Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
It is now a state in the Unit
Jep! is an American children's television game show, adapted from the quiz show Jeopardy!. It aired first on Game Show Network throughout the 1998–99 season, on Discovery Kids through late 2004, it was hosted by cartoon voice actor Bob Bergen, created by Scott Sternberg who had earlier created Wheel 2000, a children's version of Wheel of Fortune. The show's production involved many of the daily syndicated Jeopardy!'s then-current personnel, including director Kevin McCarthy and four of the nine writers that the show employed at the time, Alex Trebek, the main Jeopardy! Series' host, served as Jep!'s creative consultant. Unlike the main Jeopardy! series, Jep! was taped at Stage 11 of the Sony Pictures Studios, rather than Stage 10. Contestants on Jep! were young children aged 10 through 12, the game's difficulty level was lower than that of the standard Jeopardy! Game – making the show similar, in a way, to "Kids Weeks" on the parent program, which were introduced later; the players competed for merchandise packages instead of monetary prizes, clue values were in points rather than in dollars Of the game's three rounds, the first round became known as "Jep!", the second round became "Hyper Jep!", the third round became "Super Jep!"
There were five categories containing four clues apiece, point values were randomly chosen by hitting a button. Jep! featured a penalty system, in which three lights on each of the contestants' lecterns were designated "In Jeopardy!" Lights which would turn on alongside the traditional deduction of points if the contestant gave an incorrect response or failed to phrase their response in the form of a question. The first incorrect response entitled the player's "vat" above them to fill up with toy items such as plastic frogs, etc; when the second light turned on, the vat would spill the contents on the contestant. Once the last of these lights turned on, the contestant's chair would recede behind a wall bringing the contestant with it, locking them out of gameplay for one clue. In addition to the traditional daily doubles, Jep! featured a "Jep! Prize" clue which awarded a prize Such As a Game.com to the contestant who responded correctly. Featured was the Jep! Squad, a team of children from various places in America who functioned as correspondents delivering video clues, much like the parent program's Clue Crew.
All three players got a choice of prizes depending on if they finished second, or third. Steve Johnson of The Chicago Tribune rated Jep! with general favor, saying that Bergen was "mighty chipper, but in a tolerable way", but criticized the answers used on the show, saying they were "too easy". David Bianculli of New York Daily News wrote that "The purist in me would like to see Jep! without these Nickelodeon-style frills but as is, it demands knowledge and is concerned with actual facts, so it deserves more credit than scorn." Jep! on IMDb Official GSN site for Jep
The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Jersey pound, but where a distinct code is desired JEP is used. Both Jersey and Bank of England notes are legal tender in Jersey and circulate together, alongside the Guernsey pound and Scottish banknotes; the Jersey notes are not legal tender in the United Kingdom but are legal currency, so creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose. The livre was the currency of Jersey until 1834, it consisted of French coins which, in the early 19th century, were exchangeable for sterling at a rate of 26 livres = 1 pound. After the livre was replaced by the franc in France in 1795, the supply of coins in Jersey dwindled leading to difficulties in trade and payment.
In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling. Because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous; this system continued until 1877. Along with the rest of the British Isles, Jersey decimalised in 1971 and began issuing a full series of circulating coins from 1⁄2p to 50p. £1 and £2 denominations followed later. As of December 2005, there was £64.7m of Jersey currency in circulation. A profit of £2.8m earned on the issue of Jersey currency was received by the Treasurer of the States in 2005. £1 coins have a different design each year. Each new coin featured one of the coats of arms of the 12 parishes of Jersey; these were followed by a series of coins featuring sailing ships built in the island.
The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is: Caesarea Insula. Jersey £1 coins ceased to be legal tender in Jersey on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK; the UK's new 12-sided £1 coin is the only £1 coin, legal tender in the Island. In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender to replace the Jersey livre, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling; because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous. In 1841, copper 1⁄52, 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling in 1866. In 1877 a penny of 1⁄12 of a shilling was introduced, the system changed to 12 pence to the shilling. Bronze 1⁄48, 1⁄24 and 1⁄12 shilling were introduced.
This was the only issue of the 1⁄48 shilling denomination. Between 1949 and 1952 the end of the German occupation of the Channel Islands was marked by one million commemorative Liberation pennies that were struck for Jersey. In 1957, a nickel-brass 3 pence coin was introduced carrying the denomination "one fourth of a shilling"; the 1957 and 1960 issues were round, with a dodecagonal version introduced in 1964. In 1968, 5 and 10 pence coins were introduced, followed by 50 pence in 1969 and 1⁄2p, 1p and 2 pence in 1971 when decimalisation took place. All had the same size as the corresponding British coins; the reverse of the first issue of decimal coinage bore the coat of arms of Jersey as had previous coins. The ½ penny coin was last minted in 1981. A square £1 coin was issued in circulation in 1981 to mark the bicentenary of the Battle of Jersey; the square pound could not be accepted by vending machines and was not issued after 1981 although it remains in circulation today. When the rest of the British Isles started to introduce a standardised pound coin in 1983, Jersey changed to a round coin to match.
The square version although rare is still used in the islands. Neither round nor square versions of the coin are as common in Jersey as the £1 note. 20 pence coins were introduced in 1982 and £2 coins in 1998. In 1797 Hugh Godfray and Company, a wine merchant, issued £ 1 notes. Due to the shortage of livre tournois coinage and companies issued a large number of low value notes until in 1813 the States laid down that notes had to have a minimum value of £1; until 1831, a large number of bodies and individuals in Jersey issued their own banknotes. The parishes of Jersey issued notes. Legislation in 1831 attempted to regulate such issues by requiring note issuers to be backed by two guarantors, but the parishes and the Vingtaine de la Ville were exempted from the regulatory provisions. Most of the notes were 1 pound denominations; these locally produced notes, which were issued to fund public works, ceased to be issued after the 1890s. During the German occupation in the Second World War, a shortage of coinage led to the passing of the Currency Notes Law on 29 April 1941.
A series of 2 shilling notes were issued. The law was amended on 29 November 1941 to provide for further issues of notes of various denominations, a series of banknotes desi
Jersey Evening Post
The Jersey Evening Post is a local newspaper published six days a week in the Bailiwick of Jersey. It was printed in broadsheet format for 87 years, its strapline is: "At the heart of island life". The Evening Post was founded in 1890 by H. P. Butterworth, with the first issue published 30 June 1890, it was acquired only a few weeks after its launch by Walter Guiton. The Post was produced sheet by sheet on a flatbed press until 1926, when Guiton oversaw the introduction and operation of the first rotary press. Guiton remained the main proprietor and editor until the following year, when his son-in-law Arthur Harrison took over; the latter stayed in both positions until he was succeeded in 1944 by Arthur G. Harrison. Under the Harrisons, the newspaper, while undergoing little technical change, saw testing times as the island came under German military occupation from 1940 to 1945. Although it was still published during these years, the Post was supervised and censored by the occupying forces. After the island's liberation in 1945, the newspaper grew and in 1957 became the main asset of a newly formed business entity called W E Guiton and Co Ltd.
Following the closure of the Morning News in 1949, the Evening Post has been without a regular English-language competitor, the closure of the French-language newspaper Les Chroniques de Jersey at the end of 1959 left the Evening Post as the only newspaper of record in Jersey to publish the Jersey Gazette of official notices and promulgation of laws. In 1967, the newspaper's name was changed from Evening Post to Jersey Evening Post. Control of the paper passed in 1973 to Frank Walker, who would become Jersey's first Chief Minister; the Guiton Group expanded outwards from newspaper production in the late 1970s into IT, through its subsidiary company Itex. In 1998 it purchased Star. Subsequently, the Guiton Group was purchased in 2004 by the Claverley Group, publishers of the Express and Star. On Christmas Eve 2008, the paper published a satirical cartoon which led to accusations of defamation by two local politicians and anti-child abuse campaigners, Trevor Pitman and Shona Pitman; the resulting libel action case was dismissed in court, in April 2012.
On June 30, 2015 the Jersey Evening Post celebrated its 125th birthday. In January the JEP donated its photographic archive of 1.5 million images to the Island. The archive – a collection of glass plates and prints which record the richness and variety of Island life since the paper was founded in 1890 – has been conserved and digitised by Jersey Heritage so that they can be accessed and enjoyed by Islanders for ever. In March 2015 the JEP launched their 125th anniversary exhibition at the Jersey Museum entitled "Your Story, Our History: 125 Years Through a Jersey Evening Post Lens", it included more than 1,500,000 images and tells the Island’s story through both world wars and beyond. In August 2015, JEP staff teamed up with the parish of St Saviour to work on their Battle of Flowers float. Celebrating the newspaper’s special anniversary, Hot Off The Press, featured a printing press complete with moving cogs and rolls of paper, as well as a birthday cake and a huge newspaper, it launched the inaugural Pride of Jersey awards.
The awards are split into 12 categories, each one of them celebrating the essence of Jersey life. The winners were announced at a ceremony on 23 September 2015 at Aviation Beauport; the Jèrriais - Jersey's native language column hosts articles written in Jersey's dialect of Norman, Jèrriais, accompanied by a précis and vocabulary in English. In 1911 Philippe Le Sueur Mourant launched a new series of stories in the Morning News relating the adventures and opinions of Piteur Pain a former country blacksmith turned foreman of the printing shop, his family; this series of stories moved to the Evening Post between 1915 and 1916. Following the closure of Les Chroniques de Jersey, the Ph'lip et Merrienne articles started appearing in the Evening Post from 2 January 1960. Written by Edward Le Brocq, who had worked for the Evening Post before becoming editor of the Morning News, they took the form of a letter to the editor written by an old farming couple from St. Ouen commenting on personalities and elections laced with humorous observations on Jersey history and traditions.
Following the death of Edward Le Brocq, George Francis Le Feuvre contributed a Lettre du Bouonhomme George under the pen name George d'la Forge. Since he had emigrated to North America after the First World War and subsequently taken United States citizenship, most of the letters had either an international flavour, commenting on life and politics in America, or nostalgia for the Jersey of Le Feuvre's boyhood. Following the death of George d'la Forge, Sir Arthur de la Mare, a retired ambassador, took over the task of contributing regular columns to the newspaper. Written in the Trinity dialect, as distinct from the St. Ouen dialect used by George d'la Forge, Sir Arthur's articles included reminiscences of his life as a diplomat in the Far East, as well as comments on events and politics in Jersey. Since Sir Arthur's death, a roster of contributors have maintained the tradition of the weekly newspaper column; the writer of this feature is Geraint Jennings. The news-stand price is 75 pence. Guernsey Press Official website About the Jersey Evening Post History of the Jersey Evening Post