Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
United States Ambassador to the European Union
This is a list of United States ambassadors to the European Union. The formal title of this position is Representative of the United States of America to the European Union, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. United States Mission to the European Union ^ Previously representative to several of the pre-EU groups including the European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community, European Atomic Energy Community. First ambassador. ^ Title changed from "European Communities" to "European Union" on May 9, 1994. United States Mission to the European Union
United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States
The following is a list of people who have served as United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States, or the full title, Representative of the United States of America to the Organization of American States, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. United States Mission to the Organization of American States
Landing Craft Support
The Landing Craft, Support were two distinct classes of amphibious warfare vessels were used by the United States Navy in Pacific and the Royal Navy in World War II. The USN versions which were reclassified Landing Ship Support, Large performed radar picket duty and fire fighting; the original designation for the ships was LCS, which stood for "Landing Craft Support Mark 3". In 1949 the class was reclassified to "Landing Ship Support, Large"; the United States Navy had to have the designation LCS because there was a smaller class named LCL, that were built for rescue and smoke laying during amphibious operation. A total of 130 were made. Three different ship building yards did the construction: George Son; the hull was the same as the Landing Craft Infantry ships. They were 158 ft 6 in long, displaced 250 long tons, 23 ft 3 in wide and drew 5 ft 10 in when loaded; the flat bottom and skegs between and on either side of the twin screws allowed the ships to safely beach. The anchor is at the stern of the ship so it can be used to help pull the ship off the beach if necessary.
The twin variable pitch screws were each driven by a bank of four Grey Marine diesel engines, with a total power for all eight engines of 1,600 horsepower. These engines gave a maximum speed of 16.5 knots, but the ships sailed at 12 knots. The ships had a range of 5,500 nautical miles. Armour for the gun mounts, pilot house and conning tower was provided by 10-lb. STS splinter shields. LCS vessels could be produced in as little as 10 days, final fitting out would take a further few weeks; the ships had a smoke generator, used to obscure landing craft approaching the beach. The ships made good fire fighting ships. A fire fighting manifold was fitted in front of the bow gun and two monitors with pumps fitted just forward of the aft gun; the LCS ships provided more firepower per ton than any ship built for the U. S. Navy. Three guns and 10 rocket launchers were the main armaments; the bow gun was a single 40 mm gun or a twin 40 mm gun. The forward and aft deck guns were twin 40 mm gun; the 10 mark 7 rocket launchers were situated behind forward deck house.
Four 20 mm cannons were mounted and other arms stowed inside. The rifle locker held 4 M1 carbines, 4 Thompson sub machine guns, 1911A1 45cal semi auto pistols; the Battle of Tarawa showed a gap in Navy resources for close in support of landing troops. The time interval between the end of shelling from the large ships and the arrival of the landing craft on the beach allowed the defenders to regroup; the Landing Craft Support was designed to fill this void. The first Landing Craft Support ships arrived in the Pacific Theater in time for the landings at Iwo Jima. After providing close in support during the landings at Okinawa, many Landing Craft Support ships were placed on the radar picket stations as anti-aircraft platforms; when not on a picket stations, the ship would create smoke to hide the fleet at anchor and perform "skunk patrol" screening for suicide boats. In the Borneo Campaign, Landing Craft Support was used in landings in Balikpapan. During World War II, five LCSs were sunk in combat and 21 were damaged.
Three of these small warships received Presidential Unit Citations, while six were awarded Navy Unit citations. LT Richard M. McCool, skipper of the USS LCS 122, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. USS LCS-7 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945. USS LCS-15 sunk by kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945. USS LCS-26 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945. USS LCS-33 sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945. USS LCS-49 sunk by suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945. At the end of the war, surviving ships returned to the United States; some were restored to action for the Korean War. Many were transferred to Japan, Cambodia, Thailand and other nations. Only two ships are known to still exist. One has been modified as a fishing boat; the second was in Thailand and was kept in similar configuration to its original.
The National Association of USS LCS 1–130 was successful in having the HTMS Nakha transferred to the association for public display in the United States. She was released from the Royal Thai Navy on November 10, 2007 after being returned to the USA in September of that year; as of May 2017 the USS LCS-102 is under upkeep. It is open to the public on Tuesdays and Saturdays or by special arrangements, tours at the former Naval Ship yard, Mare Island, in Vallejo, California; the British designed and operated ten Fairmile Type H LCS vessels. Three of these were sunk in action; the Landing Craft Support Museum Museum preserving the last Landing Craft Support vessel, LCS-102 MightyMidgets.org Official Website of the National Association of USS LCS 1-130 NavSource photo archive page for the LSSL/LCS class HyperWar US Navy Landing Ships/Craft Construction Records and Disposition summaries French Riverine Craft, where some of the LSSL ended up Vic Smeed's Model Maker Annual, 1963. No ISBN. US Navy Landing Craft Support prints from 1942 List of US Landing Craft Support
Lunar soil is the fine fraction of the regolith found on the surface of the Moon. Its properties can differ from those of terrestrial soil; the physical properties of lunar soil are the result of mechanical disintegration of basaltic and anorthositic rock, caused by continuous meteoric impacts and bombardment by interstellar charged atomic particles over years. The process is one of mechanical weathering in which the particles are ground to finer and finer size over time; this situation contrasts fundamentally to terrestrial soil formation, mediated by the presence of molecular oxygen, atmospheric wind, a robust array of contributing biological processes. Some have argued that the term soil is not correct in reference to the Moon because on Earth, soil is defined as having organic content, whereas the Moon has none. However, standard usage among lunar scientists is to ignore that distinction; the term lunar soil is used interchangeably with lunar regolith, but refers to only the finer fraction of regolith, that, composed of grains 1 cm in diameter or less.
Lunar dust connotes finer materials than lunar soil. There is no official definition of what size fraction constitutes "dust"; the major processes involved in the formation of lunar soil are: Comminution: mechanical breaking of rocks and minerals into smaller particles by meteorite and micrometeorite impact. These processes not only form lunar soil, they continue to change the physical and optical properties of the soil over time. In addition, fire fountaining, whereby volcanic lava is lofted and cools into small glass beads before falling back to the surface, can create small but important deposits in some locations, such as the orange soil found at Shorty Crater in the Taurus-Littrow valley by Apollo 17, the green glass found at Hadley-Apennine by Apollo 15. Deposits of volcanic beads are thought to be the origin of Dark Mantle Deposits in other locations around the Moon. Lunar soil is composed of various types of particles including rock fragments, mono-mineralic fragments, various kinds of glasses including agglutinate particles and volcanic and impact spherules.
The agglutinates form at the lunar surface by micrometeorite impacts that cause small-scale melting which fuses adjacent materials together with tiny specks of metallic iron embedded in each dust particle’s glassy shell. Over time, material is mixed both vertically and horizontally by impact processes. However, the contribution of material from great distances is minor, such that the soil composition at any given location reflects the local bedrock composition. There are two profound differences in the chemistry of lunar regolith and soil from terrestrial materials; the first is that the Moon is dry. As a result, those minerals with water as part of their structure such as clay and amphiboles are absent from the Moon; the second difference is that lunar regolith and crust are chemically reduced, rather than being oxidized like the Earth's crust. In the case of the regolith, this is due in part to the constant bombardment of the lunar surface with protons from the solar wind. One consequence is that iron on the Moon is found in the metallic 0 and +2 oxidation states, whereas on Earth iron is found in the +2 and +3 oxidation states.
The significance of acquiring appropriate knowledge of lunar soil properties is great. The potential for construction of structures, ground transportation networks, waste disposal systems, to name a few examples, will depend on real-world experimental data obtained from testing lunar soil samples; the load-carrying capability of the soil is an important parameter in the design of such structures on Earth. Due to myriad meteorite impacts, the lunar surface is covered with a thin layer of dust; the dust is electrically charged and sticks to any surface it comes in contact with. The density of lunar regolith is about 1.5 g/cm3. The soil becomes dense beneath the top layer of regolith. Other factors which may affect the properties of lunar soil include large temperature differentials, the presence of a hard vacuum, the absence of a significant lunar magnetic field. There is some evidence that the Moon may have a tenuous atmosphere of moving dust particles leaping up from and falling back to the Moon's surface, giving rise to a "dust atmosphere" that looks static but is composed of dust particles in constant motion.
The term "Moon fountain" has been used to describe this effect by analogy with the stream of molecules of water in a fountain following a ballistic trajectory while appearing static due to the constancy of the stream. According to a model proposed in 2005 by the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, this is caused by electrostatic levitation. On the daylit side of the Moon, solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is energetic enough to knock electrons out of atoms and molecules in the lunar soil. Positive charges build up until the tiniest particles of lunar dust are repelled from the surface and lofted anywhere from metres to kilometres high, with the smallest particles reaching the highest altitudes, they fall back toward th
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC