Incident Command System
The Incident Command System is a standardized approach to the command and coordination of emergency response providing a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effective. ICS was developed to address problems of inter-agency responses to wildfires in California and Arizona but is now a component of the National Incident Management System in the US, where it has evolved into use in All-Hazards situations, ranging from active shootings to HazMat scenes. In addition, ICS has acted as a pattern for similar approaches internationally. ICS consists of a standard management hierarchy and procedures for managing temporary incident of any size. ICS procedures should be pre-established and sanctioned by participating authorities, personnel should be well-trained prior to an incident. ICS includes procedures to select and form temporary management hierarchies to control funds, facilities and communications. Personnel are assigned according to established standards and procedures sanctioned by participating authorities.
ICS is a system designed to be used or applied from the time an incident occurs until the requirement for management and operations no longer exist. ICS is interdisciplinary and organizationally flexible to meet the following management challenges: Meets the needs of a jurisdiction to cope with incidents of any kind or complexity. Allows personnel from a wide variety of agencies to meld into a common management structure with common terminology. Provide logistical and administrative support to operational staff. Be cost effective by avoiding duplication of efforts, continuing overhead. Provide a unified, centrally authorized emergency organization; the ICS concept was formed in 1968 at a meeting of Fire Chiefs in Arizona. The program was built to take after the management hierarchy of the US Navy and it was for fire fighting of wildfires in California and Arizona. During the 1970s, ICS was developed during massive wildfire suppression efforts in California that followed a series of catastrophic wildfires, starting with the massive Laguna fire in 1970.
Property damage ran into the millions, many people died or were injured. Studies determined that response problems related to communication and management deficiencies rather than lack of resources or failure of tactics. Weaknesses in incident management were due to: Lack of accountability, including unclear chain of command and supervision. Poor communication due to both inefficient uses of available communications systems and conflicting codes and terminology. Lack of an orderly, systematic planning process. No predefined methods to integrate inter-agency requirements into the management structure and planning process effectively. Freelancing by individuals within the first responding team without the direction from team leader and those with specialized skills during an incident without coordination with other first responders Lack of knowledge with common terminology during an incident. Emergency Managers determined that the existing management structures — unique to each agency — did not scale to dealing with massive mutual aid responses involving dozens of distinct agencies and when these various agencies worked together their specific training and procedures clashed.
As a result, a new command and control paradigm was collaboratively developed to provide a consistent, integrated framework for the management of all incidents from small incidents to large, multi-agency emergencies. It should be noted that at the beginning of this work, despite the recognition that there were incident or field level shortfalls in organization and terminology, there was no mention of the need to develop an on the ground incident management system like ICS. Most of the efforts were focused on the multiagency coordination challenges above the incident or field level, it wasn’t until 1972 when Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies was formed that this need was recognized and the concept of ICS was first discussed. ICS was called Field Command Operations System. ICS became a national model for command structures at crime scene or major incident. ICS was used in New York at the first attack on the World Trade Center in 1993. On 1 March 2004, the Department of Homeland Security, in accordance with the passage of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 calling for a standardized approach to incident management amongst all federal and local agencies, developed the National Incident Management System which integrates ICS.
Additionally, it was mandated that NIMS must be utilized to manage emergencies in order to receive federal funding. The Superfund Amendment and Re-authorization Act title III mandated that all first responders to a hazardous materials emergency must be properly trained and equipped in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.120. This standard represents OSHA's recognition of ICS. HSPD-5 and thus the National Incident Management System came about as a direct result of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, which created numerous All-Hazard, Mass Casualty, multi-agency incidents. In the United States, ICS has been tested by more than 30 years of emergency and non-emergency applications. All levels of government are required to maintain differing levels of ICS training and private sector organizations use ICS for management of events. ICS is widespread in use from law enforcement to every-day business, as the basic goals of clear communication and the efficient use of resources are common to incident and emergency management as well as daily operations.
ICS is mandated by
JIC fittings, defined by the SAE J514 and MIL-DTL-18866 standards, are a type of flare fitting machined with a 37-degree flare seating surface. JIC fittings are used in fuel delivery and fluid power applications where high pressure is involved; the SAE J514 standard replaces the MS16142 military specification, although some tooling is still listed under MS16142. JIC fittings are dimensionally identical to AN fittings, but are produced to less exacting tolerances and are less costly. SAE 45-degree flare fittings are similar in appearance, but are not interchangeable, though dash sizes 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 14, 16 share the same thread size; some couplings may have dual machined seats for both 45-degree flare seats. Komatsu and JIS fittings have flare ends similar to JIC fittings. Komatsu and JIS both use a 30-degree flare seating surface; the only difference is Komatsu. JIC fitting systems have three components that make a tubing assembly: fitting, flare nut, sleeve; as with other flared connection systems, the seal is achieved through metal-to-metal contact between the finished surface of the fitting nose and the inside diameter of the flared tubing.
The sleeve is used to evenly distribute the compressive forces of the flare nut to the flared end of the tube. Materials used to fabricate JIC fittings include forged carbon steel, forged stainless steel, forged brass, machined brass and nickel-copper alloys. JIC fittings are used in the Fluid Power industry in a diagnostic and test-point setting. A three-way JIC coupling provides a port inline of circuit by which a user can connect a measurement or diagnostic device to take pressure readings and perform circuit and system diagnostics. SAE J514 IHS Markit Standards Store Tompkins Industries Triple-Lok & Triple-Lok 2 37° Flare Tube Fittings Parker Engineering
John Innes Centre
The John Innes Centre, located in Norwich, England, is an independent centre for research and training in plant and microbial science. It is a registered charity grant-aided by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the European Research Council and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and is a member of the Norwich Research Park. In 2017, the John Innes Centre was awarded a gold Athena SWAN Charter award for equality in the workplace; the John Innes Horticultural Institution was founded in 1910 at Merton Park, with funds bequeathed by John Innes, a merchant and philanthropist. The Institution occupied Innes's former estate at Merton Park until 1945 when it moved to Bayfordbury, Hertfordshire, it moved to its present site in 1967. John Innes compost was developed by the institution in the 1930s, who donated the recipe to the'Dig for Victory' war effort; the John Innes Centre has never sold John Innes compost. During the 1980s, the administration of the John Innes Institute was combined with that of the Plant Breeding Institute and the Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory.
In 1994, following the relocation of the operations of other two organisations to the Norwich site, the three were merged as the John Innes Centre. The institute is divided into six departments: Biological Chemistry, Cell & Developmental Biology, Computational & Systems Biology, Crop Genetics, Metabolic Biology and Molecular Microbiology; the John Innes Centre has a tradition of training PhD post-docs. PhD degrees obtained via the John Innes Centre are awarded by the University of East Anglia; the John Innes Centre has a contingent of postdoctoral researchers, many of whom are recruited onto the institute's Post-doctoral Training Fellowship programme. The John Innes Centre sponsors seminars and lectures, including the Bateson Lecture and the Biffen Lecture; the research at the John Innes Centre is divided into 4 Institute Strategic Programs funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. These ISPs, which combine the research of multiple groups to address a greater aim, are: Genes in the Environment - aims to develop a wider and deeper understanding of how the environment influences plant growth and development.
Molecules from Nature - will investigate the vast diversity of chemicals produced by plants and microbes. Plant Health - aims to understand the molecular dialogue between plants and microbes, establishing how they communicate with each other and how they have evolved in relation to one another. Designing Future Wheat - a program with other BBSRC institutes Rothamsted Research and National Institute for Agricultural Botany and the University of Nottingham and the University of Bristol; the John Innes Centre is the Norwich base of the Sainsbury Laboratory, an institute focused on plant disease. Although well integrated with the John Innes Centre, The Sainsbury Laboratory is affiliated with the University of East Anglia. Along with the Institute of Food Research and University of East Anglia, JIC hosted the BA Festival of Science in September 2006. Since 2015 The John Innes centre, University of East Anglia Sainsbury Laboratory, The Earlham Institute and Quadram Institute Bioscience have run Women of The Future an event aimed at promoting career in science to young women.
The John Innes Centre has been directed by: William Bateson Sir A Daniel Hall CD Darlington KS Dodds Roy Markham Harold Woolhouse Richard Flavell Chris Lamb Dale Sanders Notable staff and alumni include: The John Innes Foundation is an independent charitable foundation and was formed in 1910 by John Innes. JIF set up the John Innes Horticultural Institution at London; the JIF owns the land and buildings at Newfound Farm and Church Farm, Norfolk which are used by researchers from the John Innes Centre. The JIF trustees play an active part in the management of John Innes Centre research and have the right to appoint three members of the Governing Council; the foundation sponsors several graduate studentships each year, support for educational programmes and the infrastructure of the site. They fund student awards for scientific excellence and science communication.. It owns a significant collection of archive material held in the Historical Collections library at the John Innes Centre; the John Innes Centre is home to a collection of rare botanical books, lab books and letters documenting the history of genetics and research carried out by its scientists.
This includes a letter from William Bateson documenting the first use of the word "genetics". The History of Genetics library contains the archives of the Genetical Society. An important part of the John Innes Centre is the John Innes Centre Germplasm Resources Unit; this seedbank houses a number of germplasm collections, including the Watkins Landrace Wheat Collection, the John Innes Centre Pisum Collection, BBSRC Small Grain Cereal Collection, Crop wild relative collection and several specialist genetic stocks collections. This material is extensively used by UK and non-UK researchers and breeders, is an available upon request to research and commercial efforts, subject to availability; the complete list of the material can be found in the GRU database
Jubail Industrial College
Jubail Industrial College is a technical college in Saudi Arabia established in 1989 by the Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, in Jubail Industrial City on the coast of the Persian Gulf. There are six departments at Jubail Industrial college. Official website