The History of The Lord of the Rings
The History of The Lord of the Rings is a four-volume work by Christopher Tolkien published between 1988 and 1992 that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkien's writing of The Lord of the Rings; the History is numbered as volumes six to nine of The History of Middle-earth. Some information concerning the appendices and a soon-abandoned sequel to the novel can be found in volume twelve, The Peoples of Middle-earth; the volumes include: The Return of the Shadow The Treason of Isengard The War of the Ring Sauron Defeated The first volume of The History encompasses three initial stages of composition or, as Christopher Tolkien calls them, "phases", finishes with the Fellowship of the Ring entering the Mines of Moria. The second volume continues to the meeting with Théoden king of Rohan, includes discussions of the original map of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, of the evolution of Cirth; the third volume, The War of the Ring continues to the opening of the Black Gate. The last volume finishes the story and features the rejected Epilogue, in which Sam answers his children's questions.
It includes The Notion Club Papers, a draft of the Drowning of Anadûnê, the only extant account of Tolkien's fictional language Adûnaic. Some paperback editions of the fourth volume, retitled The End of the Third Age, include only the materials for The Lord of the Rings; the original idea was to release The History of The Lord of the Rings in not four. When The Treason of Isengard was first published in paperback Volume 8 was to be called Sauron Defeated and was to be the last volume; the titles of the volumes derive from discarded titles for the separate books of The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien conceived the latter as a single volume comprising six "books" plus extensive appendices, but the original publisher split the work into three, publishing two books per volume with the appendices included in the third; the titles proposed by Tolkien for the six books were: Book I, The First Journey or The Ring Sets Out. The title The Return of the Shadow was a discarded title for Volume I. Three of the titles of the volumes of The History of The Lord of the Rings were used as book titles for the seven-volume edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Treason of Isengard for Book III, The War of the Ring for Book V, The End of the Third Age for Book VI.
There is an inscription in Fëanorian characters on the title pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Volume VI reads: In the Return of the Shadow are traced the first forms of the story of the Lord of the Rings; the inscription in Volume VII reads: In the Treason of Isengard the story of the Fellowship of the Ring is traced from Rivendell through Moria and the Land of Lothlorien to the time of its ending at Salembel beside Anduin the Great river is told of the return of Gandalf Mithrandir, of the meeting of the hobbits with Fangorn and of the war upon the Riders of Rohan by the traitor Saruman. The inscription in Volume VIII reads: In the War of the Ring is traced the story of the history at Helm's Deep and the drowning of Isengard by the Ents is told of the journey of Frodo with Samwise and Gollum to the Morannon, of the meeting with Faramir and the stairs of Cirith Ungol, of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and of the coming of Aragorn in the fleet of Umbar.
The inscription in Volume IX reads: In this book is traced first the story of the destruction of the One Ring and the Downfall of Sauron at the End of the Third Age. Follows an account of the intrusion of the Cataclysm of the West into the deliberations of certain scholars of Oxford and the Fall of Sauron named Zigûr in the Drowning of Anadûne; the History of The Lord of the Rings reveals much of the slow, aggregative nature of Tolkien’s creativity. As Christopher Tolkien noted of the first two volumes, Tolkien had brought the story up to Rivendell, but still “without any clear conception of what lay before him”, he noted how, on the way, his father could get caught up in a “spider’s web of argumentation” - what Tom Shippey described as getting “bogged down in sometimes strikingly unnecessary webs of minor causation”. Thus the character known as Peregrin Took was, in a series of rewriting and of deleted adventures, variously known as Odo, Folco, Peregrin, Hamilcar and Olo – the figures being Boffins and Bolgers, as well as Tooks.
Only with the Breaking of the Fellowship did fluency arrive for Tolkien, his son recording how chapters were “achieved with far greater facility than any previous part of the story”. Thereafter Tolkien’s problem was rather one of selecting between alternative accounts, so as to produce the best effect – two episodes in Sauron Defeated that were deleted being the pardoning of Saruman, an awards ceremony at the book’s close. More in-depth information on the individual books in The History of The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien
The Lays of Beleriand
The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkien's 12-volume book series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyzes the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien; the book contains the long heroic lays or lyric poetry Tolkien wrote: these are The Lay of the Children of Húrin about the saga of Túrin Turambar, The Lay of Leithian about Beren and Lúthien. Although Tolkien abandoned them before their respective ends, they are both long enough to occupy many stanzas, each of which can last for over ten pages; the first poem is in alliterative verse, the second is in rhyming couplets. Both exist in two versions. In addition to these two poems, the book gives three short, soon-abandoned alliterative poems, which are The Flight of the Noldoli from Valinor, The Lay of Eärendel, The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin; the first versions of the long lays fit chronologically in with Tolkien's earliest writings, as recounted in The Book of Lost Tales, but the version of The Lay of Leithian is contemporary with the writing of The Lord of the Rings.
The book is split into these main sections: The Lay of the Children of Húrin First version Second version Poems Early Abandoned: The Flight of the Noldoli Fragment of an alliterative Lay of Earendel The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin The Lay of Leithian: The Gest of Beren son of Barahir and Lúthien the Fay called Tinúviel the Nightingale or the Lay of Leithian - Release from Bondage Unwritten cantos Appendix: Commentary by C. S. Lewis The Lay of Leithian RecommencedIn the book Christopher Tolkien mentions a third Túrin poem, this time in rhyming couplets and incomplete called The Children of Húrin and is only 170 lines long. There is an inscription in the Fëanorian characters in the first pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book; the inscription in Book III reads: In the first part of this Book is given the Lay of the Children of Húrin by John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, in, set forth in part the Tale of Túrin. In the second part is the Lay of Leithian, the quest of Beren and Lúthien as far as the encounter of Beren with Carcharoth at the gate of Angband Beren and Lúthien Narn i Chîn Húrin The Children of Húrin The Lay of Leithian The Lay of the Children of Húrin The Silmarillion More in-depth information on The Lays of Beleriand by JRR Tolkien
Gloria Patri known as the Glory Be to the Father or, the Glory Be, is a doxology, a short hymn of praise to God in various Christian liturgies. It is referred to as the Minor Doxology or Lesser Doxology, to distinguish it from the Greater Doxology, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo; the earliest Christian doxologies are addressed to God the Father alone, or to him "through" the Son, or to the Father and the Holy Spirit with the Son, or to the Son with the Father and the Holy Spirit. The Trinitarian doxology addressed in parallel fashion to all three Divine Persons of the Trinity, joined by and, as in the form of baptism, Matthew 28:19, became universal in Nicaean Christianity, which became dominant with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380; the Greek wording is as follows: Δόξα Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ καὶ Ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι, καὶ νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν. Glory be to the Father Glory to the Father, to the Son, to the Holy Spirit, Both now and always, unto the ages of ages. Amen; the second part is slightly modified and other verses are sometimes introduced between the two halves.
East Syriac Shouha tababa, W-brona, W-ruha dqudsha, min’alam w’adamma L-’alam, Amen. Malabar East Syriac Shuw’ha L’Awa U’lawra wal’Ruha D’Qudsha Min Alam wadamma L’alam, Amen Wamen. West Syriac Shubho Labo wu Labro wu l'rooHo qadisho Min'Olam w'adam l'Olam, Amin. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, from everlasting and for and According to Worship Music: A Concise Dictionary, the lesser doxology is of Syrian origin. There is an alternate version which the Syriac Catholic Church and the Syriac Orthodox Church use in their Liturgies Shubho Labo wu Labro wu l'rooHo qadisho wu'Alain mHeli wu HaTowe raHme wa Hnono nishtef'aoon batrahoon'Olmee l'Olam'Olmeen Amin. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, And upon us, weak and sinful ones, let mercy and compassion be showered in both worlds and ever. Amen. In Orthodoxy, Arabic is one of the official liturgical languages of the Church of Jerusalem and the Church of Antioch, both autocephalous Orthodox Churches and two of the four ancient Patriarchates of the Pentarchy.
The Arabic wording of this doxology is as follows: المجد للآب و الابن و الروح القدس.الان و كل أوان و الى دهر الداهرين، أمين Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Glory to the Father, to the Son, to the Holy Spirit, As it was in the beginning, now, shall be, world without end. Amen; this differs from the Greek version because of the insertion of "Sicut erat in principio", now taken to mean "As it was in the beginning", but which seems to have meant "As he was in the beginning", echo of the opening words of the Gospel according to John: "In the beginning was the Word". In 529 the Second Synod of Vasio in Gaul said in its fifth canon that the second part of the doxology, with the words Sicut erat in principio, was used in Rome, the East, Africa, ordered it to be said in Gaul. Writing in the 1909 Catholic Encyclopedia, Adrian Fortescue, while remarking that what the synod said of the East was false, took the synod's decree to mean that the form used in the West was the same as the Greek form.
From about the 7th century the present Roman Rite version became universal throughout the West. Gloria et honor Patri et Spiritui sancto in saecula saeculorum. Glory and honour to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit for ages of ages; the similarity between this version used in the extreme west of the church and the Syriac version used in the extreme east is noteworthy. The following traditional form is the most common in Anglican usage and in older Lutheran liturgical books: Glory be to the Father, to the Son: and to the Holy Ghost. Amen; the translations of semper as "ever shall be", in sæcula sæculorum as "world without end" date at least from Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer. The Catholic Church uses the same English form, but today replaces "Holy Ghost" with "Holy Spirit", as in The Divine Office the edition of the Liturgy of the Hours used in most English-speaking countries outside the United States. Divine Worship: The Missal, published by the Holy See in 2015 for use under the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus allows "Holy Spirit" and "Holy Ghost" to be used interchangeably.
In 1971, the International Consultation on English Texts used since 1971: Glory to the Father, to the Son, to the Holy Spirit: as it was in the beginning, is now, will be for ever. Amen; this was adopted in the publication, Liturgy of the Hours, but has not come into popular use by lay Catholics. It is found in some Anglican and Lutheran publications. A variant found in Common Worship has "will" instead of "shall": Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. Amen. In Anglican circles, there are various alternative forms of the Gloria designed to avoid masculine language; the form included in Celebrating Common Prayer is: Glory to God, Source of all being, Eternal Word and Holy Spirit. Amen; the doxology in the use of the English-speaking Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, follows the Greek form, of which one English translation is: Glory to the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit and forever and to the ag
A chapbook is a type of street literature printed in early modern Europe. Produced cheaply, chapbooks were small, paper-covered booklets printed on a single sheet folded into books of 8, 12, 16 and 24 pages, they were illustrated with crude woodcuts, which sometimes bore no relation to the text. When illustrations were included in chapbooks, they were considered popular prints; the tradition of chapbooks arose in the 16th century, as soon as printed books became affordable, rose to its height during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many different kinds of ephemera and popular or folk literature were published as chapbooks, such as almanacs, children's literature, folk tales, nursery rhymes, pamphlets and political and religious tracts; the term "chapbook" for this type of literature was coined in the 19th century. The corresponding French and German terms are bibliothèque bleue and Volksbuch, respectively. In Spain they were known as pliegos de cordel; the term "chapbook" is in use for present-day publications short, inexpensive booklets.
Chapbook is first attested in English in 1824, seems to derive from the word for the itinerant salesmen who would sell such books: chapman. The first element of chapman comes in turn from Old English cēap. Broadside ballads were popular songs, sold for a penny or halfpenny in the streets of towns and villages around Britain between the 16th century and early 20th centuries, they preceded chapbooks, but had similar content and distribution systems. There are records from Cambridgeshire as early as in 1553 of a man offering a scurrilous ballad "maistres mass" at an alehouse, a pedlar selling "lytle books" to people, including a patcher of old clothes in 1578; these sales are characteristic of the market for chapbooks. Chapbooks disappeared from the mid-19th century in the face of competition from cheap newspapers and in Scotland, religious tract societies that regarded them as "ungodly." Although the form originated in Britain, many were made in the U. S. during the same period. Because of their flimsy nature such ephemera survive as individual items.
They were aimed at buyers without formal libraries, and, in an era when paper was expensive, were used for wrapping or baking. Paper has always had hygienic uses. Many of the surviving chapbooks come from the collections of Samuel Pepys between 1661 and 1688 which are now held at Magdalene College, Cambridge; the antiquary Anthony Wood collected 65 chapbooks, which are now in the Bodleian Library. There are significant Scottish collections, such as those held by the University of Glasgow. Modern collectors, such as Peter Opie, have chiefly a scholarly interest in the form. Chapbooks were cheap, anonymous publications that were the usual reading material for lower-class people who could not afford books. Members of the upper classes owned chapbooks bound in leather with a personal monogram. Printers tailored their texts for the popular market. Chapbooks were between four and twenty-four pages long, produced on rough paper with crude recycled, woodcut illustrations, they sold in the millions. After 1696 English chapbook peddlers had to be licensed, 2,500 of them were authorized, 500 in London alone.
In France, there were 3,500 licensed colporteurs by 1848, they sold 40 million books annually. The centre of chapbook and ballad production was London, until the Great Fire of London the printers were based around London Bridge. However, a feature of chapbooks is the proliferation of provincial printers in Scotland and Newcastle upon Tyne. Chapbooks were an important medium for the dissemination of popular culture to the common people in rural areas, they were a medium of entertainment and history. In general, the content of chapbooks has been criticized, for their unsophisticated narratives which were loaded with repetition and emphasized adventure through anecdotal structures. However, they are nonetheless valued as a record of popular culture, preserving cultural artifacts that may not survive in any other form. Chapbooks were priced for sales to workers, although their market was not limited to the working classes. Broadside ballads were sold for a few pence. Prices of chapbooks were from 2d. to 6d.
When agricultural labourers wages were 12d. per day. The literacy rate in England in the 1640s was around 30 percent for males and rose to 60 percent in the mid-18th century. Many working people were readers, if not writers, pre-industrial working patterns provided periods during which they could read. Chapbooks were undoubtedly used for reading to family groups in alehouses, they contributed to the development of literacy. The author and publisher Francis Kirkman wrote about how they fired his imagination and his love of books. There is other evidence of their use by autodidacts; the numbers printed are astonishing. In the 1660s as many as 400,000 almanacs were printed annually, enough for one family in three in England. One 17th-century publisher of chapbooks in London had in stock one book for every 15 families in the country. In the 1520s the Oxford bookseller, John Dorne, noted in his day-book selling up to 190 ballads a day at a halfpenny each; the probate inventory of the stock of Charles Tias, of The sign of the Three Bibles on London Bridge, in 1664 included books and printed sheets to make c.90,000 chapbooks and 37,500 ballad sheets.
Gloria in excelsis Deo
"Gloria in excelsis Deo" is a Christian hymn known as the Greater Doxology and the Angelic Hymn/Hymn of the Angels. The name is abbreviated to Gloria in Excelsis or Gloria; the hymn begins with the words that the angels said when the birth of Christ was announced to shepherds in Luke 2:14. Other verses were added early, forming a doxology. Gloria in excelsis Deo is an example of the psalmi idiotici that were popular in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Other surviving examples of this lyric poetry are the Phos Hilaron. In the 4th century it became part of morning prayers, is still recited in the Byzantine Rite Orthros service; the Latin translation is traditionally attributed to Saint Hilary of Poitiers, who may have learned it while in the East. The Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible was commissioned only in 382; the Latin hymn thus uses the word excelsis to translate the Greek word ὑψίστοις in Luke 2:14, not the word altissimis, which Saint Jerome preferred for his translation. However, this word is used near the end: Jesu Christe.
In the Byzantine Rite, the Gloria is referred to as the Doxology, there are two forms: the Greater Doxology and the Lesser Doxology. The Greater Doxology is always sung. There are certain textual differences between the two, the order is somewhat altered in the two forms; the Greater Doxology is used in the Orthros on feast days. The Lesser Doxology is used at Matins on simple weekdays and at the Apodeipnon, but not in the Divine Liturgy. By contrast, in the Roman Rite this hymn is not included in the Liturgy of the Hours, but is sung or recited in the Mass, after the Kyrie, on Sundays outside of Lent and Advent and on solemnities and feasts; the Gloria is sometimes omitted, in contemporary usage, the Kyrie and Gloria are never sung together, though they were historically. In Masses celebrated in the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite using the Roman Missal of 1962, the Gloria is sung much more with the rubrics requiring that the hymn be sung at any Mass corresponding to the Office of the day in which the Te Deum is said at Matins, the evening Mass of Maundy Thursday and at the Easter Vigil, at votive Masses of the I, II or III class, at IV class votive Masses of the Angels, as well as Masses of the Blessed Virgin on Saturday.
In the Church of England's 1549 edition of the Book of Common Prayer, it was used in the same position as in the Roman Rite but was moved to the end of the service before the concluding blessing. Revisions to the Prayer Book occurred in 1552 and 1662, but this placement was retained by the Anglican Communion until the 20th century; the published Common Worship provides two Orders one of which places the hymn in the earlier position. The 1928 United States Episcopal Prayer Book placed the Gloria at the end of the Eucharist service; this edition, still the standard in the breakaway Continuing Anglican churches, allowed the hymn to be used in place of the Gloria Patri after the psalms and canticles at Evening Prayer. The Episcopal Church's 1979 Book moved it to the beginning, after or in place of the Kyrie in Rite One. In a Rite Two service of Holy Eucharist, the Gloria, or another song of praise, is sung or said on all Sundays except those in Advent or Lent, it may be used at other times as desired excepting Lent and Advent.
The hymn is used in the Divine Service of the Lutheran Church, in the services of many other Christian churches. A tradition recorded in the Liber Pontificalis attributes to Pope Telesphorus the use of the hymn at the Mass of Christmas Day and to Pope Symmachus its use on Sundays and the feasts of martyrs, but only by bishops. After the 12th century Advent began to be considered a penitential period in imitation of Lent, to the exclusion therefore of the Gloria in excelsis Deo. In the Tridentine Mass, the priest is instructed, when saying the opening phrase "Gloria in excelsis Deo", to extend his hands and raise them to shoulder height and, at the word "Deo", to join them and bow his head, he is to continue the recitation standing erect with hands joined and bowing his head to the cross at the words "Adoramus te", "Gratias agimus tibi", "Iesu Christe", "Suscipe deprecationem nostram", at the concluding phrase, to make a large sign of the cross on himself. At High Mass the priest intones the opening phrase, while the subdeacon stand behind him.
The Roman Missal as revised in 1970 simplifies this, saying: "
Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham is a comic Medieval fable written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1937 and published in 1949; the story describes the encounters between Farmer Giles and a wily dragon named Chrysophylax, how Giles manages to use these to rise from humble beginnings to rival the king of the land. It is cheerfully anachronistic and light-hearted, set in Britain in an imaginary period of the Dark Ages, featuring mythical creatures, medieval knights, primitive firearms, it is only tangentially connected with the author's Middle-earth legendarium: both were intended as essays in "English mythology". The book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes; the story has appeared with other works by Tolkien in omnibus editions, including The Tolkien Reader and Tales from the Perilous Realm. Tolkien dedicated Farmer Giles of Ham to Cyril Hackett Wilkinson, a don he knew at Oxford University. Farmer Giles is not a hero, he enjoys a slow, comfortable life. But a rather deaf and short-sighted giant blunders on to his land, Giles manages to ward him away with a blunderbuss shot in his general direction.
The people of the village cheer: Farmer Giles has become a hero. His reputation spreads across the kingdom, he is rewarded by the King with a sword named Caudimordax —which turns out to be a powerful weapon against dragons; the giant, on returning home, relates to his friends that there are no more knights in the Middle Kingdom, just stinging flies—actually the scrap metal shot from the blunderbuss—and this entices a dragon, Chrysophylax Dives, to investigate the area. The terrified neighbours all expect the accidental hero Farmer Giles to deal with him; the story parodies the great dragon-slaying traditions. The knights sent by the King to pursue the dragon are useless fops, more intent on "precedence and etiquette" than on the huge dragon footprints littering the landscape; the only part of a'dragon' they know is the annual celebratory dragon-tail cake. Giles by contrast recognises the danger, resents being sent with them to face it, but hapless farmers can be forced to become heroes, Giles shrewdly makes the best of the situation.
It has been suggested that the Middle Kingdom is based on early Mercia, that Giles's break-away realm is based on Frithuwald's Surrey. Tolkien, by profession a philologist, sprinkled several philological jokes into the tale, including a variety of ingeniously fake etymologies. All the place-names are supposed to occur close to Oxford, along the Thames, or along the route to London. At the end of the story, Giles is made Lord of Tame, Count of Worminghall; the village of Oakley, burnt to the ground by the dragon early in the story, may be named after Oakley, near to Thame. Tolkien insists, tongue in cheek, that the village of Thame referred to the Tame Dragon housed in it, that "tame with an h is a folly without warrant." Another joke puts a question concerning the definition of blunderbuss to "the four wise clerks of Oxenford": A short gun with a large bore firing many balls or slugs, capable of doing execution within a limited range without exact aim. and satirises it with application to the situation at hand: However, Farmer Giles's blunderbuss had a wide mouth that opened like a horn, it did not fire balls or slugs, but anything that he could spare to stuff in.
And it did not do execution, because he loaded it, never let it off. The sight of it was enough for his purpose, and this country was not yet civilised, for the blunderbuss was not superseded: it was indeed the only kind of gun that there was, rare at that. As Tom Shippey points out: "Giles's blunderbuss... defies the definition and works just the same.". Chrysophylax Dives is a comically villainous dragon, he stands midway between Smaug and greedy, The Reluctant Dragon and timid. Chrysophylax is Greek for "gold-guard" and dīves is Latin for "rich".. Chrysophylax comes across as a pompous aristocrat—rich and arrogant, but capable of compromise if handled correctly. Farmer Giles is smart enough not to push him to desperation. Caudimordax is the sword of Farmer Giles; the sword can not be sheathed. Four generations earlier, the sword belonged to Bellomarius, "the greatest of all the dragon-slayers" in the Middle Kingdom. Farmer Giles is granted this antiquated sword—by become unfashionable—as a reward for driving off a giant from his fields with his blunderbuss.
He uses the sword to capture and control the dragon. Garm is the talking dog; the dog is both vain of his cowardly. The name is derived from the Norse mythological dog of Garm. Pauline Baynes drew Garm as a Greyhound; this 2008 reprint: includes a new Introduction by Tom Shippey. This special edition was published in 1999 to celebrate the Golden Anniversary of this classic; the publisher in the United States is Houghton Mifflin. The edition includes: Tolkien's original Latin title.
The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun
The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930 and published in Welsh Review in December 1945. Aotrou and Itroun are Breton words for "lord" and "lady"; the poem is modelled on the genre of the "Breton lay" popular in Middle English literature of the 12th century, it explores the conflict of heroic or chivalric values and Christianity, their relation to the institution of marriage. A major source for the poem has been identified as the Breton song'An Aotrou Nann hag ar Gorigann', which Tolkien knew through Wimberly's Folklore in the English and Scottish Ballads. Tolkien adds to his source a stern moral - repudiation of all traffic with the supernatural. In the poem and Itroun are a couple of Breton nobility, they are childless, Aotrou seeks the help of a witch. When Itroun is with child, the witch reappears, revealing herself as the Corrigan, asks for Aotrou's love as payment. Aotrou sacrifices his knightly honour to Christian values, breaks his word. "I gave no love.
My love is wed. Aotrou died followed by his wife with a broken heart, they are buried together, they do not live to see their offspring grow up - something, interpreted as a judgement on Aotrou for excessive family pride. The lay was published in The Welsh Review in 1945 but had been unavailable for decades. A book form, edited by Tolkien scholar Verlyn Flieger, was published on 3 November 2016. Flieger edited Tolkien's The Story of Kullervo. A. Lewis ed. Leaves from the Tree T. Keightly, The Fairy Mythology