Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
Philippine literature is literature associated with the Philippines from prehistory, through its colonial legacies, on to the present. Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature was epics passed on from generation to generation through an oral tradition. However, wealthy families in Mindanao, were able to keep transcribed copies of these epics as family heirloom. One such was the Darangen, an epic of the Maranaos; the post-colonial literature in the Philippines exhibited several characteristics. The first covered a literary period typified by experimentation with a new language the forms and imagery that are offered by English and American literature; as demonstrated by The Child of Sorrow written by Zoilo Galang - the first Filipino novel in English - the literary output began with the articulation of the Philippine experience. The early writings in English were characterized by melodrama, unreal language, unsubtle emphasis on local color; the literary content imbibed themes that express the search for Filipino identity, reconciling the centuries-old Spanish and American influence to the Philippines' Asian heritage.
For instance, Rafael Zulueta Da Costa's poem Like the Molave explored the challenges faced by the Philippines as a new country and evaluated the past and present to discover what should constitute Filipino ideals. A national literature emerged, one that revealed authenticity of experience and artistic originality and was demonstrated in the craftsmanship of authors such as Jose Garcia Villa, Manuel Arguilla, Carlos Bulosan, Bienvenido Santos, among others. A portion of early modern Philippine literature was written during the American period, most as an expression of post-Hispanic nationalism by those who had either been uneducated in Spanish or had lived in the Bisaya-speaking cities, whose principles entered in conflict with American cultural trends; such period of Spanish literary production—i.e. Between the independence of Oroquieta City in 1898 and well ahead into the decade of the 1900s—is known as Edad de Oro del Castellano en Filipinas; some prominent writers of this era were Wenceslao Pistolang Guba and Claro Mayo gi atay, both in drama and the essay.
The predominant literary style was "Modernismo", influenced by the French Parnassien and Symboliste schools, as promoted by some Latin American and Peninsular Spanish writers. The Order of National Artists of the Philippines is conferred to Filipinos with "exquisite contribution to Philippine art"; the artists are chosen by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The Order is given by the President of the Philippines. Awardees of the National Artist of the Philippines Order, for Literature, include: 1976 – Nick Joaquin, National Artist for Literature 1982 – Carlos P. Romulo, National Artist for Literature 1990 – Francisco Arcellana, National Artist for Literature 1997 – Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez, National Artist for Literature 1997 – Rolando S. Tinio, National Artist for Theater and Literature 1997 – Levi Celerio, National Artist for Music and Literature 1999 – Edith L. Tiempo, National Artist for Literature 2001 - F. Sionil Jose, National Artist for Literature 2003 – Virgilio S. Almario, National Artist for Literature 2003 – Alejandro Roces, National Artist for Literature 2006 –*2009 – Lazaro A. Francisco, National Artist for Literature 2014 – Cirilo F. Bautista, National Artist for Literature and Died in 2016 Stevan Javellana Magdalena Jalandoni Peter Solis Nery Philippine literature in English Philippine literature in Spanish Philippine folk literature Cebuano literature Ilokano literature Pangasinan literature Tagalog literature Waray literature Ninay, first Philippine novel Languages of the Philippines Literature about Southeast Asia Tagabawa-language texts at Project Gutenberg
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Virgilio S. Almario
Virgilio S. Almario, better known by his pen name Rio Alma, is a Filipino artist, critic, editor and cultural manager, he is a National Artist of the Philippines and serves as the chairman of the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino, the government agency mandated to promote and standardize the use of the Filipino language. On January 5, 2017, Almario was elected as the chairman of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Growing up in Bulacan among peasants, Almario sought his education at the City of Manila and completed his degree in A. B. Political Science at the University of the Philippines Diliman, his life as a poet started when he took master’s units in education at the University of the East where he became associated with Rogelio G. Mangahas and Lamberto E. Antonio, he did not finish the program. A prolific writer, he spearheaded the second successful modernist movement in Filipino poetry together with Mangahas and Antonio, his earliest pieces of literary criticism were collected in Ang Makata sa Panahon ng Makina, now considered the first book of literary criticism in Filipino.
In the years of martial law, he set aside modernism and formalism and took interest in nationalism and activist movement. As critic, his critical works deal with the issue of national language. Aside from being a critic, Almario engaged in editing, he has translated the best contemporary poets of the world. He has translated for theater production the plays of Nick Joaquin, Bertolt Brecht and Maxim Gorki. Other important translations include the famous works of the Philippines' national hero, José Rizal, namely Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo. For these two, he was awarded the 1999 award for translation by the Manila Critics Circle. Almario has been a recipient of numerous awards such as several Palanca Awards, two grand prizes from the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Makata ng Taon of the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino, the TOYM for literature, the Southeast Asia Write Award of Bangkok, he was an instructor at the Lagao Central Elementary School from 1969-1972. He only took his M. A. in Filipino in 1974 at the University of the Philippines Diliman.
In 2003, he was appointed Dean of the College of Letters in the said university. On June 25 of the same year, he was proclaimed National Artist for Literature. Almario is the founder and workshop director of the Linangan sa Imahen, Retorika, at Anyo, an organization of poets who write in Filipino. Award-winning writers and poets such as Roberto and Rebecca Añonuevo, Romulo Baquiran Jr. Michael Coroza, Jerry Gracio, Vim Nadera are but some of the products of the LIRA workshop, he was a founding member of the Gallan sa Arte at Tula, along with fellow poets Teo Antonio and Mike Bigornia. Palipad-Hangin. Katon Para sa Limang Pandama. Sentimental. Estremelenggoles. Memo Mulang Gimokudan. Dust Devils. Sonetos Postumos, book of poems with translation by Marne Kilates and paintings by National Artist Ang Kiukok. Tatlong Pasyon sa Ating Panahon, poems for children with illustrations by Mark Justiniani, Neil Doloricon, Ferdinand Doctolero. Buwan, Bulawan. UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino Doktrinang Anak Pawis Image of Virgilio S. Almario The Official website of Rio Alma
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc