Gustave Frohman was a theatre producer and advance man. He was one of three Frohman brothers who entered show business and he worked for most of his career alongside his brother, Charles Frohman; these two financed a number of theatre productions featuring African American actors. For instance, in 1878, they starred Sam Lucas in the first serious stage production of Uncle Tom's Cabin with a black man in the lead role. Frohman was born to a Jewish family in Ohio, he saw his greatest success in blackface minstrelsy. In 1881, he and his brother bought Callender's Consolidated Colored Minstrels, a small African-American troupe, from Charles Callender, they focused on ornamenting their sets and costumes. Their success was so great that by 1882 the Frohmans were able to buy J. H. Haverly's black troupe and merge it with theirs; the new troupe's size was so big and the Frohmans' grasp on the market so tight that Gustave and Charles Frohman split the troupe into three so as to allow them to tour more widely.
In 1915, the three Frohman brothers created The Frohman Amusement Corp. as a motion picture production company but Charles died a few months in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. Gustave and Daniel assumed control of the theatre operations plus ran the film production company until 1920. Frohman was married to a former actress, Marie Hubert a daughter of architect Philip Gengembre Hubert and Cornelia Doisy. Gustave and Marie had Gustave Jr. who died at three. He died in New York City in 1930. Toll, Robert C.. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press. Watkins, Mel. On the Real Side: Laughing and Signifying—The Underground Tradition of African-American Humor that Transformed American Culture, from Slavery to Richard Pryor. New York: Simon & Schuster. Gustave Frohman on IMDb Gustave Frohman at the Internet Broadway Database
The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American form of entertainment developed in the early 19th century. Each show consisted of comic skits, variety acts and music performances that depicted people of African descent; the shows were performed by white people in make-up or blackface for the purpose of playing the role of black people. There were some African-American performers and all-black minstrel groups that formed and toured under the direction of white people. Minstrel shows lampooned black people as dim-witted, buffoonish and happy-go-lucky. Minstrel shows emerged as brief burlesques and comic entr'actes in the early 1830s in the Northeastern states, they were developed into full-fledged form in the next decade. By 1848, blackface minstrel shows were the national artform, translating formal art such as opera into popular terms for a general audience. By the turn of the 20th century, the minstrel show enjoyed but a shadow of its former popularity, having been replaced for the most part by vaudeville.
The form survived as professional entertainment until about 1910. The genre has had a lasting legacy and influence and was featured in a television series as as 1975; as the civil rights movement progressed and gained acceptance, minstrels lost popularity. The typical minstrel performance followed a three-act structure; the troupe first danced onto stage exchanged wisecracks and sang songs. The second part featured a variety of entertainments, including the pun-filled stump speech; the final act consisted of a send-up of a popular play. Minstrel songs and sketches featured several stock characters, most popularly the slave and the dandy; these were further divided into sub-archetypes such as the mammy, her counterpart the old darky, the provocative mulatto wench, the black soldier. Minstrels claimed that their songs and dances were authentically black, although the extent of the black influence remains debated. Spirituals entered the repertoire in the 1870s, marking the first undeniably black music to be used in minstrelsy.
Blackface minstrelsy was the first theatrical form, distinctly American. During the 1830s and 1840s at the height of its popularity, it was at the epicenter of the American music industry. For several decades, it provided the means. On the one hand, it had strong racist aspects. Although the minstrel shows were popular, being "consistently packed with families from all walks of life and every ethnic group", they were controversial. Integrationists decried them as falsely showing happy slaves while at the same time making fun of them. Minstrel shows were popular before slavery was abolished, sufficiently so that Frederick Douglass described blackface performers as "...the filthy scum of white society, who have stolen from us a complexion denied them by nature, in which to make money, pander to the corrupt taste of their white fellow citizens." Although white theatrical portrayals of black characters date back to as early as 1604, the minstrel show as such has origins. By the late 18th century, blackface characters began appearing on the American stage as "servant" types whose roles did little more than provide some element of comic relief.
Similar performers appeared in entr'actes in New York theaters and other venues such as taverns and circuses. As a result, the blackface "Sambo" character came to supplant the "tall-tale-telling Yankee" and "frontiersman" character-types in popularity, white actors such as Charles Mathews, George Washington Dixon, Edwin Forrest began to build reputations as blackface performers. Author Constance Rourke claimed that Forrest's impression was so good he could fool blacks when he mingled with them in the streets. Thomas Dartmouth Rice's successful song-and-dance number, "Jump Jim Crow", brought blackface performance to a new level of prominence in the early 1830s. At the height of Rice's success, The Boston Post wrote, "The two most popular characters in the world at the present are Victoria and Jim Crow." As early as the 1820s, blackface performers called themselves "Ethiopian delineators". Blackface soon found a home in the taverns of New York's less respectable precincts of Lower Broadway, the Bowery, Chatham Street.
It appeared on more respectable stages, most as an entr'acte. Upper-class houses at first limited the number of such acts they would show, but beginning in 1841, blackface performers took to the stage at the classy Park Theatre, much to the dismay of some patrons. Theater was a participatory activity, the lower classes came to dominate the playhouse, they threw things at actors or orchestras who performed unpopular material, rowdy audiences prevented the Bowery Theatre from staging high drama at all. Typical blackface acts of the period were short burlesques with mock Shakespearean titles like "Hamlet the Dainty", "Bad Breath, the Crane of Chowder", "Julius Sneezer" or "Dars-de-Money". Meanwhile, at least some whites were interested in black dance by actual black performers. Nineteenth-century New York slaves shingle danced for spare change on their days off, musicians play
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Drum and bugle corps (modern)
A modern drum and bugle corps is a musical marching ensemble consisting of brass instruments, percussion instruments, color guard, choreographic movements. Operating as independent non-profit organizations, drum corps perform in competitions, parades and other civic functions. Participants of all ages are represented within the band activity, but the majority are between the ages of 13 and 22 and are members of corps within Drum Corps International or Drum Corps Associates. Competitive summer marching bands participate in summer touring circuits, such as Drum Corps International and Drum Corps Associates. Corps prepare a new show each year 8–12 minutes in length, refine it throughout the summer tour. Shows are performed on football fields and are judged in various musical and visual categories, or "captions". Musical repertoires vary among corps and include symphonic, big band, rock, wind band, rap and Latin music, among other genres. Competitive junior corps spend between 10 and 15 weeks on tour over the summer and performing full-time.
Drum and bugle corps stems from a rich American and Canadian military history, separate from other marching musical activities. Beginning after World War I through the 1970s, corps and competitions were sponsored by the VFW, Scout troops, the Royal Canadian Legion, the American Legion. Owing to many of these groups' roots, corps were traditionally militaristic. By the late 1960s, many corps wanted more creative freedom and better financial compensation than was offered by their sponsoring organizations; some felt the prize-money structures, based on competitive placement, were not compensating all corps for their appearances. Additionally, some felt the current judging rules were stifling musical and theatrical possibilities. At the peak of North American drum corps participation, several corps decided to "unionize", as stated by Don Warren, they formed their own organizations, which led to the formation of DCA in 1965 and DCI in 1972. By this time, many corps had lost their church or community sponsors.
For the corps that remained, longer travel times were necessary to attend the shrinking numbers of contests, further adding to the financial and time demands on the organizations and their individual members. At the same time costs for the complex field shows mounted and creative and instructional demands rose leading many competitive corps to falter and become inactive. By the late 1990s only a fraction of the corps that existed in the 60s and 70s remained, although several new corps, some of which have become successful, did start up along the way. Non-competitive classic-style corps saw a renaissance beginning in the mid-1980s and they continue to organize in the 21st Century. Freed from the traditional and more-restrictive judging rules of the late 1960s, corps began making innovative changes such as the use of Bb brass instruments, wide-ranging tempos, intricate asymmetric drill formations, elaborate guard costumes and props, the use of stationary orchestral percussion instruments. A common criticism of drum corps is that it has become too similar to marching band, but although the two activities are similar they are still distinct.
A few corps still utilize the traditional G Bugle, rarely found in DCI marching units. The competitive season for drum corps is in the summer rather than fall, with auditions and initial ensemble rehearsals beginning as early as late October of the previous year; the top-tier competitive corps are very complex and more professional than the average marching band, as members in full-time touring units have no distractions outside their organization during the season and membership is achieved only through competitive auditions. A typical show revolves around one genre of music, or sometimes melds separate genres together. Modern corps programs have become conceptual and programmatic, with overarching show themes rather than loosely related musical selections. Within classical selections, a single composer's material is featured. Corps have performed every genre of music that can be fit for on-field adaptation, including jazz, new age and rock music, it is becoming common to hear corps performing original music, composed for the corps by their musical staff or consultants.
The exclusive use of bell-front brass instrumentation is a defining musical element of drum corps. Throughout the years, the horns used in drum corps have evolved from true, single-valved bugles to modern Bb brass instruments; until 1999, drum and bugle corps hornlines within DCI were required to be pitched in the key of G. That year, the DCI rules congress passed a rule change to allow "brass bell-front valve instruments in any key with the exception of sousaphones and trombones." In World Class, the rule did not go into effect until the 2000 season, while Open Class opted for a two-year moratorium prior to implementation in 2002. Hornlines are now most pitched in B♭, with mellophones pitched in F. In 2014, the DCI Board of Directors passed a rule change that changed their definition of a bugle to allow the entire brass family, including trombones and concert French horns. Tuba and baritone/euphonium are pitched in Bb and a
Charles Frohman was an American theatrical producer. Frohman was producing plays by 1889 and acquired his first Broadway theatre by 1892, he promoted many stars of the American theatre. In 1896, Frohman co-founded the Theatrical Syndicate, which grew to exert monopoly control over the U. S. theatre industry for nearly two decades. He leased the Duke of York's Theatre in London, promoting such playwrights as J. M. Barrie, producing Barrie's Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, which he debuted at the Duke of York's in December 1904 and opened in the U. S. in January 1905. The American opening starred Maude Adams, he partnered with English producers, including Seymour Hicks, with whom he produced a string of London hits prior to 1910, including Quality Street, The Admirable Crichton, The Catch of the Season, The Beauty of Bath, A Waltz Dream. Many of his London successes enjoyed runs in New York. Frohman produced over 700 shows. At the height of his career, he died in the 1915 sinking of the RMS Lusitania.
Charles Frohman was born to a Jewish family in Sandusky, the youngest of three Frohman brothers, including Daniel and Gustave. The year of his birth date is erroneously reported as 1860, his birthday is shown as July 16 on his tombstone, but the correct date is July 15, 1856. In 1864, Frohman's family moved to New York City. At the age of twelve, Frohman started to work at night in the office of the New York Tribune, attending school by day. In 1874, he began work for the Daily Graphic and at night sold tickets at Hooley's Theatre, Brooklyn. In 1877, he took charge of the Chicago Comedy Co. with John Dillon as star in Our Boys. He next joined Haverly's United Mastodon Minstrels as manager, touring the U. S. and Europe. For a time he was associated with his brothers Daniel and Gustave in managing the Madison Square Theatre, New York, he began to produce plays by 1886. Frohman's first success as a producer was with Bronson Howard's play Shenandoah. Frohman founded the Empire Theatre Stock Company to acquire his first Broadway theatre, the Empire, in 1892.
The following year, he produced Clyde Fitch's Masked Ball. In this piece, Maude Adams first played opposite John Drew. Soon Frohman acquired five other New York City theaters, including the Garrick and Criterion Theatres. Working with William Harris and Isaac B. Rich, he became part owner of their theatres in Boston. In 1895, he produced the New York premiere of The Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde; the same year, he produced The Shop Girl. Frohman was known for his ability to develop talent, his stars included William Gillette, John Drew, Jr. Ethel Barrymore, Billie Burke, E. H. Sothern, Julia Marlowe, Maude Adams, Paul Gilmore, Evelyn Millard, Henry Miller and Walter E. Perkins. In 1896, Frohman, Al Hayman, Abe Erlanger, Mark Klaw, Samuel F. Nixon, Fred Zimmerman formed the Theatrical Syndicate, their organization established systemized booking networks throughout the United States and created a monopoly that controlled every aspect of contracts and bookings until the late 1910s, when the Shubert brothers broke their stranglehold on the industry.
In 1897, Frohman leased the Duke of York's Theatre in London, introducing plays there as well as in the United States. Clyde Fitch, J. M. Barrie and Edmond Rostand were among the playwrights; as a producer, among Frohman's most famous successes was Barrie's Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, which he premiered at the Duke of York's in December 1904 starring Nina Boucicault, produced in January 1905 in the U. S. starring Maude Adams. In the early years of the 20th century, Frohman established a successful partnership with English actor-producer Seymour Hicks to produce musicals and other comedies in London, including Quality Street in 1902, The Admirable Crichton in 1903, The Catch of the Season in 1904, The Beauty of Bath in 1906, The Gay Gordons in 1907, A Waltz Dream in 1908, among others, he partnered with other London theatre managers. The system of exchange of successful plays between London and New York was effected as a result of his efforts. In 1910, Frohman attempted a repertory scheme of producing plays at the Duke of York's.
He advertised a bill of plays by J. M. Barrie, John Galsworthy, Harley Granville Barker, others; the venture began tentatively, while it may have proved successful, Frohman canceled the scheme when London theatres closed at the death of King Edward VII in May 1910. Other Frohman hits included The Dollar Princess, The Arcadians, The Sunshine Girl and The Girl From Utah. By 1915, Frohman had produced more than 700 shows, employed an average of 10,000 people per season, 700 of them actors, paid salaries totaling $35 million a year. Frohman controlled five theaters in London, six in New York City, over two hundred throughout the rest of the United States, his longtime live-in companion, theatre critic Charles Dillingham became a well-known producer. Frohman made his annual trip to Europe in May 1915 to oversee his London and Paris "play markets", sailing on the Cunard Line's RMS Lusitania. Songwriter Jerome Kern was meant to accompany him on the voyage, but overslept after being kept up late playing requests at a party.
William Gillette was to have accompanied him, but was forced to fulfill a contracted appearance in Philadelphia. Frohman's rheumatic knee, from a fall three years earlier, had been ailing for most of the voyage, but he was feeling better on the morning of May 7, a bright, sunny day, he entertained guests in his suite
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term