Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles
Pacific Palisades is a coastal neighborhood in the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, located among Brentwood to the east and Topanga to the west, Santa Monica to the southeast, the Santa Monica Bay to the southwest, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. It is about 9 miles northwest of the UCLA campus; the area has about 24,651 residents. Of those residents it is estimated that 11,799 are males and 12,852 are females, it is a residential area, with a mixture of large private homes, small houses and apartments. In 1911, film director Thomas Ince created his Western film factory, "Inceville", which at its peak employed nearly 600 people. A decade the Rev. Charles H. Scott and the Southern California Methodist Episcopal Church bought the land. Believers lived in tents during construction. By 1925, the Palisades had 100 homes. In one subdivision, streets were named for Methodist missionaries; the tents were replaced by cabins by bungalows, by multimillion-dollar homes. The climate of the area was a big selling point.
Temperatures are much cooler than inland Los Angeles during summer, but sunnier and less foggy than areas south along the coast. During their exile from Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 40s, many German and Austrian intellectuals and artists associated with the Exilliteratur settled in Pacific Palisades, including Thomas Mann at, Lion Feuchtwanger, Theodor W. Adorno, Vicki Baum, Oskar Homolka and Emil Ludwig. Villa Aurora on Paseo Miramar, the Spanish colonial home of Feuchtwanger and his wife, became the focal point of the expatriate community, nicknamed "Weimar by the Sea". For many decades there was a virtual ban on drinking alcohol in the district, a Chinese restaurant, House of Lee, held the only liquor license; the Methodist Church created a Chautauqua Conference Grounds in Temescal Canyon. The Presbyterian Synod purchased the property in 1943 and used it as a private retreat center until the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy purchased the property in 1994 to become Temescal Gateway Park.
The Via Mesa and The Huntington Palisades are the neighborhoods that border the "village" proper to the south of Sunset Boulevard, overlooking the ocean. The Via Mesa is located between Temescal Canyon on Potrero Canyon on the east. Both of these neighborhoods are within walking distance to The Village and sit upon high bluffs that look out over the Pacific Ocean; this area is home to the largest park of the Palisades: the 117-acre Palisades Park which has four baseball diamonds, eight tennis courts, two indoor basketball courts, a hockey rink, dog parks, a number of playgrounds. The El Medio Mesa is located south of Sunset Boulevard beginning about a quarter mile west of The Village, across Temescal Canyon – just past Palisades Charter High School; the El Medio Mesa extends for a long distance from Temescal Canyon all the way to where Sunset Boulevard meets the Pacific Coast Highway. As with The Via Bluffs and The Huntington Palisades, The El Medio Bluffs are located on a high ridge overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Castellammare is located along the Pacific Coast Highway on small bluffs much closer to sea-level, north of where Sunset Boulevard meets the PCH. This is the home of the Getty Villa and the narrow, winding streets in this neighborhood have Italian names and ocean breezes. Palisades Highlands is a community near the end of Sunset Blvd. Bordering Topanga, about five minutes away from the center of Pacific Palisades; the Highlands could be considered its own separate community high up the hill overlooking the ocean, up Palisades Drive. Rustic Canyon is the neighborhood east of Chautauqua Boulevard that dips into Santa Monica Canyon and includes the Will Rogers State Historic Park; the neighborhood features post-war homes located on the former polo field of The Uplifters, the original site of The Uplifters clubhouse, "cabins" developed as second homes and weekend retreats. This area is known as Uplifter's Ranch; the Riviera is a Palisades neighborhood located two miles east of The Palisades Village and features The Riviera Country Club, a country club, streets named after various locations in the French and Italian Riviera.
The neighborhood is divided into south sections by Sunset Boulevard. It borders Brentwood; the Riviera Country Club hosts the Genesis Open on the PGA Tour in February. Riviera has hosted three major championships: the U. S. Open in 1948 and the PGA Championship in 1983 and 1995. Ben Hogan won three times in less than 18 months at the course, it became known as "Hogan's Alley." The country club will host golf during the 2028 Summer Olympics. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times's "Mapping L. A." project supplied these Pacific Palisades statistics: population: 25,507 residents in the 22.84-square-mile neighborhood—1,048 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city and the county. Every Fourth of July, the community's Chamber of Commerce sponsors day-long events which include 5K and 10K runs, a parade down Sunset Boulevard, a fireworks display at Palisades High School football field; the district includes some large parklands and many hiking trails. The Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks operates several recreational faci
J. Paul Getty
Jean Paul Getty, known as J. Paul Getty, was a naturalized British American petrol-industrialist, the patriarch of the Getty family, he founded the Getty Oil Company, in 1957 Fortune magazine named him the richest living American, while the 1966 Guinness Book of Records named him as the world's richest private citizen, worth an estimated $1.2 billion. At his death, he was worth more than $6 billion. A book published in 1996 ranked him as the 67th richest American who lived, based on his wealth as a percentage of the concurrent gross national product. Despite his vast wealth, Getty was famously frugal, notably negotiating his grandson's Italian kidnapping ransom in 1973. Getty was an avid collector of art and antiquities, his collection formed the basis of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles and more than $661 million of his estate was left to the museum after his death, he established the J. Paul Getty Trust in 1953; the trust is the world's wealthiest art institution, operates the J. Paul Getty Museum Complexes: The Getty Center, The Getty Villa and the Getty Foundation, the Getty Research Institute, the Getty Conservation Institute.
Getty was born into a Scottish American family in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Sarah Catherine McPherson and George Getty, an attorney in the insurance industry. Getty was raised as a Methodist by his parents, his father was a devout Christian Scientist and both were strict teetotalers. In 1903, when Getty was 10 years old, George Getty travelled to Bartlesville and bought the mineral rights for 1,100 acres of land. Within a few years Getty had established wells on the land which were producing 100,000 barrels of crude oil a month; as newly minted millionaires, the family moved to Los Angeles to escape the harsh Minnesota winters. At age 14, Getty attended Harvard Military School for a year, followed by Polytechnic High School, where he was given the nickname "Dictionary Getty" because of his love of reading, he became fluent in French and Italian. Getty was conversational in Spanish, Greek and Russian. A love of the classics led Getty to acquire reading proficiency in Latin, he enrolled at the University of Southern California at the University of California, but left both before obtaining a degree.
Enamored with Europe after traveling abroad with his parents in 1910, Getty enrolled at the University of Oxford on November 28, 1912. A letter of introduction by then-President of the United States William Howard Taft enabled him to gain independent instruction from tutors at Magdalen College. Although he was not registered at Magdalen, he claimed the aristocratic students "accepted me as one of their own" and he fondly boasted of the friends he made, including Edward VIII, the future King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India, he obtained degrees in economics and political science from Oxford in June 1913 spent months traveling throughout Europe and Egypt before meeting his parents in Paris and returning with them to America in June 1914. In the autumn of 1914, George Getty gave his son $10,000 to invest in expanding the family's oil field holdings in Oklahoma; the first lot he bought, the Nancy Taylor No. 1 Oil Well Site near Haskell, Oklahoma was crucial to his early financial success.
The well struck oil in August 1915 and by the next summer the 40 percent net production royalty he accrued from it had made him a millionaire. In 1919, Getty returned to business in Oklahoma. During the 1920s, he added about $3 million to his sizable estate, his succession of marriages and divorces so distressed his father that Getty inherited only $500,000 of the $10 million fortune his father left at the time of his death in 1930. Getty was left with one-third of the stock from George Getty Inc. while his mother received the remaining two-thirds, giving her a controlling interest. In 1936, Getty's mother convinced him to contribute to the establishment of a $3.3 million investment trust, called the Sarah C. Getty Trust, to ensure the family's ever-growing wealth could be channeled into a tax-free, secure income for future generations of the Getty family; the trust enabled Getty to have easy access to ready capital, which he was funneling into the purchase of Tidewater Petroleum stock. Shrewdly investing his resources during the Great Depression, Getty acquired Pacific Western Oil Corporation and began the acquisition of the Mission Corporation, which included Tidewater Oil and Skelly Oil.
In 1967, Getty merged these holdings into Getty Oil. Beginning in 1949, Getty paid Ibn Saud $9.5 million in cash and $1 million a year for a 60-year concession to a tract of barren land near the border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, although no oil had been discovered there. Since 1953, Getty's gamble produced 16 million barrels a year, which contributed to the fortune responsible for making him one of the richest people in the world. Getty’s wealth and ability to speak Arabic enabled his unparalleled expansion into the Middle East. Getty owned the controlling interest in about 200 businesses, including Getty Oil. Getty owned Getty Oil, Getty Inc. George F. Getty Inc. Pacific Western Oil Corporation, Mission Corporation, Mission Development Company, Tidewater Oil, Skelly Oil, Mexican Seaboard Oil, Petroleum Corporation of America, Spartan Aircraft Company, Spartan Cafeteria Company, Minnehoma Insurance Company, Minnehoma Financial Company, Pierre Hotel, Pierre Marques Hotel, a 15th-century palace and nearby castle at Ladispoli on the coast northwest of Rome, a Malibu ranch home, Sutton Place, a 72-room mansion near Guildford, Surrey.
Getty moved to Britain in the 1950s and became a prominent admirer of England, its
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material and design integrity of any built heritage are prolonged through planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of cultural heritage; the decision is value based: a combination of artistic and informational values is considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice; the Conservation Architect must consider factors that deal with issues of prolonging the life and preserving the integrity of architectural character, such as form and style, and/or its constituent materials, such as stone, glass and wood. In this sense, the term refers to the "professional use of a combination of science, art and technology as a preservation tool" and is allied with - and equated to - its parent fields, of historic environment conservation and art conservation.
In addition to the design and art/science definition described above, architectural conservation refers to issues of identification, policy and advocacy associated with the entirety of the cultural and built environment. This broader scope recognizes that society has mechanisms to identify and value historic cultural resources, create laws to protect these resources, develop policies and management plans for interpretation and education; this process operates as a specialized aspect of a society's planning system, its practitioners are termed built or historic environment conservation professionals. Architectural conservation is the process by which individuals or groups attempt to protect valued buildings from unwanted change; as a movement, architectural conservation in general, the preservation of ancient structures gained momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a response to Modernism and its corresponding architectural perspective, which eschewed sentimental attachment to old buildings and structures in favor of technological and architectural progress and change.
Prior to this time most of the ancient buildings that were still standing had only survived because they either had significant cultural or religious import, or they had yet to be discovered. The growth of the architectural conservation movement took place at a time of significant archaeological discovery and scientific advancement; those educated in the field began to see various examples of architecture as either being "correct" or "incorrect". Because of this, two schools of thought began to emerge within the field of building conservation. Preservation/Conservation were used interchangeably to refer to the architectural school of thought that either encouraged measures that would protect and maintain buildings in their current state, or would prevent further damage and deterioration to them; this school of thought saw the original design of old buildings as correct of themselves. Two of the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century were art critic John Ruskin and artist William Morris.
Restoration was the conservationist school of thought that believed historic buildings could be improved, sometimes completed, using current day materials and techniques. In this way it is similar to the Modernist architectural theory, except it does not advocate the destruction of ancient structures. One of the most ardent supporters of this school of thought in the 19th century was the French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Victorian restoration of medieval churches was widespread in England and elsewhere, with results that were deplored at the time by William Morris and are now regretted; the Department of the Interior of the United States defined the following treatment approaches to architectural conservation: Preservation, "places a high premium on the retention of all historic fabric through conservation and repair. It reflects a building's continuum over time, through successive occupancies, the respectful changes and alterations that are made." Rehabilitation "emphasizes the retention and repair of historic materials, but more latitude is provided for replacement because it is assumed the property is more deteriorated prior to work.
(Both Preservation and Rehabilitation standards focus attention on the preservation of those materials, finishes and spatial relationships that, give a property its historic character." See adaptive reuse. Restoration "focuses on the retention of materials from the most significant time in a property's history, while permitting the removal of materials from other periods." Reconstruction, "establishes limited opportunities to re-create a non-surviving site, building, structure, or object in all new materials."Other nations recognize some or all of these as potential treatments for historic structures. Canada recognizes preservation and restoration; the Burra Charter, for Australia, identifies preservation and reconstruction. The earliest building materials used by ancient peoples, such as wood and mud, were organic. Organic materials were used because they were renewable; the organic materials used were very susceptible to the two most significant impediments to preservation and conservation: the elements and life.
Over time inorganic materials like brick, metal and terra cotta began to be used by ancient people instead of organic ones, due to their durability. In fact, we know that these materials are durable because many ancient structures that are composed of them some built a
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library
The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library is a library located in Avery Hall on the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University in the New York City. It is the largest architecture library in the world. Serving Columbia's Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation and the Department of Art History and Archaeology, Avery Library collects books and periodicals in architecture, historic preservation, art history, sculpting, graphic arts, decorative arts, city planning, real estate, archaeology, as well as archival materials documenting 19th- and 20th-century American architects and architecture; the architectural, fine arts, archival collections are non-circulating. The Ware Collection books on urban planning and real estate development, does circulate. Avery Library is named for New York architect Henry Ogden Avery, a friend of William Robert Ware, the first professor of architecture at Columbia University in 1881. Soon after Avery's death in 1890, his parents, Samuel Putnam Avery and Mary Ogden Avery, established the library as a memorial to their son.
They offered his collection of 2,000 books in architecture and the decorative arts, many of his original drawings, as well as funds to round out the book collection and to create an endowment. The Library now holds more than 400,000 volumes and receives 900 periodicals, with legacy holdings of 1,900 serial titles; the library's historic first-level reading room is a significant example of work by the New York architectural firm McKim and White. The library building itself designed by McKim and White, celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2012. Avery Library's collection in architecture literature is among the largest in the world and includes such highlights as the first Western printed book on architecture, De re aedificatoria, by Leone Battista Alberti. In 2012, Avery, in partnership with the Museum of Modern Art, acquired the entire archive of Frank Lloyd Wright. Art Properties oversees the collection of art and cultural artifacts owned by Columbia University. More than 90% of the collection comes from donations and bequests by alumni, faculty and students.
Comprising more than 10,000 works of art in all media, displayed in buildings at each campus and held in storage, the art collection reflects all cultures and time periods. Highlights from the collection include: the public outdoor sculpture on all the campuses. Among the larger collections of works by individual artists are photographs and prints by Andy Warhol and the largest collection of paintings and watercolors by Florine Stettheimer. Works from the collection are available for research consultation and curricular use, may be requested as external loans for special exhibitions. Art Properties is responsible for the permanent installation of Chinese art in the Sackler Gallery, Low Library 207, for coordinating the rotating exhibitions in the Rotunda of Low Library. Avery Classics is the rare book department of Avery Library, it contains 40,000 printed volumes published over seven centuries, from Leon Battista Alberti’s De re aedificatoria to the recent limited edition volume, Olafur Eliasson’s Your House.
The Classics collection has important holdings of manuscripts, photographs, graphic suites - including Giovanni Battista Piranesi’s Carceri and Vedute di Roma –and printed ephemera. Notable special collections within Classics include the Trade Catalog Collection, one of the largest collections of catalogs of the American building trades anywhere, the American View Book Collection, which includes books and brochures that document cities and buildings throughout the United States. While an appointment is necessary, Avery Classics is open to the general public for research. Avery's Drawings & Archives department is among the largest and most significant architectural archives in the world, its holdings include more than two million architectural drawings, manuscripts, business records, audio-visual recordings, other related materials documenting the architectural history New York City and the surrounding region, with significant and wide-ranging examples of American and international architecture relating to the work of New York-based architects and alumni of Columbia's School of Architecture.
Among the notable architects and designers represented in the collection are: The Archives holds the records of the Empire State Building, Guastavino Fireproof Construction Company, the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. and Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, New York, as well as papers of artist and writer Kenyon Cox, journalist Douglas Haskell, editor of Architectural Forum, drawings by mural and stained glass artist John LaFarge. The department has major archives of architectural photography, including works by C. D. Arnold, George Cserna, Samuel H. Gottsch
Frank Owen Gehry, FAIA is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles. A number of his buildings, including his private residence, have become world-renowned attractions, his works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age". Gehry's best-known works include the titanium-clad Guggenheim Museum in Spain, it was his private residence in Santa Monica, that jump-started his career. Gehry is the designer of the future National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario, to parents Sadie Thelma and Irving Goldberg, his father was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish parents, his mother was a Polish Jewish immigrant born in Łódź. A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Leah Caplan, with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood. With these scraps from her husband's hardware store, she entertained him for hours, building imaginary houses and futuristic cities on the living room floor.
His use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or "everyday" materials was inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather's hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father. "So the creative genes were there", Gehry says. "But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn't gonna amount to anything. It was my mother, she would push me."He was given the Hebrew name "Ephraim" by his grandfather, but only used it at his bar mitzvah. In 1947, his family immigrated to the United States settling in California. Gehry got a job driving a delivery truck, studied at Los Angeles City College to graduate from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture. During that time, he became a member of Alpha Epsilon Pi. According to Gehry, "I was a truck driver in L. A. going to City College, I tried radio announcing, which I wasn't good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn't good at and didn't like, I remembered. You know, somehow I just started wracking my brain about,'What do I like?'
Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music; those things came from my mother, who took me to museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes." Gehry graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture degree from USC in 1954. After graduating from college, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army. In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, he left before completing the program and underwhelmed. Gehry's left-wing ideas about responsible architecture were under-realized, the final straw occurred when he sat in on a discussion of one professor's "secret project in progress"—a palace that he was designing for right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Gehry returned to Los Angeles to work for Victor Gruen Associates, to whom he had been apprenticed while at the USC School of Architecture.
In 1957 he was given the chance to design his first private residence at the age of 28, with friend and old classmate Greg Walsh. Construction was done by another neighbor across the street from Charlie Sockler. Built in Idyllwild, for his wife Anita's family neighbor Melvin David, "The David Cabin", shows features that were to become synonymous with work; the over 2,000 sq ft mountain retreat has unique design features with strong Asian influences, stemming from his earliest inspirations at the time like Shosoin Treasure House in Nara, among others. Beams protrude from the exterior sides, vertical grain douglas fir detail, exposed, unfinished ceiling beams are prominent features. In 1961, he moved to Paris. In 1962, Gehry established a practice in Los Angeles which became Frank Gehry and Associates in 1967 and Gehry Partners in 2001. Gehry's earliest commissions were all in Southern California, where he designed a number of innovative commercial structures such as Santa Monica Place and residential buildings such as the eccentric Norton House in Venice, California.
Among these works, Gehry's most notable design may be the renovation of his own Santa Monica residence. Built in 1920 and purchased by Gehry in 1977, the house features a metallic exterior wrapped around the original building that leaves many of the original details visible. Gehry still resides there. Other completed buildings designed by Gehry during the 1980s include the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro and the California Aerospace Museum at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles. In 1989, Gehry was awarded the