George Pérez is a retired American comic book artist and writer, whose titles include The Avengers, Teen Titans, Wonder Woman. Writer Peter David has named Pérez his favorite artistic collaborator. George Pérez was born in the South Bronx, New York City, on June 9, 1954, to Jorge Guzman Pérez and Luz Maria Izquierdo, who were both from Caguas, Puerto Rico, but who did not meet until 1949 or 1950, after both had settled in New Jersey while searching for job opportunities, they married in October 26, 1954 and subsequently moved to New York, where Jorge worked in the meat packing industry while Luz was a homemaker. George's younger brother David was born May 28, 1955. Both brothers aspired at a young age to be artists. With George Pérez beginning to draw at the age of five. Pérez's first involvement with the professional comics industry was as artist Rich Buckler's assistant in 1973, he made his professional debut in Marvel Comics' Astonishing Tales #25 as penciler of an untitled two-page satire of Buckler's character Deathlok, star of that comic's main feature.
Soon Pérez became a Marvel regular, penciling a run of "Sons of the Tiger", a serialized action-adventure strip published in Marvel's long-running Deadly Hands of Kung Fu magazine and authored by Bill Mantlo. He and Mantlo co-created the White Tiger a character that soon appeared in Marvel's color comics, most notably the Spider-Man titles. Pérez came to prominence with Marvel's superhero-team comic The Avengers, starting with issue #141. In the 1970s, Pérez illustrated several other Marvel titles, including Creatures on the Loose, featuring the Man-Wolf. Writer Roy Thomas and Pérez crafted a metafictional story for Fantastic Four #176 in which the Impossible Man visited the offices of Marvel Comics and met numerous comics creators. Whilst most of Pérez' Fantastic Four issues were written by Roy Thomas or Len Wein, it would be a Fantastic Four Annual where he would have his first major collaboration with writer Marv Wolfman. Pérez drew the first part of writer Jim Shooter's "The Korvac Saga", which featured nearly every Avenger who joined the team up to that point.
Shooter and Pérez introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council in the second chapter of that same storyline. Writer David Michelinie and Pérez created the Taskmaster in The Avengers #195. In 1980, while still drawing The Avengers for Marvel, Pérez began working for their rival DC Comics. Offered the art chores for the launch of The New Teen Titans, written by Wolfman, Pérez' real incentive was the opportunity to draw Justice League of America. Long-time Justice League artist Dick Dillin died right around that time, providing an opportunity for Pérez to step in as regular artist. While Pérez's stint on the JLA was popular with fans, his career took off with the New Teen Titans; the New Teen Titans was launched in a special preview in DC Comics Presents #26. This incarnation of the Titans was intended to be DC's answer to Marvel's popular X-Men comic, Wolfman and Pérez indeed struck gold. A New Teen Titans drug awareness comic book sponsored by the Keebler Company, drawn by Pérez was published in cooperation with The President's Drug Awareness Campaign in 1983.
In August 1984, a second series of The New Teen Titans was launched by Pérez. Moreover, Pérez's facility with layouts and faces improved enormously during his four years on the book, making him one of the most popular artists in comics as evidenced by the numerous industry awards he would receive during this time. Pérez took a leave of absence from The New Teen Titans in 1984 to focus on his next project with Marv Wolfman, DC's 1985 50th-anniversary event, Crisis on Infinite Earths. Crisis purportedly featured every single character DC owned, in a story which radically restructured the DC universe's continuity. Pérez was inked on the series by Dick Giordano, Mike DeCarlo, Jerry Ordway. After Crisis, Pérez inked the final issue of Superman in September 1986, over Curt Swan's pencils for part one of the two-part story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" by writer Alan Moore. The following month, Pérez was one of the artists on Batman #400 Wolfman and Pérez teamed again to produce the History of the DC Universe limited series to summarize the company's new history.
Pérez drew the cover for the DC Heroes roleplaying game from Mayfair Games as well as the cover for the fourth edition of the Champions roleplaying game from Hero Games. Wonder Woman was rebooted in 1987. Writer Greg Potter spent several months working with editor Janice Race on new concepts for the character, before being joined by Pérez. Inspired by John Byrne and Frank Miller's work on refashioning Superman and Batman, Pérez came in as the plotter and penciler of Wonder Woman; the relaunch tied the character more to the Greek gods and jettisoned many of the extraneous elements of her history. Pérez at first worked with Potter and Len Wein on the stories, but took over the full scripting chores. Mindy Newell joined Pérez as co-writer for nearly a year. While not as popular as either Titans or Crisis, the series was a successful relaunch of one of DC's flagship characters. Pérez would work on the title for five years, leaving as artist after issue #24, but remaining as writer up to issue #62, leaving in 1992.
In 2001, Pérez returned to the character, co-writing a two-part story in issues #168–169 with writer/artist Phil Jimenez. Pérez drew the cover for Wonder Woman #600 a
Spectre (DC Comics character)
The Spectre is the name given to several fictional antihero characters who have appeared in numerous comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in More Fun Comics #52, he was created by Jerry Siegel and Bernard Baily, although several sources attribute creator credit to Siegel, limiting Baily to being the artist assigned to the feature. The Spectre debuted in More Fun Comics #52 when hard-boiled cop Jim Corrigan, on his way with his fiancee Clarice to their engagement party, is murdered by thugs who stuff him into a barrel filled with cement and throw it into a body of water, his spirit is refused entry into the afterlife however, he is sent back to Earth by an entity referred to only as "The Voice" to eliminate evil. The Spectre seeks bloody vengeance against Corrigan's murderers in supernatural fashion. One of them turned to a skeleton upon touching him. Corrigan soon creates his signature costume, breaks off his romance with Clarice, continues to live as Jim Corrigan, assuming the secret identity of the Spectre whenever he is needed.
He turns down an offer to relinquish his mission to destroy all evil. The Spectre is soon awarded charter membership in the first-ever superhero team, the Justice Society of America in All Star Comics. Jim Corrigan is resurrected in More Fun #75, after which the Spectre's ghostly form enters and emerges from Jim Corrigan functioning independently of him. During the mid-1940s, the popularity of superhero comics began to decline and the Spectre was reduced to playing the role of guardian angel to a bumbling character called "Percival Popp, the Super Cop", who first appeared in More Fun #74; when Corrigan enlisted in the military and departed to serve in World War II, in More Fun #90, the Spectre became permanently invisible, becoming a secondary player in his own series. The feature's final installment was in issue #101, the Spectre made his last appearance in the superhero group the Justice Society of America at the same time in All Star Comics #23. In the mid-1950s and 1960s Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz revived the Spectre and returned him to the role of an avenging undead spirit, beginning in Showcase #60.
Under writer Gardner Fox and penciller Murphy Anderson, his power was vastly increased and at times he approached the level of omnipotence. A 1987 magazine retrospective on the character said this revival had been announced as a team-up with Doctor Mid-Nite. After a three-issue try-out in Showcase, the Spectre appeared in the superhero-team comic Justice League of America #46–47 in that year's team-up of the titular group and its 1940's predecessors, the Justice Society of America: written by Gardner Fox. A few months he co-starred with the Silver Age Flash in The Brave and the Bold #72; the Spectre was given his own title, premiering in December 1967, while making another appearance in The Brave & the Bold #75, this time teamed with Batman. In The Spectre, the creative credits varied over the 10 issues published, with introduction of a then-newcomer to comics, Neal Adams, who drew issues #2–5 and wrote issues #4–5. For its final two issues, the comic became in effect a horror anthology, with the title character being little more than a narrator in several short stories.
The Spectre title suffered from the same problem that vexed the Golden Age series: writing meaningful stories using a character, omnipotent. The end to this era came in Justice League of America #83, at the climax of another JLA/JSA crossover, the Ghostly Guardian appeared to be destroyed, he had a cameo in a JSA meeting the previous issue, leaving in doubt how he went from there to being imprisoned in a crypt, as found and freed by Doctor Fate in JLA #83. In the 1970s, DC revived the Spectre in the superhero anthology series Adventure Comics. Beginning with the 12-page "The Wrath of... the Spectre" in issue #431. Writer Michael Fleisher and artist Jim Aparo produced 10 stories through issue #440 that became controversial for what was considered gruesome, albeit bloodless, violence. Comics historian Les Daniels commented that the Spectre had...a new lease on life after editor Joe Orlando was mugged and decided the world needed a relentless super hero. The character came back with a vengeance... and became a cause of controversy.
Orlando plotted the stories with writer Michael Fleisher, they emphasized the gruesome fates of criminals who ran afoul of the Spectre. The Comics Code had been liberalized, but this series pushed its restrictions to the limit by turning evildoers into inanimate objects and thoroughly demolishing them. Jim Aparo's art showed criminals being transformed into everything from broken glass to melting candles, but Fleisher was quick to point out that many of his most bizarre plot devices were lifted from stories published decades earlier. In the series' letter column, some fans indicated uneasiness with this depiction. In issue #435, Fleisher introduced a character that shared their concerns, a reporter named Earl Crawford; the series was canceled with scripts written, but not yet drawn. Several years these remaining chapters were penciled by Aparo and inked by others, published in the final issue of Wrath of the Spectre, a four-issue miniseries in 1988 that reprinted the ten original Fleisher-Aparo stories in its first three issues, three newly drawn stories in the fourth one.
Fleisher had stated in 1980. The Spectre made a guest appearance in the "Doctor Thirteen" feature in Ghosts #97–99, wou
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Flash (Barry Allen)
The Flash is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in Showcase #4, created by writer Robert Kanigher and penciler Carmine Infantino. Barry Allen is a reinvention of a previous character called the Flash, who appeared in 1940s comic books as the character Jay Garrick, his power consists of superhuman speed. Various other effects are attributed to his ability to control the speed of molecular vibrations, including his ability to vibrate at speed to pass through objects; the Flash wears a distinct red and gold costume treated to resist friction and wind resistance, traditionally storing the costume compressed inside a ring. Barry Allen's classic stories introduced the concept of the Multiverse to DC Comics, this concept played a large part in DC's various continuity reboots over the years; the Flash has traditionally always had a significant role in DC's major company-wide reboot stories, in the crossover Crisis on Infinite Earths #8, Barry Allen died saving the Multiverse, removing the character from the regular DC lineup for 23 years.
His return to regular comics is foreshadowed during the narrative in Grant Morrison's crossover story Final Crisis: Rogues' Revenge #3 actualized in Geoff Johns' accompanying The Flash: Rebirth #1, kicking off a six issue limited series. He has since played a pivotal role in the crossover stories Blackest Night, Convergence, DC Rebirth; the character has appeared in various adaptations in other media. John Wesley Shipp played Barry Allen in the 1990 CBS television series and Grant Gustin plays him in the 2014 The CW television series. Alan Tudyk, George Eads, James Arnold Taylor, Taliesin Jaffe, Dwight Schultz, Michael Rosenbaum, Neil Patrick Harris, Justin Chambers, Christopher Gorham, Josh Keaton, Adam DeVine, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In feature films, he is played by Ezra Miller in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Suicide Squad in 2016, followed by Justice League in 2017 and a solo Flash film in the works.
Barry Allen is a police chemist with a reputation for being slow, late, which frustrates his fiancée, Iris West, as the result of being absent-minded and his devotion to crime-solving. One night, as he is working late, a lightning bolt shatters a case full of chemicals and spills all over Barry; as a result, Allen finds that he can run fast and has matching reflexes and senses. He dons a set of red tights sporting a lightning bolt, dubs himself the Flash, becomes Central City's resident costumed crimefighter. Central City University professor Ira West designed Allen's costume and the ring which stores it while Allen is in his civilian identity; the ring can eject the compressed clothing when Allen needs it and suck it back in with the aid of a special gas that shrinks the suit. In addition, Allen invented the cosmic treadmill, a device that allowed for precise time travel and was used in many stories. Allen was so well liked that nearly all speedsters that come after him are compared to him. Batman once said "Barry is the kind of man that I would've hoped to become if my parents had not been murdered."
As presented in Justice League of America #9, when the Earth is infiltrated by alien warriors sent to conquer the planet, some of the world's greatest heroes join forces, Allen among them. While the superheroes individually defeat most of the invaders, they fall prey to a single alien and only by working together are they able to defeat the warrior. Afterwards, the heroes decide to establish the Justice League. During the years, he is depicted as feeling attracted to Black Canary and Zatanna, but he never pursues a relationship because he feels his real love is Iris West, whom he marries. Allen becomes a good friend with Green Lantern, which would be the subject of the limited series Flash and Green Lantern: The Brave and the Bold. In The Flash # 123—"Flash of Two Worlds"—Allen is transported to Earth-Two where he meets Jay Garrick, the original Flash in DC Continuity; this storyline initiated DC's multiverse and was continued in issues of Flash and in team-ups between the Justice League of America of Earth-One and the Justice Society of America of Earth-Two.
In the classic story from Flash #179—"The Flash – Fact or Fiction?"—Allen is thrown into the universe called Earth Prime, a representation of "our" universe, where he seeks the aid of the Flash comic book's editor Julius Schwartz to build a cosmic treadmill so that he can return home. He gains a sidekick and protégé in Iris' nephew, Wally West, who gains super-speed in an accident similar to that which gave Allen his powers. In time, he married his girlfriend Iris, who learned of his double identity because Allen talked in his sleep, she kept this secret, he revealed his identity to her of his own free will with Moreno's persuasion. Iris was revealed to have been sent as a child from the 30th century and adopted. In the 1980s, Flash's life begins to collapse. Iris is murdered by Professor Zoom, when Allen prepares to marry another woman, Zoom tries the same trick again. Allen stops him. Unf
Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person using a hypothetical device known as a time machine. Time travel is a widely-recognized concept in fiction; the idea of a time machine was popularized by H. G. Wells' 1895 novel The Time Machine, it is uncertain. Forward time travel, outside the usual sense of the perception of time, is an extensively-observed phenomenon and well-understood within the framework of special relativity and general relativity. However, making one body advance or delay more than a few milliseconds compared to another body is not feasible with current technology; as for backwards time travel, it is possible to find solutions in general relativity that allow for it, but the solutions require conditions that may not be physically possible. Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a limited support in theoretical physics, only connected with quantum mechanics or wormholes known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.
Some ancient myths depict a character skipping forward in time. In Hindu mythology, the Mahabharata mentions the story of King Raivata Kakudmi, who travels to heaven to meet the creator Brahma and is surprised to learn when he returns to Earth that many ages have passed; the Buddhist Pāli Canon mentions the relativity of time. The Payasi Sutta tells of one of the Buddha's chief disciples, Kumara Kassapa, who explains to the skeptic Payasi that time in the Heavens passes differently than on Earth; the Japanese tale of "Urashima Tarō", first described in the Nihongi tells of a young fisherman named Urashima Taro who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has been forgotten, his house is in ruins, his family has died. In Jewish tradition, the 1st-century BC scholar Honi ha-M'agel is said to have fallen asleep and slept for seventy years; when waking up he returned home but found none of the people he knew, no one believed his claims of who he was.
Early science fiction stories feature characters who sleep for years and awaken in a changed society, or are transported to the past through supernatural means. Among them L'An 2440, rêve s'il en fût jamais by Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, When the Sleeper Awakes by H. G. Wells. Prolonged sleep, like the more familiar time machine, is used as a means of time travel in these stories; the earliest work about backwards time travel is uncertain. Samuel Madden's Memoirs of the Twentieth Century is a series of letters from British ambassadors in 1997 and 1998 to diplomats in the past, conveying the political and religious conditions of the future; because the narrator receives these letters from his guardian angel, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that "the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel." Madden does not explain how the angel obtains these documents, but Alkon asserts that Madden "deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backward from the future to be discovered in the present."
In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries, editor August Derleth claims that an early short story about time travel is Missing One's Coach: An Anachronism, written for the Dublin Literary Magazine by an anonymous author in 1838. While the narrator waits under a tree for a coach to take him out of Newcastle, he is transported back in time over a thousand years, he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery and explains to him the developments of the coming centuries. However, the story never makes it clear whether these events are a dream. Another early work about time travel is The Forebears of Kalimeros: Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon by Alexander Veltman published in 1836. Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol has early depictions of time travel in both directions, as the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past and future. Other stories employ the same template, where a character goes to sleep, upon waking up finds themself in a different time. A clearer example of backward time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard, published posthumously.
In this story, the protagonist is transported to the prehistoric past by the magic of a "lame demon", where he encounters a Plesiosaur and an apelike ancestor and is able to interact with ancient creatures. Edward Everett Hale's "Hands Off" tells the story of an unnamed being the soul of a person who has died, who interferes with ancient Egyptian history by preventing Joseph's enslavement; this may have been the first story to feature an alternate history created as a result of time travel. One of the first stories to feature time travel by means of a machine is "The Clock that Went Backward" by Edward Page Mitchell, which appeared in the New York Sun in 1881. However, the mechanism borders on fantasy. An unusual clock, when wound, transports people nearby back in time; the author does not explain the origin or properties of the clock. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau's El Anacronópete may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time. Andrew Sawyer has commented that the story "does seem to be the first literary description of a time machine noted so far", adding that "Edward Page Mitchell's story'The Clock That Went Backward' is described as the first time-machine story, but I'm not sure
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1, created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby; the Avengers is Lee and Kirby's renovation of a previous superhero team, All-Winners Squad, who appeared in comic books series published by Marvel Comics' predecessor Timely Comics. Labeled "Earth's Mightiest Heroes", the Avengers consisted of Ant-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man and the Wasp. Ant-Man had become Giant-Man by issue #2; the original Captain America was discovered trapped in ice in issue #4, joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark of the series, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, Inhumans, aliens, supernatural beings, former villains. The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films.
The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million. A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015, followed by Avengers: Infinity War, which became the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion and was released on April 27, 2018. A fourth film, Avengers: Endgame, is scheduled for release on April 26, 2019; the team debuted in The Avengers #1. Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby; this initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series, retitled Avengers West Coast with #47.
Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity; the Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500–503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers, followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview. Following Civil War II, the book was relaunched in 2016 as Avengers, while retaining the same writer and much of the cast from the All-New, All-Different run.
The series ran for 11 issues before reverting to the numbering of the original Avengers series with issue #672. Starting with issue #675, all four Avengers titles being published at the time were merged into a single weekly series dubbed Avengers: No Surrender, designed to close out this era of the team's history. Following the conclusion of No Surrender in 2018, the series will be relaunched again as Avengers; when the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the roster changed immediately. Captain America soon joined the team in issue #4, he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place; the Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil, Kang the Conqueror, Wonder Man, Count Nefaria.
The next milestone came. Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath, the Wasp rejoined. Hercules became part of the team, while the Black Knight, the Black Widow, abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man did not join the group; the Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from Klaw. The X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53; this was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision. Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59, married the Wasp the following month; the Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark. The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler, furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet. The