University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Joseph Robert Kapp is an American former football player and executive. He played college football as a quarterback at the University of Berkeley. Kapp played professionally in the Canadian Football League with the Calgary Stampeders and the BC Lions and in the National Football League with the Minnesota Vikings and the Boston Patriots. Kapp returned to his alma mater to serve as head coach of the California Golden Bears from 1982 to 1986, he was the general manager and president of the BC Lions in 1990. Kapp is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the B. C. Sports Hall of Fame, the BC Lions Wall of Fame, the College Football Hall of Fame, the University of California Athletic Hall of Fame. Kapp's #22 jersey is one of eight numbers retired by the Lions. In November 2006, Kapp was voted to the Honour Roll of the CFL's top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN. Sports Illustrated once called him "The Toughest Chicano." Kapp is the only player to quarterback in the Super Bowl, Rose Bowl, the Grey Cup.
Kapp played quarterback for William S. Hart High School, located in California. Kapp played college football at the University of California, where he led the California Golden Bears to a Pacific Coast Conference championship in 1958 and the 1959 Rose Bowl, where they lost to Iowa; this remains California's most recent Rose Bowl appearance. Kapp was named an All-American in that same year, he was awarded the W. J. Voit Memorial Trophy in 1958 as the outstanding football player on the Pacific Coast. A two-sport athlete and fraternity member of Kappa Alpha Order in college, he played on the California Golden Bears men's basketball team and was a member of the 1956–57 and 1957–58 squads that won the Pacific Coast championship, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in physical education from the University of California in 1959. Kapp was drafted in the 18th round of the 1959 NFL Draft by the Washington Redskins, who owned his rights to play professional football in the United States. After the draft, Washington did not contact him, so his only choice was to accept the offer from Jim Finks, the general manager of the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League.
Kapp joined the Calgary Stampeders of the CFL for his rookie season in 1959. The following year, Kapp led Calgary to their first playoff appearance in years; the season was a difficult one, because he injured his knee against the Toronto Argonauts early in the season, but did not miss any games, because he played taped. In 1961, the BC Lions the CFL's newest franchise, traded four starting players to the Calgary Stampeders for Joe Kapp; the move paid off for the Lions when Kapp led the team to a Grey Cup appearance in 1963. The following season, Kapp led the Lions to their first Grey Cup victory in 1964. However, the Lions proved unable to defend their championship in 1965. By that time, Kapp had proven he was an elite quarterback, developed the reputation of being a tough player and a great leader. While most quarterbacks dislike being hit, Kapp was the opposite, he loved to hit and when he took off on a run he'd try to run over defenders. Before the 1967 season, Kapp made the decision to return to the U.
S. to play pro football. The AFL's Oakland Raiders, San Diego Chargers, Houston Oilers were pursuing him. Kapp ended up signing with the NFL's Minnesota Vikings in a multi-player "trade" between the CFL and NFL teams, one of the few transactions to occur between the two leagues; the Minnesota Vikings in 1965 had drafted running back Jim Young out of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He wanted to return to Canada; the BC Lions were interested in acquiring Young, but the Toronto Argonauts had his CFL rights. The Minnesota Vikings general manager was Jim Finks, who had brought Kapp to Canada in 1959, their head coach was Bud Grant, who had faced Kapp while coaching the Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Both Finks and Grant thought Joe Kapp would be the best replacement for Fran Tarkenton, traded to the New York Giants. To make this transaction possible, the BC Lions traded all-star defensive lineman Dick Fouts, future Canadian Football Hall of Fame running back Bill Symons to the Toronto Argonauts for the CFL rights to future Canadian Football Hall of Fame wide receiver Jim Young.
They managed to get Kapp waived out of the CFL. The Minnesota Vikings managed to get Jim Young waived out of the NFL, which allowed the BC Lions to sign him; the expansion New Orleans Saints wanted Young and it took some work from Finks to keep them from claiming Young. Kapp, now waived from the CFL, was free to sign with the Vikings, who had claimed his NFL playing rights from Washington. In 1967, Kapp's first season in the NFL, he started 11 of 14 games for the Minnesota Vikings, compiling an unusual record of 3 wins, 5 losses and 3 ties. Kapp completed only 47 percent of his pass attempts with 17 interceptions. Kapp scored two rushing touchdowns. Of note, the team was winless without Kapp starting at quarterback. In 1968, Kapp led the Minnesota Vikings to their first playoff appearance, losing to the Baltimore Colts, 24–14; the Colts were upset a few weeks by the New York Jets in Super Bowl III. On September 28, 1969, Kapp tied the all-time record for TD passes in a game when he threw for seven touchdown passes against the Colts.
He is tied with seven other players. Burk was one of the officials. Kapp led the Vikings to a 12–2 record, a berth in Super Bowl IV after defeating the Cleveland Browns 27–7 in the last NFL
Joe Mays (American football)
Joseph Lamont Mays is a former American football linebacker. He played college football at North Dakota State and was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the sixth round of the 2008 NFL Draft. Mays played for the Denver Broncos, Houston Texans, Kansas City Chiefs and San Diego Chargers. Mays attended Hyde Park High School in Illinois, he did not play football until his junior year of high school. He earned first-team all-conference honors in both his senior years, he was named a first-team all-city selection as a senior in football after he made 115 tackles, 16 sacks, two interceptions. As a senior at North Dakota State, Mays led the team on defense with 90 tackles, nine tackles-for-loss and 2.5 sacks. He was named the Great West Conference Defensive Player of the Year. Mays was a three-time first-team All-Great West Conference selection in his career, he made 285 total tackles, a school-record 159 solo tackles, 29.5 tackles-for-loss, three interceptions, eleven sacks in his 31 games started and 43 games played in his career.
Mays was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the sixth round with the 200th overall pick of the 2008 NFL Draft. He spent most of the 2008 season inactive, but played in the last two games of the season on special teams. On August 2, 2009, the starting linebacker for the Eagles, Stewart Bradley, suffered a season-ending torn ACL during training camp. At subsequent Eagles practices, Mays was promoted to Bradley's position, middle linebacker, although Omar Gaither beat him out for the job. Mays was traded to the Denver Broncos in exchange for running back J. J. Arrington on July 30, 2010. On September 25, 2012, Mays was suspended for one game and fined $50,000 dollars by the NFL for his hit on the Houston Texans quarterback Matt Schaub that lacerated Schaub's earlobe. During the Week 8 game against the New Orleans Saints, Mays fractured his fibula and was placed on injured reserve. On July 23, 2013, Mays was released by the Broncos. On July 29, 2013, Mays signed with the Houston Texans to a one-year contract.
Mays signed with the Kansas City Chiefs on March 12, 2014. Due to an injury suffered in the Chiefs final preseason game, Mays was placed on injured reserve with a designated for return tag, was activated on November 8, 2014, he was released by the team on March 5, 2015. Mays was signed by the New York Jets on April 13, 2015. Mays signed a 1-year contract with the San Diego Chargers on October 20, 2015. Mays earned a degree in physical education from North Dakota State, he and his wife, LaToyia, have one son and one daughter, Joi. Kansas City Chiefs bio
The Cheez-It Bowl is an NCAA FBS college football bowl game, played in the state of Arizona since 1989. Played as the Copper Bowl from inception through 1996, it was known as the Insight.com Bowl from 1997 through 2001 the Insight Bowl from 2002 through 2011, the Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl for 2012 and 2013, the Cactus Bowl from 2014 through 2017. In 2018 the game was renamed again, sponsored by Cheez-It crackers; when the bowl was founded, it was played at Arizona Stadium in Tucson, on the campus of the University of Arizona. In 2000, the organizers moved the game from Tucson to Phoenix. There, it was played at what is now known as Chase Field, the home of the Arizona Diamondbacks of Major League Baseball. For the 2006 season, the bowl moved a second time. After the annual Fiesta Bowl left Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe in favor of playing in University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, the Cheez-It Bowl was relocated there as a permanent replacement; the Cheez-It Bowl is temporarily being played at its previous home of Chase Field in Phoenix while Sun Devil Stadium undergoes renovations.
The renovations are being undertaken during the offseason, requiring Arizona State to close the stadium at the conclusion of football season through 2017. During this time, the game is one of two bowl games played in baseball-specific stadiums: the other being the Pinstripe Bowl, played at Yankee Stadium. "Cactus Bowl" had been the planned name for what became the Copper Bowl in 1989. The game was played under the Copper Bowl name through 1996, after which title sponsorship rights were assumed by Insight Enterprises, who self-titled the game from 1997 through 2011. In 2012, restaurant chain Buffalo Wild Wings became the sponsor and self-titled the game for two years. Buffalo Wild Wings declined to renew sponsorship following the 2013 game, at which time organizers opted to rename the game "Cactus Bowl" rather than reverting to the Copper Bowl name. There had been a Texas-based Cactus Bowl played in Division II, however that game was discontinued after 2011. For 2014, TicketCity sponsored the new Cactus Bowl, Motel 6 became the sponsor in 2015.
In 2018, Kellogg's became the sponsor and rebranded the bowl, naming it after its popular cheese cracker, Cheez-It. For the first ten years, the game was played at Arizona Stadium, on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. In 2000, the bowl's organizers moved the game to Bank One Ballpark, a baseball-specific stadium, in downtown Phoenix. In 2006, the game moved to Sun Devil Stadium at Arizona State University in Tempe to replace the Fiesta Bowl, which had moved to University of Phoenix Stadium in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale; the 2006 game set a record for the biggest comeback in NCAA Division I FBS bowl history, as Texas Tech came back from a 38–7 third-quarter deficit to defeat Minnesota 44–41 in overtime. Before 2006, the game featured teams from the Pac-10, WAC, Big 12, old Big East conferences. From 2006-2013, it began featuring an annual matchup between teams from the Big Ten and the Big 12. Starting with the 2015 game, it has featured a matchup between Pac-12 and Big 12 teams, contingent on bowl eligibility.
Teams from the ACC and MW have competed, along with teams from the now defunct SWC and Big Eight, one independent school. For the first three playings of the Copper Bowl, TBS carried the game. Beginning in 1992 and continuing until the 2005 playing, the game aired on ESPN. After a four-year hiatus, during which NFL Network carried the game, ESPN regained the rights beginning in 2010. Games 1–11 played in Tucson at Arizona Stadium Games 12–17 played in Phoenix at Bank One Ballpark Games 18–26 played in Tempe at Sun Devil Stadium Games 27–present played in Phoenix at Chase Field Two MVPs are selected for each game; the bowl awarded a sportsmanship award for the 2001 through January 2016 games. Texas is the only current Big 12 school. Seven of the current Big 12 schools have appeared multiple times. Former Big 12 members Colorado and Missouri have appeared in the bowl, but former Big 12 members Nebraska and Texas A&M have not. Updated through the December 2018 edition. Teams with multiple appearancesTeams with a single appearanceWon: BYU, Kansas, Michigan State, Washington State, Wisconsin Lost: Air Force, Boise State, Boston College, New Mexico, North Carolina State, Notre Dame, Rutgers, UCLA, Virginia Tech, Washington Updated through the December 2018 edition.
Notes: Pac-12 record includes appearances when the conference was the Pac-10. From 1989 through 2005, Pac-10 teams made eight appearances and were 7–1. Current Pac-12 member Colorado appeared in the game as a member of the Big 12 in 1999. Notre Dame appeared as an Independent in 2004; the bowl has been televised by three different networks. List of college bowl games Official website
2005 NFL season
The 2005 NFL season was the 86th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 8, 2005 to January 1, 2006; the regular season saw the first regular season game played outside the United States, as well as the New Orleans Saints being forced to play elsewhere due to damage to the Superdome and the entire New Orleans area by Hurricane Katrina. The playoffs began on January 7. New England's streak of 10 consecutive playoff wins and chance at a third straight Super Bowl title was ended in the Divisional Playoff Round by the Denver Broncos, the NFL title was won by the Pittsburgh Steelers, who defeated the Seattle Seahawks 21–10 in Super Bowl XL at Ford Field in Detroit, Michigan on February 5 for their fifth Super Bowl win; this marked the first time that a sixth-seeded team, who by the nature of their seeding would play every game on the road, would advance to and win the Super Bowl. The season formally concluded with the Pro Bowl, the league's all-star game, at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 12.
This marked the final season that ABC held the rights to televise Monday Night Football after thirty-six years of airing the series. When the TV contracts were renewed near the end of the season, the rights to broadcast Monday Night Football were awarded to Disney-owned corporate sibling ESPN. NBC bought the right to televise Sunday Night Football, marking the first time that the network broadcast NFL games since Super Bowl XXXII in 1998. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively; the 2005 season featured the first regular season game played outside the United States when a San Francisco 49ers – Arizona Cardinals game was played at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City on October 2. The game drew an NFL regular season record of 103,467 paid fans, it was a home game for the Cardinals because the team sold out at their then-home field, Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona. This season was the last year.
Due to the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the Louisiana Superdome and the greater New Orleans area, the New Orleans Saints’ entire 2005 home schedule was played at different venues while the Saints set up temporary operations in San Antonio, Texas. The Saints’ first home game scheduled for September 18 against the New York Giants was moved to September 19 at Giants Stadium, where the Giants won 27–10; the impromptu “Monday Night doubleheader” with the game scheduled was a success, was made a permanent part of the schedule the next year when Monday Night Football made the move to ESPN. As a result of the unscheduled doubleheader, the NFL designated its second weekend, September 18 and 19, as “Hurricane Relief Weekend’, with fund raising collections at all of the league's games; the Saints’ remaining home games were split between the Alamodome in San Antonio and Louisiana State University's Tiger Stadium in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Being forced to travel to 13 of their 16 games and practice in substandard facilities and conditions in San Antonio, the Saints finished 3–13, their worst season since 1999.
The last time an NFL franchise had to play at an alternate site was in 2002, when the Chicago Bears played home games in Champaign, Illinois, 120 miles away, due to the reconstruction of Soldier Field. The last NFL team to abandon their home city during a season was the hapless 1952 Dallas Texans, whose franchise was returned to the league after drawing several poor crowds at the Cotton Bowl, they played their final “home” game at the Rubber Bowl in Akron, against the Bears on Thanksgiving. The Sunday, October 23 game between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Miami Dolphins at Dolphins Stadium was rescheduled to Friday, October 21 at 7:00 pm EDT to beat Hurricane Wilma's arrival to the Miami, Florida area; the Chiefs won the game, 30–20, became the first visiting team to travel and play on the same day. Since the game was planned for Sunday afternoon, it is one of the few times in history that the Dolphins wore their road jerseys in a home game played at night; the “horse-collar tackle”, in which a defender grabs inside the back or side of an opponent's shoulder pads and pulls that player down, is prohibited.
Named the “Roy Williams Rule” after the Dallas Cowboys safety whose horse collar tackles during the 2004 season caused serious injuries to Philadelphia Eagles wide receiver Terrell Owens, Tennessee Titans wide receiver Tyrone Calico, Baltimore Ravens running back Musa Smith. Peel-back blocks below the waist and from the back are now illegal. Unnecessary roughness would be called for blocks away from the play on punters or kickers, similar to the same protection quarterbacks have after interceptions; when time is stopped by officials prior to the snap for any reason while time is in, the play clock resumes with the same amount of time that remained on it – with a minimum of 10 seconds. The play-clock would be reset to 25 seconds. During field goal and extra point attempts, the defensive team will be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct if it calls consecutive timeouts in an attempt to "ice" the kicker; the second timeout request was only denied by officials, thus could be used to distract the kickers.
Players cannot run, dive into, cut, or throw
College of the Canyons
College of the Canyons is a public community college in Santa Clarita, California. Local voters approved the formation of the college in 1967, it opened in 1969, operating in temporary quarters on the campus of William S. Hart High School in Newhall. In 1970, the college purchased a permanent campus site along the east side of Interstate 5, south of Valencia Boulevard and north of McBean Parkway; the college relocated to a collection of modular buildings on the site in 1970 as permanent facilities were being built. Over the years, educational facilities have been built to ensure that they blend with the natural attributes of the location, creating a relaxed and comfortable physical environment; the college is located on 153.4 acres of rolling, tree-dotted hills in the incorporated city of Santa Clarita in northern Los Angeles County, California. Recent additions to the campus include a 926-seat performing arts center, built in partnership with the city of Santa Clarita, that offers academic and professional productions.
The facility, which holds a smaller experimental theater, opened in late 2004. A new Music/Dance Building opened adjacent to the performing arts center in 2005; as of early 2006, construction was under way on a new High-Tech Classroom Building and a major expansion of the Laboratory Building. In 2007 the college opened its Canyon Country campus on a 70-acre site located at 17200 Sierra Hwy. Santa Clarita, CA 91351; the campus had an enrollment of 3,845 in fall 2009. Its first permanent building, the Applied Technology Education Center, was scheduled to open in 2011 to provide education and training in a variety of high-demand "green" technology fields; the campus is composed of modular buildings that are situated to best accommodate planned permanent buildings as they are built in the years to come. The campus has an outdoor venue, the Carl A. Rasmussen Amphitheater, that has hosted a variety of campus and community events such as the popular Star Party. With 191 full-time faculty members, the college offers Associate of Arts and Associate of Science degrees in 69 academic programs, as well as credentials in 82 certificate programs.
Programs include Audio/Radio Production, Child Development, Film/Video Production, Fire Control Technology, Industrial Manufacturing, Nursing, Paralegal Studies, Television Production, Theatre Arts and Video Game Animation. Recent additions to the curricula include programs in insurance, web development, ESL, hotel-restaurant entrepreneurship, human services-gerontology and medical laboratory technician; the college is a participant in several innovative partnerships that have redefined the traditional role of community colleges. Academy of the Canyons, a middle college high school operated by the William S. Hart Union High School District, opened on the College of the Canyons campus in 2002; the concept allows promising high school students to attend high college concurrently. The college oversees the University Center, a collection of public and private universities that offer advanced degree programs on the college’s campus, eliminating the need for residents to commute long distances to earn their degrees.
Operating at the college are the Center for Applied Competitive Technologies and the Employee Training Institute, both of which have helped local businesses become more efficient and train employees in the latest emerging fields. The Small Business Development Center and the i3 Advanced Technology Center, hosted by the college, leverages college resources and provides addition support and seminars to assist entrepreneurs and small business owners. Since 1994, the COC Speech Team has been recognized nationally at six consecutive Phi Rho Pi National Tournaments for all three major areas of speech competition. Headed by Professor Michael Leach, the team has advanced in its success over the years. Most the team left the 2013 Phi Rho Pi National Tournament with 5 medals including, one gold, one silver and 3 bronze medals; the college athletics teams are nicknamed the Cougars. The college competes in the Western State Conference in twelve sports: football, soccer women's volleyball, cross country running, softball, swimming and field and men's and women's basketball.
The men's golf team has won eight state championships 1991 and 7 since 2000 women's golf won the state championship in fall of 2001 and again in 2007. This is the second time that the Women's and Men's team have won back to back state championships in the same academic year The men's football team won the national championship in 2004; the men's ice hockey club won the ACHA Division III National Title in 2011. The men's Baseball team has won three state championships 1981,1983 and 1986; as of 2017, COC has won 179 conference titles, 31 state titles, 1 national title. Of the conference titles baseball holds 23, men’s basketball holds 8, women’s basketball holds 15, men's cross country holds 4, football holds 11, men’s golf holds 23, women’s golf holds 8, women’s soccer holds 10, softball holds 14, men's swim holds 8 individual titles, women's swim holds 1 individual title, women's dive holds 2, men’s track and field holds 2 team titles and 27 individual titles, women's track and field holds 1 team title and 17 individual titles, women’s volleyball holds 5.
The 31 state titles are held by 7 teams: baseball, men’s track and field, women’s track and field, men’s golf, woman’s golf and men’s cross country. The one national championship was won by COC football in 2004; the Amazing Race: All-Stars (aired Februa
New York Giants
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The Giants compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, which it shares with the New York Jets in a unique arrangement. The Giants hold their summer training camp at the Quest Diagnostics Training Center at the Meadowlands Sports Complex; the Giants were one of five teams that joined the NFL in 1925, is the only one of that group still existing, as well as the league's longest-established team in the Northeastern United States. The team ranks third among all NFL franchises with eight NFL championship titles: four in the pre–Super Bowl era and four since the advent of the Super Bowl, along with more championship appearances than any other team, with 19 overall appearances, their championship tally is surpassed only by the Green Bay Packers and Chicago Bears.
Throughout their history, the Giants have featured 28 Hall of Fame players, including NFL Most Valuable Player award winners Mel Hein, Frank Gifford, Y. A. Tittle, Lawrence Taylor. To distinguish themselves from the professional baseball team of the same name, the football team was incorporated as the "New York National League Football Company, Inc." in 1929 and changed to "New York Football Giants, Inc." in 1937. While the baseball team moved to San Francisco after the 1957 season, the football team continues to use "New York Football Giants, Inc." as its legal corporate name, is referred to by fans and sportscasters as the "New York Football Giants". The team has acquired several nicknames, including "Big Blue", the "G-Men", the "Jints", an intentionally mangled contraction seen in the New York Post and New York Daily News, originating from the baseball team when they were based in New York. Additionally, the team as a whole is referred to as the "Big Blue Wrecking Crew" though this moniker and refers to the Giants defensive unit during the 80s and early 90s.
The team's heated rivalry with the Philadelphia Eagles is the oldest of the NFC East rivalries, dating all the way back to 1933, has been called the best rivalry in the NFL in the 21st century. The Giants played their first game as an away game against All New Britain in New Britain, Connecticut, on October 4, 1925, they defeated New Britain 26–0 in front of a crowd of 10,000. The Giants were successful in their first season, finishing with an 8–4 record. In its third season, the team finished with the best record in the league at 11–1–1 and was awarded the NFL title. After a disappointing fourth season owner Mara bought the entire squad of the Detroit Wolverines, principally to acquire star quarterback Benny Friedman, merged the two teams under the Giants name. In 1930, there were still many who questioned the quality of the professional game, claiming the college "amateurs" played with more intensity than professionals. In December 1930, the Giants played a team of Notre Dame All Stars at the Polo Grounds to raise money for the unemployed of New York City.
It was an opportunity to establish the skill and prestige of the pro game. Knute Rockne reassembled his Four Horsemen along with the stars of his 1924 Championship squad and told them to score early defend. Rockne, like much of the public, expected an easy win, but from the beginning it was a one-way contest, with Friedman running for two Giant touchdowns and Hap Moran passing for another. Notre Dame failed to score; when it was all over, Coach Rockne told his team, "That was the greatest football machine I saw. I am glad none of you got hurt." The game raised $100,000 for the homeless, is credited with establishing the legitimacy of the professional game for those who were critical. It was the last game the legendary Rockne coached. In a 14-year span from 1933 to 1947, the Giants qualified to play in the NFL championship game 8 times, winning twice. During this period the Giants were led by Hall of Fame coach Steve Owen, Hall of Fame players Mel Hein, Red Badgro and Tuffy Leemans; the period featured the 1944 Giants, which are ranked as the #1 defensive team in NFL history, "...a awesome unit".
They gave up only 7.5 points per game and shut out five of their 10 opponents, though they lost 14-7 to the Green Bay Packers in the 1944 NFL Championship Game. The famous "Sneakers Game" was played in this era where the Giants defeated the Chicago Bears on an icy field in the 1934 NFL Championship Game, while wearing sneakers for better traction; the Giants played the Detroit Lions to a scoreless tie on November 7, 1943. To this day, no NFL game played since has ended in a scoreless tie; the Giants were successful from the latter half of the 1930s until the United States entry into World War II. They added their third NFL championship in 1938 with a 23–17 win over the Green Bay Packers, they did not win another league title until 1956, the first year the team began playing at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx borough of New York City. Aided by a number of future Pro Football Hall of Fame players such as running back Frank Gifford, linebacker Sam Huff, offensive tackle Roosevelt Brown, as well as all-pro running back Alex Webster.
The Giants' 1956 championship team not only included players who would find their way to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, but a Hall of Fame coaching staff, as well. Head coach J