AJS was the name used for cars and motorcycles made by the Wolverhampton, company A. J. Stevens & Co. Ltd, from 1909 to 1931, by holding 117 motorcycle world records, Joe Stevens, father of Harry, Albert John, and Joe Stevens Junior, was an engineer who owned the Stevens Screw Company Ltd, in Wednesfield, near Wolverhampton. Stevens had a reputation for quality engineering before the company built its first motorcycle in 1897, using a Mitchell single-cylinder four-stroke imported from the USA. A new company, A J Stevens & Co, was founded, with premises in Retreat Street, Wolverhampton, to manufacture motorcycles, Jack Stevens came 16th on AJSs official entry, one place behind private owner J. D. Corke on an identical machine. Albert John Stevens lent his initials to the company, but it was a family concern, in 1922 for example, Harry Stevens acted as managing director, George Stevens as commercial manager, Joe Stevens Junior managing the experimental section and Jack Stevens as production manager.
AJS did not contest the 1912 TT as it was busy satisfying the demand for its products, with the Junior limit raised to 350 cc for 1914, the AJS motorcycle had grown to 349 cc, with four-speed gears and chain final drive. AJS won first, third and sixth place in the Junior 1914 Isle of Man TT race that year, the old Screw Company’s facilities could not cope with the demand and with the company reconstituted as A. J. The 349 cc machine was most in demand but the company produced an 800 cc V-twin. This kept AJS busy until Ministry of Munitions restrictions were lifted in January 1919, when production of the 350 resumed in 1920, it was much improved. The side-valve engine was replaced by a new design that produced 10 bhp. It had internal expanding brakes and chain primary drive, cyril Williams won the first post war 1920 Isle of Man TT Junior race on his 350, even though he had to push the motorcycle home for almost four miles after a breakdown. AJS took the first four places in the 1921 Isle of Man TT and this was the first time a 350 had won the 500 cc Senior TT race.
In 1922 Manxman Tom Sheard won the Junior on an AJS, with G Grinton, on an AJS, the 1922 machine was a classic design that would become famous as the ‘Big Port’ on account of its large-diameter exhaust port and pipe. The OHV350 would be the mainstay of the racing efforts until 1927. At this time, the company produced a range of other models ranging from 250 to 1,000 cc. These were generally given a number, plus letter to denote the year of manufacture. Several of these were intended to one of the 12 AJS sidecars on offer, including sports, touring. Jimmy Simpson rode a 350 to third place in the Junior TT and won races in Europe, in 1929 there were again two machines with an overhead cam, this time the 349 cc M7 and the 498 cc M10
In the 1890s John Marstons Sunbeam had become extremely successful, by relying on high quality of production and finish. But Marston was dissatisfied with the pedals on his machines, which he bought in, Charles said that the Villiers Engineering Co. was the ultimate fruit of his trip to the US, being impressed by the production system and the labour saving devices. He pointed out that it was not possible to develop these at Sunbeamland, which had long been working on another plan, as a result of the tour, in 1898, John Marston bought a small Japanning works based in Villiers Street, Wolverhampton. Under the direction of Charles, the company made cycle parts for the Sunbeam company, as the factory was producing more parts than Sunbeam required, it sold components to other manufacturers. 1902 was a year for Villiers. Firstly, John Marston sold the company to his son Charles for £6,000 on a loan against future profits, secondly, it developed and patented the cycle free-wheel, which every cycle manufacturer required.
The production of free wheels reached its peak just after WWII, apart from the production of freewheels outlined above, the company produced its first engine in early 1912, a 350cc four-stroke complete with integral two-speed gearbox. Later that year it developed a 269cc two-stroke and the simplcity of this engine, during 1913 the Sun-Villers motorcycle was launched manufactured by the Sun Cycle & Fittings Co. Whether many of either model were made before war orders halted production in 1915 is unclear, other manufacturers known to use Villiers engines up to 1915 include the Campion, The Hobart, the Chater-Lea, the Diamond, and the Excelsior. During World War One, in common with many not directly involved in making military transport. Companies engaged in war work still worked on new models anticipating the end of the war, One particular issue was a generic problem - the fact that before the war most engines relied on German-made magnetos for ignition, which caused a major issue during the war.
In January 1917 Villiers patented their solution to this problem - the flywheel-magneto, immediately after the war Villiers picked up where they had left off, with supply of the 269cc engine, now as the Mark II engine with different method of attaching the exhaust. The Mark III engine embodied some changes to crankcase and bushes in 1919/1920, in May 1920 a new British Excelsior lightweight model was announced, this being the first motorcycle to show the new Villiers engine using the flywheel-magneto instead of separate magneto. In September 1922 Villiers announced the details of their new 1923 engine range and these engines featured a radial finned cylinder head, with both the inlet and exhaust port being at the front of the engine, and they all had the Villiers flywheel-magneto. While the 147cc relied on petrol-oil mixture for crankshaft lubrication, the two engines used a separate oil feed system. The new 250cc engine produced 25% more power than the older 269cc engine, in 1926 Villiers introduced an even smaller engine, the 125cc with twin exhaust ports and side mounted carburettor, and in 1927 they introduced the 344cc twin 2-stroke.
Villiers were to go on to produce a range of single. At the end of the 1920s they started producing engines for use, with the first model being the water-cooled WX11
William Friese-Greene was an English portrait photographer and prolific inventor. William Edward Green was born on 7 September 1855, in Bristol and he was educated there at Queen Elizabeths Hospital. In 1869 he became an apprentice to a photographer named Maurice Guttenberg, by 1875 he had set up his own studios in Bath and Bristol, and expanded his business with two more studios in London and Brighton. He married Helena Friese on 24 March 1874, and decided to modify his name to include her maiden name, in Bath he came into contact with John Arthur Roebuck Rudge. Rudge was a maker of a number of instruments but had begun to specialise in the creation of magic lanterns and he had recently developed the Biophantic Lantern. The lantern was unique in that it could display seven slides in rapid succession, Friese-Greene was fascinated by the machine and in 1886 he began work with Rudge on enhancing it in order to project photographic plates. They called the device a Biophantascope, on 21 June 1889, Friese-Greene was issued patent no.10131 for his chronophotographic camera.
It was apparently capable of taking up to ten photographs per second using perforated celluloid film, a report on the camera was published in the British Photographic News on 28 February 1890. On 18 March, Friese-Greene sent a clipping of the story to Thomas Edison, the report was reprinted in Scientific American on 19 April. Friese-Greene gave a demonstration in 1890 but the low frame rate combined with the devices apparent unreliability made an unfavourable impression. In the early 1890s he experimented with cameras to create stereoscopic moving images, friese-Greene’s experiments in the field of motion pictures were at the expense of his other business interests and in 1891 he was declared bankrupt. To cover his debts he sold the rights to the camera patent for £500. The renewal fee was never paid and the patent eventually lapsed, Friese-Greene resided at Cliff Road, Harwich from 1897 to 1904. Friese-Greenes exploits were in the field of colour in motion pictures, working in Brighton, he experimented with a system known as Biocolour.
This process produced the illusion of true colour by exposing each alternate frame of ordinary black, each alternate frame of the monochrome print was stained red or green. Although the projection of Biocolour prints did provide an illusion of true colour, it suffered from noticeable flickering and red. In 1911, George Albert Smith and Charles Urban filed a lawsuit against William, William won the first round, but in 1914 the court of the House of Lords reversed the previous decision in favour of Smith and Urban. This meant that William Friese-Greene was unable to exploit the Biocolour system to its full potential, however, in 1915, the House of Lords reversed itself again, and ruled against Kinemacolor
Royal Enfield was the brand name under which the Enfield Motor Cycle Company manufactured motorcycles, bicycles and stationary engines. The first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901, the original British concern was defunct by 1970, the Enfield Cycle Company is responsible for the design and original production of the Royal Enfield Bullet, the longest-lived motorcycle design in history. The Enfield Cycle Company began business making parts for the Enfield rifle and this legacy is reflected in the company logo, a cannon, and their motto, Made Like A Gun. In 1955, Enfield Cycle Company partnered with Madras Motors in India in forming Enfield of India, based in Chennai, the first machines were assembled from components imported from England. Starting in 1957, Enfield of India acquired the necessary to build components in India. Royal Enfield produced bicycles at its Redditch factory until it closed in early 1967, the companys last new bicycle was the Revelation small wheeler, which was released in 1965.
Production of motorcycles ceased in 1970 and the original Redditch, Worcestershire-based company was dissolved in 1971, Enfield of India continued producing the Bullet, and began branding its motorcycles Royal Enfield in 1999. A lawsuit over the use of Royal, brought by trademark owner David Holder, was judged in favour of Enfield of India, George Townsend set up a business in 1851 in Redditch making sewing needles. In 1882 his son, named George, started making components for cycle manufacturers including saddles, by 1886 complete bicycles were being sold under the name of Townsend and Ecossais. Albert Eadie joined the company and its name became the Eadie Manufacturing Co in 1896 based in Snow Hill, in 1893, the Enfield Manufacturing Company Ltd was registered to manufacture bicycles, adopting the branding Royal Enfield. After experimenting with a bicycle frame fitted with a Minerva engine clamped to the front downtube. A light car was introduced in 1903 powered by either a French Ader V-twin or De Dion single cylinder engine, in 1906 car production was transferred to a new company, the Enfield Autocar Co Ltd with premises in Sparkbrook, Birmingham.
The independent company only lasted until 1908 when it was purchased by Alldays & Onions, in 1907, Enfield merged with the Alldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering Co. of Birmingham, and began manufacturing the Enfield-Allday automobile. By 1910, Royal Enfield was using 344 cc Swiss Motosacoche V-Twin engines, or large-displacement JAP, in 1912, the Royal Enfield Model 180 sidecar combination was introduced with a 770 cc V-twin JAP engine which was raced successfully in the Isle of Man TT and at Brooklands. In 1914 Enfield supplied large numbers of motorcycles to the British War Department, Enfield used its own 225 cc two-stroke single and 425 cc V-twin engines. They produced an 8 hp motorcycle sidecar model fitted with a Vickers machine gun, in 1921, Enfield developed a new 976 cc twin, and in 1924 launched the first Enfield four-stroke 350 cc single using a Prestwich Industries engine. In 1928, Royal Enfield began using the bulbous saddle tanks and centre-spring girder front forks, even though it was trading at a loss in the depression years of the 1930s, the company was able to rely on reserves to keep going.
In 1931, Albert Eddie, one of the founders of the company, during World War II, The Enfield Cycle Company was called upon by the British authorities to develop and manufacture military motorcycles
The Lister Auto-Truck was a small monowheel tractor built for moving light loads around factories, railway yards and similar sites. They were built by R A Lister and Company of Dursley and these were tricycle vehicles, with the single leading wheel used for both drive and steering. Their simple construction carried most of the mechanism on this wheel as a single unit, the engines were single-cylinder and air-cooled. Ignition was by magneto, rather than requiring a battery and electrical system, one of these designs was produced in the 1920s by George Grist of the Auto Mower Co. The engine was a JAP600 cc four-stroke air-cooled sidevalve, a small engine of the time. The Auto Mower Co. were Lister agents and when Lister heard of this Auto-Truck they bought one for use in their own factory and it was used to carry heavy engine castings from the foundry to the machine shop. Lister customers saw them and there was such interest in wanting to buy them that Lister negotiated with Auto Mower to build them under licence.
Although Lister were already known for their small petrol stationary engines. Lister remained with the JAP engine for the Auto-Truck, the Auto-Truck was designed for use in factories or other places with smooth surfaces of concrete or tarmac. This allowed the use of small solid-tyred wheels with only simple suspension, making the simple, cheap. They had little ability on soft surfaces though and could even topple over if driven carelessly across slopes and their design was a compromise between the top-heavy nature of the tall engine grouping above its wheel and a well thought-out chassis for stability. The bearing between them was a large diameter ring roller bearing, mounted at the lowest part of the chassis and this gave rigidity and stability, even after long wear. A ring of rolled channel girder was attached to the engine group, on early Auto-Trucks this bearing is set very low, in line with the chassis members, and is covered by thin steel plates. The front panel of the cover is distinctive with large ventilation holes.
Strangely this panel is made of thick cast iron, providing substantial weight high on the engine, to improve visibility of moving vehicles in noisy factories, this panel was often painted white, the rest of the vehicle being Listers usual brunswick green. The driver was seated on a Brooks bicycle saddle, which in recognition of the lack of suspension, was carried on the end of a cantilevered bar that acted as a leaf spring. A wide handlebar on the group was used for steering. A squeeze bar the width of this handlebar engaged the clutch, controls included a hand throttle, a gear lever with two forward and one reverse gears, and a large handbrake lever
Vincent Motorcycles was a British manufacturer of motorcycles from 1928 to 1955. The business was established by Philip Vincent who bought an existing manufacturing name HRD, initially renaming it as Vincent HRD, from 1934, two new engines were developed in 500 cc and 1,000 cc capacities. Production grew from 1936, with the models being developed from the original designs after the War period in the late 1940s. The 1948 Vincent Black Shadow was at the time the worlds fastest production motorcycle, the name was changed to Vincent Engineers Ltd. in 1952 after financial losses were experienced releasing capital to produce a Vincent-engined prototype Indian for the US market during 1949. In 1955 the company discontinued motorcycle production after experiencing further heavy financial losses, the Vincent remains one of the most prestigious brands, well beyond the time it stopped manufacturing motorcycles in December 1955. Even today re-creations of this machine are possible since engines are remanufactured by craftsmen such as Patrick Godet or Ken Horner enabling the Vincent to keep up with more modern gears.
Vincent Motorcycles, the makers of the worlds fastest motorcycles, began with the purchase of HRD Motors Ltd less the factory premises, HRD was founded by the British Royal Flying Corps pilot, Howard Raymond Davies, who was shot down and captured by the Germans in 1917. Legend has it that it was while a prisoner of war that he conceived the idea of building his own motorcycle and it was not until 1924 that Davies entered into partnership with E J Massey, trading as HRD Motors. Various models were produced, generally powered by J. A. P, although HRD motorcycles won races, the company ran at a loss. In January 1928 it went into voluntary liquidation, Philip Vincent was advised to start production under an established name. He had built a motorcycle of his own in 1927 and in 1928 had registered a patent for a rear suspension of his own design. With the backing of his wealth from cattle ranching in Argentina, Vincent acquired the trademark, goodwill. The company was promptly renamed Vincent HRD Co, Ltd and production moved to Stevenage.
The new trademark had The Vincent in very small letters above the large HRD, in 1928 the first Vincent-HRD motorcycle used a JAP single-cylinder engine in a Vincent-designed cantilever frame. The earliest known example extant exists in Canberra, some early bikes used Rudge-Python engines. But after a disastrous 1934 Isle of Man TT, with engine problems, Phil Vincent experimented with three-wheeled vehicles, amphibious vehicles, and automobiles. In 1932 the first 3-wheeler, The Vincent Bantam appeared, powered by a 293cc Villiers engine and it was a 2.5 cwt delivery van with a car seat and a steering wheel. The Bantam cost £57-10-0 and the windscreen and hood option cost £5-10-0, in late 1931 Phil Irving first joined Vincent as an engineer alongside fellow-engineer E. J
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Alliott Verdon Roe
Sir Edwin Alliott Verdon Roe OBE, Hon. FRAeS, FIAS was a pioneer English pilot and aircraft manufacturer, and founder in 1910 of the Avro company. Roe was born in Patricroft, Lancashire in 1877, the son of a doctor, he left home when he was 14 to go to Canada where he had been offered training as a surveyor. When he arrived in British Columbia he discovered that a slump in the market meant that there was little demand for surveyors, so he spent a year doing odd jobs. There he served as an apprentice with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, as well as doing dockyard work, Roe joined the ship SS Jebba of the British & South African Royal Mail Company as fifth engineer on the West African run. He went on to serve on other vessels, finishing his Merchant Navy career as third engineer aboard the SS Ichanga and it was during these voyages that he became interested in the possibility of building a flying machine, having observed the soaring flight of albatrosses. In 1906 he applied for the job of Secretary of the Royal Aero Club. L.
O, who had devised a twin-rotored aircraft and had secured the financial backing of Sir William Armstrong of Armstrong-Whitworth. This machine was being built in Denver in the USA, after disagreements about the design of the machine and problems with his salary, who had been sent back to Britain to deal with patenting the design, resigned. He began to build a series of flying models, with the prize money and the use of stables at his brothers house in West Hill, Putney, he began to build a full-size aeroplane, the Roe I Biplane, based on his winning model. He tested this at Brooklands in 1907–08, recording his first successful flight on 8 June 1908, after encountering problems with the management of Brooklands he moved his flight experiments to Walthamstow Marshes, where he rented space under a railway arch at the western end of the viaduct. Despite many setbacks, Roe persisted with his experiments and there is now a plaque commemorating his first successful flight at the site. His aircraft, Avroplane, a triplane, is preserved in Londons Science Museum, in addition, a working replica was unveiled on 7 June 2008 at the Brooklands Museum in Surrey.
With his brother Humphrey, Alliott founded the A. V, Roe Aircraft Co. on 1 January 1910, at Brownsfield Mill, Great Ancoats Street, Manchester. His most popular model, the 504, sold more than 8,300 units, mainly to the Royal Flying Corps, in 1928 he sold his shares and bought S. E. Saunders Co. and formed Saunders-Roe. In 1933 he changed his surname to Verdon-Roe by deed poll and he was a member of the British Union of Fascists and during the 1930s he was a supporter of Oswald Mosley. He was a believer in monetary reform and thought it was wrong that banks should be able to create money by book entry. In this respect he shared the enthusiasm for reform as the American poet Ezra Pound. During the Second World War, two of his sons were killed in action whilst serving with the Royal Air Force, Squadron Leader Eric Alliott Verdon-Roe aged 26, in 1941 and Squadron Leader Lighton Verdon-Roe DFC aged 22, in 1943. Between 1928 and 1940 Verdon-Roe lived at Hamble House, Hamble and he died on 4 January 1958 at St Marys Hospital in Portsmouth
A cultivator is any of several types of farm implement used for secondary tillage. One sense of the name refers to frames with the teeth that pierce the soil as they are dragged through it linearly, another sense refers to machines that use rotary motion of disks or teeth to accomplish a similar result. The rotary tiller is a principle example, Cultivators stir and pulverize the soil, either before planting or after the crop has begun growing. Unlike a harrow, which disturbs the entire surface of the soil, cultivators are designed to disturb the soil in careful patterns, sparing the crop plants, Cultivators of the toothed type are often similar in form to chisel plows, but their goals are different. Cultivator teeth work near the surface, usually for weed control, whereas chisel plow shanks work deep beneath the surface, cultivating takes much less power per shank than does chisel plowing. Small toothed cultivators pushed or pulled by a person are used as garden tools for small-scale gardening.
Similarly sized rotary tillers combine the functions of harrow and cultivator into one multipurpose machine, Cultivators are usually either self-propelled or drawn as an attachment behind either a two-wheel tractor or four-wheel tractor. For two-wheel tractors they are rigidly fixed and powered via couplings to the tractors transmission. For four-wheel tractors they are attached by means of a three-point hitch. Drawbar hookup is commonly used worldwide. Draft-animal power is still used today, being somewhat common in developing nations although rare in more industrialized economies. The basic idea of soil scratching for weed control is ancient and was done with hoes or mattocks for millennia before cultivators were developed, Cultivators were originally drawn by draft animals or were pushed or drawn by people. In modern commercial agriculture, the amount of cultivating done for weed control has been reduced via use of herbicides instead. However, herbicides are not always desirable—for example, in organic farming, the powered rotary hoe was invented by Arthur Clifford Howard who, in 1912, began experimenting with rotary tillage on his fathers farm at Gilgandra, New South Wales, Australia.
Initially using his fathers steam engine as a power source, he found that ground could be mechanically tilled without soil-packing occurring. His earliest designs threw the tilled soil sideways, until he improved his invention by designing an L-shaped blade mounted on widely spaced flanges fixed to a small-diameter rotor. With fellow apprentice Everard McCleary, he established a company to make his machine, in 1919 Howard returned to Australia and resumed his design work, patenting a design with 5 rotary hoe cultivator blades and an internal combustion engine in 1920. In March 1922, Howard formed the company Austral Auto Cultivators Pty Ltd and it was based in Northmead, a suburb of Sydney, from 1927
Dresch et Cie was one of Frances more important motorcycle manufacturers. It was founded in Étampes, France by the eccentric multi-millionaire French-Algerian industrialist Henri Dresch, the companys products ranged from 98cc to 246cc single-cylinder two-stroke machines to luxury 750cc four-cylinder model. Dresch used proprietary engines from various suppliers including Aubier Dunne, Chaise, JAP, MAG, Stainless, in 1930, it produced a 498cc inline-twin model similar to the British Sunbeam models. Dresch was a large company produced up to 10,000 solo and sidecar mounted motorcycles per year and bought other companies such as Le Grimpeur in 1926, PS, Everest and in 1928. It aimed to sell good quality, low cost vehicles, the company built motorcycles for the Paris police. During its history, it went through numerous restructuring as Général Motos Cycles in 1929, Dresch-Macam, DFR-Macam in 1932 and, ulimtately, SA Dreschmotor. Dresch never resumed production, however, a prototype Baltimore model was shown at an exhibition in 1948.
Unfortunately, pre-orders were insufficient and production was halted, history in french of Dresch and its constituent companies, with many illustrations Erwin Tragatsch, Alle Motorräder 1894-1981, Eine Typengeschichte. 2500 Marken aus 30 Ländern, Stuttgart 1997
The Mutoscope was an early motion picture device, invented by W. K. L. Dickson and Herman Casler and patented by Herman Casler on November 21,1894, like Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope, it did not project on a screen and provided viewing to only one person at a time. Cheaper and simpler than the Kinetoscope, the system, marketed by the American Mutoscope Company, the Mutoscope worked on the same principle as the flip book. The individual image frames were conventional black-and-white, silver-based photographic prints on tough, rather than being bound into a booklet, the cards were attached to a circular core, rather like a huge Rolodex. A reel typically held about 850 cards, giving a time of about a minute. The reel with cards attached had a diameter of about ten inches. The patron viewed the cards through a single lens enclosed by a hood, the cards were generally lit electrically, but the reel was driven by means of a geared-down hand crank. Each machine held only a single reel and was dedicated to the presentation of a short subject.
The patron could control the speed only to a limited degree. The crank could be turned in both directions, but this did not reverse the playing of the reel, nor could the patron extend viewing time by stopping the crank because the flexible images were bent into the proper viewing position by tension applied from forward cranking. Mutoscopes were originally manufactured from 1895 to 1909 by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, in the 1920s the Mutoscope was licensed to William Rabkin who started his own company, the International Mutoscope Reel Company, which manufactured new reels and machines from 1926 until 1949. The term Mutoscope is no longer a registered trademark in the United States, Mutoscopes were a popular feature of amusement arcades and pleasure piers in the UK until the introduction of decimal coinage in 1971. The coin mechanisms were difficult to convert, and many machines were subsequently destroyed, the typical arcade installation included multiple machines offering a mixture of fare.
Both in the days and during the revival, that mixture usually included girlie reels which ran the gamut from risqué to outright soft-core pornography. It was, common for these reels to have titles that implied more than the reel actually delivered. The title of one reel, What the Butler Saw, became a by-word. In 1899, The Times printed a letter inveighing against vicious demoralising picture shows in the penny-in-the-slot machines, similar exhibitions took place at Rhyl in the mens lavatory, owing to public denunciation, they have been stopped. Illustration and demonstration of the Kinora Penny Arcade, poem by Jared Carter describes tightrope-walk images viewed through a Mutoscope, media related to Mutoscope at Wikimedia Commons
A cyclecar was a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured mainly between 1910 and the late 1920s. Cyclecars were characterised by their use of materials and sometimes fragile engineering and were largely contrived to fill a gap in the market between the motorcycle and the car. Their demise was largely the result of economies in the manufacture of more substantial economy cars such as the Austin 7. Vehicles with similar qualities produced after World War II, are categorized as microcars. Cyclecars were propelled by single-cylinder, V-twin or more rarely four-cylinder engines, sometimes these had been originally used in motorcycles and other components from this source such as gearboxes were employed. They used various layouts and means of transmitting the power to the wheels. The rise of cyclecars was a result of reduced taxation both for registration and annual licences of lightweight small-engined cars. In France, for example, a car was classed for reduced rates if it weighed less than 350 kg and it was decided to establish two classes of cyclecars, as follows, Large class Max.
Engine capacity,1,100 cc Min. tyre section,60 mm Small class Min. weight,150 kg Max, engine capacity,750 cc Min. tyre section,55 mm All cyclecars were to have clutches and change-speed gears. This requirement could be fulfilled by even the simplest devices such as provision for slipping the belt on the pulley to act as a clutch, from 1898 to 1910, automobile production quickly expanded. Light cars of that era were known as voiturettes. From 1912, the Motor Cycle show at Olympia became the Motor Cycle and Cycle Car Show, some cyclecars such as Amilcar, Major or Salmson of France had sufficient performance and handling to be regarded as sports cars. The first race dedicated to cyclecars was organised by the Automobile Club de France in 1913, the Auto Cycle Union was to have introduced cycle car racing on the Isle of Man in September 1914, but the race was abandoned due to the onset of the war. By the early 1920s, the days of the cyclecar were numbered, mass producers, such as Ford, were able to reduce their prices to undercut those of the usually small cyclecar makers.
Similar affordable cars were offered in Europe, such as the Citroën 5CV, the majority of cyclecar manufacturers closed down. Some companies such as Chater-Lea survived by returning to the manufacture of motorcycles, after World War II, economic cars were again in demand and a new set of manufacturers appeared. The cyclecar name did not reappear however and the cars were called microcars by enthusiasts, brass Era car Kei car Microcar Roadster List of motorcycles of 1900 to 1909 List of motorcycles of the 1910s List of motorcycles of the 1920s Worthington-Williams, Michael. From cyclecar to microcar the story of the cyclecar movement, minimal Motoring, From Cyclecar to Microcar