila surrenders herself to the police.

This surprises her would-be boyfriend, who feels badly for Jamila and begins working towards freeing her. Under the orders of the president, Jamila is placed in a prison outside Jakarta, where she receives rough treatment at the hands of the guards and warden, Ria. In the prison, Ria learns her backstory. Jamila was sold by her mother to a middleman, who sold her to a rich family. While living with the family, Jamila is raped by both the son in succession. Jamila becomes a worker at a market, but once again must escape when she learns that some local men plan to rape her, she escapes to a discothèque, when it is raided by the police she is thought to be a prostitute and arrested. After being released, Jamila is raised by a kind-hearted prostitute named Susi, caught in the raid. In the present day, several groups are demanding. One male takes pity on Jamila and tries to help her. However, Jamila ignores him. Ria, although becoming more sympathetic to Jamila, gets into an argument with her over Nurdin's murder.

Several days the court finds Jamila guilty of murder and sentences her to death, a sentence which will be carried out in 36 hours. Ria visits Jamila in her cell to check on her, Ria explains that she intends to ask the president for a stay. Jamila refuses tells Ria about her experience looking for her sister Fatimah in Borneo, how she killed the man who had put Fatimah in a brothel but was unable to find her sister; the day before Jamila's execution, Ibrahim meets with Susi, who tells him about Jamila's romantic involvement with Nurdin. Jamila became pregnant with Nurdin's child and insisted that he take responsibility, but instead Nurdin told her he was marrying someone else and humiliated her in public; when the two met in a hotel, Nurdin threatened Jamila with a pistol. In the modern day, Jamila walks towards her execution; the screen fades to black as a gunshot goes off, afterwards, statistics about child trafficking and prostitution are shown. Jamila and the President was directed by a women's rights activist.

The film, Sarumpaet's directorial debut, was based on a theatrical drama she had made entitled Pelacur dan Sang Presiden, put on in 2006 in five cities by Satu Merah Panggung Theatre Troup. She was inspired write the story in 2005 after UNICEF approached her to do a survey of child trafficking in Southeast Asia and promote awareness of the problem. While writing the original script, Sarumpaet interviewed prostitutes in Surabaya, Surakarta and Borneo over a period of six months; this research carried over into the film. Sarumpaet cast Atiqah Hasiholan, in the lead role. Hasiholan viewed her character as a "regular slutty prostitute", but after thinking of the character more she considered Jamila a "victim of life". To better play her character, Hasiholan visited several prostitution districts and spoke with sex workers there, learning their motivations. Senior actress Christine Hakim – a close friend of Sarumpaet's – was cast as Ria. Sarumpaet's brother Sam was assistant director, helped calm his sister when technical glitches occurred.

Much of the cast and crew, including star Hasiholan, had acted in the stage play. Sarumpaet reported; the film spent three years in production. Sarumpaet described the film as being "about how awful the effect of poverty on human’s morality and lives is". Nauval Yazid, in a review for The Jakarta Post, wrote that the film was of the "women-who-suffer-continuously" genre, common in Indonesian cinema. Anissa S. Febrina writing for The Jakarta Post, described the film as depicting "the

Brute Force (video game)

Brute Force is a video game released for the Xbox by Microsoft in 2003. The game is a squad-based third-person shooter that uses four members of a team who fight in numerous battles; each character on the team has their own weaknesses. The story is of a science-fiction setting where humans spread throughout the galaxy and tension arises with the threat of a hostile alien race that appears; the squad, Brute Force, is sent in to confront the enemy. Brute Force began as a PC game in 2000, but was soon after turned into a first-party title for the Xbox, following the buyout of Digital Anvil by Microsoft. Brute Force was developed to be a third-person squad-based shooter; this allows for both open-ended type gameplay and adding a tactical component by playing the characters according to their abilities. Engagements can be handled via sniper fire, or direct assault; each of the four playable characters has a special ability for approaching combat in their own way. Tex and Brutus are suited to direct assaults, Hawk is suited to stealth, Flint is suited to sniping enemies.

The player issues orders to the characters via the D-pad. No online gameplay is offered with Brute Force, however there is cooperative play, where another player may at any time control another character during the campaign. Up to four players are supported this way. After the mechanics of the squad-based gameplay, AI was the most important parts of development; this was to complement the team-based system, which would allow the enemies to act intelligently and allow your team to support the player and work together as a team. The gameplay has four different command modes; the characters are aware of the environment in finding areas for cover and sniping, as well as going to heal themselves. The single player campaign missions are composed of a series of battles where the player attempts to fight their way to the end, they consist of objectives such as disabling structures, eliminating a target, or collecting an artifact. These missions take place on six different planets with different environments — a desert, a swamp, a volcanic planet, an alien lair.

The non co-op multiplayer feature consists of choosing one squad and playing different game modes against other players. The different squads are unlocked; each squad member has a different set of weapons or ability. Brute Force takes place in the year 2340, when the human race has spread out across the galaxy and settled around 50 star systems, which are collectively known as the "Known Worlds"; the major colonies and some alien races are governed by what is known as the Confederation of Allied worlds. They patrol borders, protect their people, keep watch on hostile alien races, as well as humans who wish to work for the aliens; the game begins with a scene showing a sandstorm and the first character known as Tex fighting off an unknown force when a dropship he was about to board takes off without him. When he defends himself from what now looks like snakes, they kill him, his memory chip is re-obtained and he is cloned. He gets his mission briefing from his commander on invading a small base on a planet named Estuary, occupied by former mercenary allies known as Red Hand.

After he completes his mission, he is sent on another mission on a planet called Ferix where new allies to the Confederation are located, he is told to find the second member of the Brute Force, a Feral alien named Brutus, trying to defend himself and his fellow colonists against uprising by exiled feral outcasts. After that situation, Brutus wants to kill his clan leader, evidently now an Outcast; the next mission has the team recover a briefcase on another planet called Caspian, but the Colonists that control the station have been mutated by exposure to toxic chemicals into Mutants. So the team find the briefcase, they are assigned to find a third member of the team named Hawk, Tex is surprised to find out it's a "She". They find her on a planet called Osiris where natives known as Seers and reach their leader known as Shadoon, they find a spy who tells them information about the Outcast operation on Ferix saying that Shadoon was behind the situation. After guiding the spy, they find out that the Seers are being helped by the Fire Hounds.

They clear out everything and return to Estuary where there are still reports of Red Hand on the planet, they intend to find some computers and destroy them to stop the Red Hand from transferring data to an unknown location, they are however backed up by Mutants, it is however unknown how they got there. After clearing out the last of the Red Hand on Estuary, they return to Caspian to meet the last member of the team, Flint, they are tasked to track down someone known as Edward Kingman, funding the Red Hand. However, they must battle their way through Mutants who have slaughtered the Militia and are now guarding the Outline Perimeter for Kingman's zone. After taking out Kingman, they return to Ferix to locate a crashed Confederation ship, shot down return to Osiris to destroy a spire in which the Seers are using for something unknown, they stop this and return to Ferix one last time to find that the Seers are on a ship to Ferix. The Confederation manage to shoot it down; the Seers and Outcasts team up to defend themselves against the team, meaning that Brute Force have to fight Seers as well as Outcasts.

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Martha E. Sloan

Martha Ann Evans Sloan is an American electrical engineer. She taught engineering for many years at Michigan Technological University, became the first female president of the IEEE, her service to the profession has been honored by several society awards. Martha Ann Evans was born in Illinois in 1939, the daughter of an obstetrician, she first learned about circuit design between her junior and senior years at high school, at a summer institute run by Northwestern University. Attracted to the San Francisco Bay Area because a friend had moved there, she went to Stanford University intending to major in physics, but instead ended up studying electrical engineering. At this time she was involved with radio, through Stanford's student station KZSU, as a junior in 1959–1960 she was the secretary of the Stanford student chapter of the Institute of Radio Engineers, one of the predecessor organizations of the IEEE, she graduated in 1961, Phi Beta Kappa and with great distinction, as the only woman among 600 engineering graduates.

She earned a master's degree in electrical engineering from Stanford. In the 1960s she worked at the Palo Alto Research Laboratory of the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, she began a Ph. D. program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology but, feeling isolated there and pregnant with her first child, she did not complete the program. Instead, she followed her husband to Germany, where she taught for two years at the Frankfurt International School. In 1969, she took a teaching position in electrical engineering at Michigan Technological University, becoming the first female faculty member in the department. Needing a doctorate for her new job, she returned to Stanford and completed a Ph. D. in education in 1973, with a thesis concerning the COSINE Committee, an NSF-funded project to include computer engineering as part of the electrical engineering curriculum. She retired from Michigan Tech in 2013, becoming a professor emerita, after 43 years of service there. In the late 1970s, Merlin Smith, the president of the IEEE Computer Society, appointed Sloan to the Board of Governors of the Computer Society, the first woman on the board, soon afterwards appointed her as treasurer of the society, not long before those positions changed from being appointed to being elected.

After continuing in several other elected roles in the society, but being passed over as a presidential candidate, she ran as a write-in candidate for president of the society, won the election for the 1984–1985 term. In 1993, again running as a write-in candidate, she was elected as the first female president of the whole IEEE, she was the only person to become president of the IEEE after leading the Computer Society. In 1998 she chaired the American Association of Engineering Societies. Sloan became a fellow of the IEEE in 1991 "for contributions to engineering education, leadership in the development of computer engineering education as a discipline, leadership in extending engineering education to women." Sloan's other honors include the Frederick Emmons Terman Award of the American Society for Engineering Education in 1979, the IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984, the IEEE Richard E. Merwin Distinguished Service Award in 1990, an honorary doctorate from Concordia University in 1993, election as a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1994, the Distinguished Engineering Educator Award of the Society of Women Engineers in 1994, the Michigan Tech Distinguished Service Award in 2012, being named an honorary alumna of Michigan Tech in 2014

Guido Ko├žer

Guido Koçer is a Turkish professional footballer who plays as a winger or attacking midfielder for Samsunspor. Koçer joined in 2000 after two years TuS Neuhausen. Koçer played three years on youth side for TuS Neuhausen, before he was scouted from Hansa Rostock in 2003. Koçer played four years for Hansa Rostock in the youth and was promoted to the 2. Bundesliga team in summer 2008, he was fired and released from his contract with Hansa Rostock on 19 March 2009. On 29 April 2009, he had a trial at Rot-Weiß Oberhausen. Koçer was a short time free agent and was on 2 August 2009 signed by SV Babelsberg 03 on a-one year contract. Two years he signed for Erzgebirge Aue. Koçer has played for Turkey U21, he made his debut on 10 February 2009 against the Ukraine U21. Official website Guido Koçer at the Turkish Football Federation Guido Koçer – UEFA competition record Guido Koçer at Soccerway

Free stationing

In surveying, free stationing is a method of determining a location of one unknown point in relation to known points. There is a zero point of reference called a total station; the instrument can be positioned so that all survey points are at a suitable sight from the instrument. Setting up the total station on a known point it is not possible to see all survey points. With the total station and distances are measured to at least two known points of a control network; this with a handheld computer recorded data is related to local polar coordinates, defined by the horizontal circle of the total station. By a geometric transformation, these polar coordinates are transformed to the coordinate system of the control network. Errors are distributed by least squares adjustment; the position and orientation of the total station in relation to where the control network is established. Angular resection and triangulation: only bearings are measured to the known points. Trilateration: only distances are measured to the known points.

Free stationing and triangulateration: both bearings and distances are measured to the known points. Because bearings and distances in a resection are measured, the result may have a different mathematical solution; this method of a "total station set up" has different names in other languages, e.g. German: de:Freie Standpunktwahl. Naming is regulated by the German Institute for Standardization DIN 18 709. By measuring bearings and distances, local polar coordinates are recorded; the orientation of this local polar coordinate system is defined by the 0° horizontal circle of the total station. The pole of this local polar coordinate system is the vertical axis of the total stations; the polar coordinates with the pole are transformed with a surveying software in a data collector to the Cartesian coordinates of the known points and the coordinates for the position of the total station are calculated. In a resection measuring bearings only, there can be a problem with an infinite number of solutions called: "danger circle" or "inscribed angle theorem".

The back-sight points of the control network surround the stationing site. The position of the total station is not part of the area; this is the area. Topographic points or stakeout points should not be measured outside this area. If measured outside this area, the errors in orientation will be extrapolated instead of being interpolated. While it is possible to use only two known control points in a resection, it is recommended to use three control points. There is no redundancy for orientation, using two points only. Using five or more points of the control network, there is only a slight improvement in the accuracy. Choose the station point free for best visibility to all survey points Where there is no obstruction Where there is no traffic Where there is the highest safety for the observer and the instrumentBecause of the range and accuracy of total stations, the method of a resection permits a great freedom of positioning the total station. For this reason, this method is one of the most used station set ups.

With the calculated coordinates and orientation of the total station, it can be used to set out points in construction surveying, machine guidance, site plan or other types of surveys. Topcon Magnet Field 1.0 Help Leica SmartWorx Viva Field Software Datasheet CarlsonSurvCE Reference Manual Trimble: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Stationing Programs Trimble: Design of the Backsight Point Configuration Trimble: Problems in Resection Without Redundancy Trimble: The Influence of Weights in Resection Trimble: Neighborhood Adjustment