Green Lantern is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, all of which comes from imagination and/or emotions; the first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 by Martin Nodell during the initial popularity of superheroes. Alan Scott fought common criminals in New York City with the aid of his magic ring; the Green Lanterns are among DC Comics' longer lasting sets of characters. They have been adapted to television, video games, motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern, he first appeared in the Golden Age of comic books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. This Green Lantern's real name was Alan Scott, a railroad engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him and said it would bring power.
From this, he crafted a magic ring. The limitations of the ring were that it had to be "charged" every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Most stories took place in New York; as a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in anthology books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book, Green Lantern. He appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the superhero team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined; the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, All Star Comics #57 was the character's last Golden Age appearance. When superheroes came back in fashion in decades, the character Alan Scott was revived, but he was forever marginalized by the new Hal Jordan character, created to supplant him.
He made guest appearances in other superheroes' books, but got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society. He never got another solo series. Between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scott's superhero codename to "Sentinel" in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped, his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan. Hal Jordan's powers were more or less the same as Alan Scott's, but otherwise this character was different than the Green Lantern character of the 1940s, he had a new name, a redesigned costume, a rewritten origin story. Hal Jordan received his ring from a dying alien and was commissioned as an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency overseen by the Guardians of the Universe.
Hal Jordan was introduced in Showcase #22. Gil Kane and Sid Greene were the art team most notable on the title in its early years, along with writer John Broome. With issue #76, the series made a radical stylistic departure. Editor Schwartz, in one of the company's earliest efforts to provide more than fantasy, worked with the writer-artist team of Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams to spark new interest in the comic book series and address a perceived need for social relevance, they added the character Green Arrow and had the pair travel through America encountering "real world" issues, to which they reacted in different ways — Green Lantern as fundamentally a lawman, Green Arrow as a liberal iconoclast. Additionally during this run, the groundbreaking "Snowbirds Don't Fly" story was published in which Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy developed a heroin addiction that he was forcibly made to quit; the stories were critically acclaimed, with publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek citing it as an example of how comic books were "growing up".
However, the O'Neil/Adams run was not a commercial success, the series was cancelled after only 14 issues, though an additional unpublished three installments were published as backups in The Flash #217-219. The title would know a number of cancellations, its title would change to Green Lantern Corps at one point as the popularity waned. During a time there were two regular titles, each with a Green Lantern, a third member in the Justice League. A new character, Kyle Rayner, was created to become the feature while Hal Jordan first became the villain Parallax died and came back as the Spectre. In the wake of The New Frontier, writer Geoff Johns returned Hal Jordan as Green Lantern in Green Lantern: Rebirth. Johns began to lay groundwork for "Blackest Night", viewing it as the third part of the trilogy started by Rebirth. Expanding on the Green Lantern mythology in the second part, "Sinestro Corps War", with artist Ethan van Sciver, found wide critical acclaim and commercial success with the series, which promised the introduction of a spectrum of colored "lanterns".
The series and its creators have received several awards over the years, including the 1961 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero/Heroine with Own Book and the Academy of Comic Book Arts Shazam Award for Best Conti
Grant Morrison, MBE is a Scottish comic book writer and playwright. He is known for his nonlinear narratives and countercultural leanings in his runs on titles including DC Comics's Animal Man, Batman, JLA, Action Comics, All-Star Superman, Vertigo's The Invisibles, Fleetway's 2000 AD, he is the current editor-in-chief of Heavy Metal. He is the co-creator of the Syfy TV series Happy! starring Christopher Meloni and Patton Oswalt. Grant Morrison was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1960, he was educated at Allan Glen's School where his first portfolio of art was rejected by his careers guidance teacher, who encouraged him to work in a bank. His first published works were Gideon Stargrave strips for Near Myths in 1978, one of the first British alternative comics, his work appeared in four of the five issues of Near Myths and he was suitably encouraged to find more comic work. This included a weekly comic strip, Captain Clyde, an unemployed superhero based in Glasgow, for The Govan Press, a local newspaper, plus various issues of DC Thomson's Starblazer, a science fiction version of that company's Commando title.
Morrison spent much of the early 1980s touring and recording with his band The Mixers writing Starblazer for D. C. Thomson and contributing to various UK indie titles. In 1982 he submitted a proposal involving the Justice League of America and Jack Kirby's New Gods entitled Second Coming to DC Comics, but it was not commissioned. After writing The Liberators for Dez Skinn's Warrior in 1985, he started work for Marvel UK the following year. There he wrote a number of comic strips for Doctor Who Magazine, his final one a collaboration with a then-teenage Bryan Hitch, as well as a run on the Zoids strip in Spider-Man and Zoids. 1986 saw publication of Morrison's first of several two- or three-page Future Shocks for 2000AD. Morrison's first continuing serial began in 2000 AD in 1987, when he and Steve Yeowell created Zenith. Morrison's work on Zenith brought him to the attention of DC Comics, they accepted his proposals for Animal Man, a little-known character from DC's past whose most notable recent appearance was a cameo in the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series, for a 48-page Batman one-shot that would become Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth.
Animal Man put Morrison in line with the so-called "British Invasion" of American comics, along with such writers as Neil Gaiman, Peter Milligan, Jamie Delano and Alan Moore, who had launched the "invasion" with his work on Swamp Thing. After impressing with Animal Man, Morrison was asked to take over Doom Patrol, starting his surreal take on the superhero genre with issue No. 19 in 1989. Morrison's Doom Patrol introduced concepts such as dadaism and the writings of Jorge Luis Borges into his first several issues. DC published Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth in 1989 as a 128-page graphic novel painted by Dave McKean. Comics historian Les Daniels observed in 1995 that "Arkham Asylum was an unprecedented success, selling 182,166 copies in hardcover and another 85,047 in paperback."While working for DC Comics in America, Morrison kept contributing to British indie titles, writing St. Swithin's Day for Trident Comics. St. Swithin's Day's anti-Margaret Thatcher themes proved controversial, provoking a small tabloid press reaction and a complaint from Conservative MP Teddy Taylor.
The controversy continued with the publication of The New Adventures of Hitler in Scottish music and lifestyle magazine Cut in 1989, due to its use of Adolf Hitler as its lead character. The strip was unfinished when Cut folded, was reprinted and completed in Fleetway's 2000 AD spin-off title Crisis. Morrison returned to Batman with the "Gothic" story arc in issues 6–10 of the Batman title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight; the early 1990s saw Morrison revamping Kid Eternity for DC with artist Duncan Fegredo, Dan Dare, with artist Rian Hughes. Morrison coloured Dare's bright future with Thatcherism in Fleetway's Revolver. In 1991 Morrison wrote Bible John-A Forensic Meditation for Fleetway's Crisis, based on an analysis of possible motivations for the crimes of the serial killer Bible John. Covering similar themes to Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell's From Hell, the work utilised cut-up techniques, a Ouija board and collage rather than conventional panels to tell the story. In 1993 Morrison, fellow Glaswegian comic writer Mark Millar and John Smith were asked to reinvigorate 2000 AD for an eight-week run called "The Summer Offensive".
Morrison wrote Judge Dredd and Really and Truly, co-wrote the controversial Big Dave with Millar. DC Comics launched its Vertigo imprint in 1993, publishing several of Morrison's creator-owned projects, such as the steampunk mini-series Sebastian O and the graphic novel The Mystery Play. 1995 saw the release of Kill Your Boyfriend, with artist Philip Bond published as a Vertigo Voices one-shot. In 1996 Morrison wrote Flex Mentallo, a Doom Patrol spin-off with art by Frank Quitely, returned to DC Universe superheroics with the short-lived Aztek, co-written with Mark Millar. In 1996, Morrison was given the Justice League of America to revamp as JLA, a comic book that gathered the "Big Seven" superheroes of the DC universe into one team; this run returned the title back to best-selling status. Morrison wrote several issues of The Flash with Mark Millar, as well as DC's crossover event of 1998, the four-issue mini-series DC One Million, in addition to plotting many of the multiple crossovers. With the three volumes of the creator-owned The Invisibles, Morrison started his largest and most important work.
The Invisibles combined political, pop- and sub-cultural references. Tapping into pre-millennial tension, the work was influenced
Kurt Busiek is an American comic book writer. His work includes the Marvels limited series, his own series titled Astro City, a four-year run on The Avengers. Busiek was born in Massachusetts, he grew up in various towns in the Boston area, including Lexington, where he befriended future comic book creator Scott McCloud. Busiek did not read comics as his parents disapproved of them, he began to read them around the age of 14, when he picked up a copy of Daredevil #120. This was the first part of a continuity-heavy four-part story arc. Throughout high school and college, he and McCloud practiced making comics. During this time, Busiek had many letters published in comic book letter columns, originated the theory that the Phoenix was a separate being who had impersonated Jean Grey, that therefore Grey had not died — a premise which made its way from freelancer to freelancer, and, used in the comics. Busiek explains, "A couple of years after I’d broken in, I attended my first convention as a pro, in Ithaca, New York, I stayed at Roger Stern's house.
And we were talking about how much we liked the new X-Men, he said,'It's just a pity there's no way to bring Jean Grey back,' and I said,'Sure there's a way, there's always a way.'" During the last semester of his senior year, Busiek submitted some sample scripts to editor Dick Giordano at DC Comics. None of them sold, but they did get him invitations to pitch other material to DC editors, which led to his first professional work, a back-up story in Green Lantern #162. After writing four fill-in issues of Power Man and Iron Fist, he was given the series as his first regular assignment. Busiek was a fan of the work his predecessor, Mary Jo Duffy, had done on Power Man and Iron Fist, emulated her lighthearted, humorous approach, not knowing that the editorial staff disapproved of this approach and had taken Duffy off the series because of it, he was fired from the series for the same reasons as Duffy, after only six issues as its regular writer. In 1985, he wrote a Red Tornado limited series. In 1993, Busiek and artist Alex Ross produced the Marvels limited series which, as comics historian Matthew K.
Manning notes, "reinvigorated painted comics as a genre, went on to become an acclaimed masterpiece, spawned more than its own fair share of imitators." Busiek and Pat Olliffe crafted the Untold Tales of Spider-Man series beginning in September 1995. He created the Thunderbolts, a group of super-villains disguised as super-heroes, with the final page of the first issue of the series revealing that the Thunderbolts were the Masters of Evil, a surprise twist guarded by Marvel. In February 1998, Busiek launched The Avengers vol. 3 with penciler George Pérez and Iron Man vol. 3 with artist Sean Chen. Busiek and Carlos Pacheco collaborated on the Avengers Forever limited series in 1998–1999; this replaced the Avengers: World in Chains series which the two had planned to work on. Busiek continued as writer of The Avengers through 2002, collaborating with artists such as Alan Davis and Kieron Dwyer, his tenure culminated with the "Kang Dynasty" storyline. In 2003, Busiek re-teamed with Pérez to create the JLA/Avengers limited series.
Busiek has worked on a number of different titles in his career, including Arrowsmith, The Liberty Project, The Power Company, Superman: Secret Identity, JLA, the award-winning Kurt Busiek's Astro City. In the 1990s, work on some of Busiek's more challenging, less mainstream projects, most notably Astro City, was delayed by health problems brought about by mercury poisoning. In 2004, Busiek began a new Conan series for Dark Horse Comics. In December 2005, he signed a two-year exclusive contract with DC Comics. During DC's Infinite Crisis event, he teamed with Geoff Johns on a "One Year Later" eight-part story arc titled "Up, Up and Away!" that encompassed both Superman titles. In addition, he began writing the DC title Aquaman: Sword of Atlantis from issues #40–49. Busiek became the sole writer of the Superman series with issue #654 and Carlos Pacheco became the series' artist. Busiek and Pacheco developed an extended storyine featuring Arion coming into conflict with Superman; the plotline concluded in Superman Annual #13.
Busiek wrote a 52-issue weekly DC miniseries titled Trinity, starring Batman and Wonder Woman. Each issue except for the first featured a 12-page main story by Busiek, with art by Mark Bagley, a ten-page backup story co-written by Busiek and Fabian Nicieza, with art from various artists, including Tom Derenick, Mike Norton and Scott McDaniel. Busiek teamed with Alex Ross on Dynamite Entertainment's Kirby: Genesis, an eight-issue miniseries which debuted in 2011; the series, their first full collaboration since Marvels 17 years previous, featured a large group of Jack Kirby's creator-owned characters, the rights to which were acquired by Dynamite, such as Silver Star, Captain Victory, Galaxy Green, Tiger 21 and the Ninth Men. Ross co-plotted, handled designs, oversaw the series overall with Busiek, who scripted the story. In June 2013, Busiek relaunched his Astro City series as part of DC's Vertigo line. Busiek commented that "Astro City's always been aimed at a more sophisticated reader, which I think suits Vertigo.
Plus our backlist sales are closer to a Vertigo pattern than DCU." The ongoing Astro City series concluded as of issue #52 in 2018. Busiek is married to Ann Busiek. Both Kurt and Ann Busiek were rendered by Alex Ross as New Yorkers who react to the invasion of Silver Surfer and Galactus on page 17 of Marvels #3. Kurt is used as the model for a wandering drunk on page 33 o
Mark Waid is an American comic book writer, known for his work on titles for DC Comics such as The Flash, Kingdom Come and Superman: Birthright, for his work on Captain America, Fantastic Four, Daredevil for Marvel Comics. From August 2007 to December 2010, Waid served as Editor-in-Chief, Chief Creative Officer of Boom! Studios, where he wrote titles such as Irredeemable and The Traveler. Waid was born in Alabama, he has stated that his comics work was influenced by Adventure Comics #369–370, the two-part "Legion of Super-Heroes" story by Jim Shooter and Mort Weisinger that introduced the villain Mordru, was "a blueprint for everything I write." Waid entered the comics field during the mid-1980s as an editor and writer on Fantagraphics Books' comic book fan magazine, Amazing Heroes. Waid's first comic book story "The Puzzle of the Purloined Fortress", an eight-page Superman story, was published in Action Comics #572. In 1987, Waid was hired as an editor for DC Comics where he worked on such titles as Action Comics, Doom Patrol, Inc.
Legion of Super-Heroes, Secret Origins, Wonder Woman, as well as various one-shots including Batman: Gotham by Gaslight. With Gotham by Gaslight, in tandem with writer Brian Augustyn, Waid co-created DC's "Elseworlds" franchise. In 1989 Waid left editorial work for freelance writing assignments, he worked for DC's short-lived Impact Comics line where he wrote The Comet and scripted dialogue for Legend of the Shield. In 1992 Waid began the assignment which would bring him to wider recognition in the comics industry, when he was hired to write The Flash by editor Brian Augustyn. Waid stayed on the title for an eight-year run, he wrote a Metamorpho limited series in 1993 and created the Impulse character in The Flash #92. Impulse was launched into his own series in April 1995 by artist Humberto Ramos. In November of that same year and Howard Porter collaborated on the Underworld Unleashed limited series, which served as the center of a company-wide crossover storyline, his first major project for Marvel Comics was as one of the writers of the "Age of Apocalypse" crossover.
He co-created the Onslaught character for the X-Men line. Marvel editors Ralph Macchio and Mark Gruenwald hired him as Gruenwald's successor as writer of Captain America, during which Waid was paired with artist Ron Garney. Waid and Garney garnered critical praise for their run on the title, remaining on it until the title was relaunched with a different creative team as part of the 1996–1997 "Heroes Reborn" storyline. Rob Liefeld offered Waid the opportunity to script Captain America over plots and artwork by his studio, but Waid declined; that storyline ran a full year, after which Waid and Garney returned to the title for another relaunched series, Captain America volume 3, issues #1–23. Waid wrote the short-lived spin-off series Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty from 1998–1999, having written 10 of the 12 issues. In 1996, Waid and artist Alex Ross produced the graphic novel Kingdom Come; this story, set in the future of the DC Universe, depicted the fate of Superman, Wonder Woman, other heroes as the world around them changed.
It was written in reaction to the "gritty" comics of the 1980s and 1990s. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz observed that "Waid's deep knowledge of the heroes' pasts served them well, Ross' unique painted art style made a powerful statement about the reality of the world they built." Many of the ideas introduced in Kingdom Come were integrated into the present-day DC Universe, Waid himself wrote a follow-up to the series, The Kingdom. Waid and writer Grant Morrison collaborated on a number of projects that would reestablish DC's Justice League to prominence. Waid's contributions included JLA: Year One, as well as work on the ongoing series; the two writers developed the concept of Hypertime to explain problems with continuity in the DC Universe. Waid collaborated with artists Bryan Hitch and Paul Neary on JLA and the JLA: Heaven's Ladder one-shot. In 2000, Waid wrote a series named Empire with Barry Kitson, whose protagonist was a Doctor Doom-like supervillain named Golgoth who had defeated all superheroes and conquered the world.
The series was published by Gorilla Comics, a company formed by Waid, Kurt Busiek and several others, but the company folded after only two issues were published. Empire was completed under the DC Comics label in 2003 and 2004. Waid wrote the first year of Crossgen's Ruse series. Waid began an acclaimed run as writer of Marvel's Fantastic Four in 2002 with his former Flash artist Mike Wieringo, with Marvel releasing their debut issue, Fantastic Four vol. 3 #60 at the promotional price of 9 cents U. S. By June 2003, Marvel publisher Bill Jemas tried to convince Waid to abandon his "high-adventure" approach to the series, making the book into, in Waid's words, "a wacky suburban dramedy where Reed's a nutty professor who creates amazing but impractical inventions, Sue's the office-temp breadwinner, the cranky neighbor is their new'arch-enemy,' etc." Waid, who felt that this was too much of a departure from what he had been hired to write declined. After some discussion with editor Tom Brevoort, Waid found a way to make the requested changes, but by the decision had been made to fire Waid and Wieringo from the series.
The resulting fan backlash led to Wieringo's reinstatement on the title by that September. Waid and Wieringo completed their run on Fantastic Four with issue #524, by which time the relaunched series had returned to its original numbering. In 2003 Waid wrote the origin of the "modern" Superman with Superman: Birthrig
A pantheon is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition. A pantheon of gods is a common element of polytheistic societies, although not all polytheists have such a pantheon, not all pantheons require a polytheistic worldview; the nature of a society's pantheon can be considered a reflection of that society: A pantheon is an overview of a given culture's gods and goddesses and reflects not only the society's values but its sense of itself. A pantheon directed by a thunderboltwielding autocrat might suggest a patriarchy and the valuing of warrior skills. A pantheon headed by a great-mother goddess could suggest a village-based agricultural society. To confront the pantheon of the Egyptians is to confront a worldview marked by a sense of death and resurrection and the agricultural importance of the cycles of nature; the Greek pantheon is a metaphor for a pragmatic view of life that values art and the power of the individual, and, somewhat skeptical about human nature.
Some well-known historical polytheistic pantheons include the Sumerian gods and the Egyptian gods, the classical-attested pantheon which includes the ancient Greek religion and Roman religion. Post-classical polytheistic religions include Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, many others. Today, most historical polytheistic religions are referred to as "mythology", though the stories cultures tell about their gods should be distinguished from their worship or religious practice. For instance, deities portrayed in conflict in mythology would still be worshipped sometimes in the same temple side by side, illustrating the distinction in the devotees mind between the myth and the reality. Scholars such as Jaan Puhvel, J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams have reconstructed aspects of the ancient Proto-Indo-European religion, from which the religions of the various Indo-European peoples derive, that this religion was an naturalist numenistic religion. An example of a religious notion from this shared past is the concept of *dyēus, attested in several distinct religious systems.
In many civilizations, pantheons tended to grow over time. Deities first worshipped as the patrons of cities or places came to be collected together as empires extended over larger territories. Conquests could lead to the subordination of the elder culture's pantheon to a newer one, as in the Greek Titanomachia, also the case of the Æsir and Vanir in the Norse mythos. Cultural exchange could lead to "the same" deity being renowned in two places under different names, as seen with the Greeks and Romans, to the cultural transmission of elements of an extraneous religion into a local cult, as with worship of the ancient Egyptian deity Osiris, followed in ancient Greece. Max Weber's 1922 opus Economy and Society discusses tendency in the ancient Greek philosophers to interpret gods worshiped in the pantheons of other cultures as "equivalent to and so identical with the deities of the moderately organized Greek pantheon". In other instances, national pantheons were consolidated or simplified into fewer gods, or into a single god with power over all of the areas assigned to a pantheon.
For example, in the ancient Near East during the first millennium BCE, Syrian and Palestinian tribes worshiped much smaller pantheons than had been developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Weber identified the link between a pantheon of gods and the development of monotheism, proposing that the domination of a pantheon by a particular god within that pantheon was a step towards followers of the pantheon seeing that god as "an international or universal deity, a transnational god of the entire world"; the first known instance of a pantheon being consolidated into a single god, or discarded in favor of a single god, was with the development of the short-lived practice of Atenism in ancient Egypt, with that role being accorded to the sun god. A similar process is thought to have taken place with respect to the Israelite deity Yahweh, who, "as a typical West Semitic deity... would have four or five compatriot gods in attendance as he became the national high god". The concept of a pantheon of gods has been imitated in Twentieth-century fantasy literature and role-playing games like Dungeons & Dragons.
These uses tend to borrow from historical patterns. In these contexts, it is considered important for the writer to construct pantheon of gods that fits the genre, where the characteristics of the gods are in balance so that none of them is able to overwhelm the story, so that the actions of the characters are not overwhelmed by the machinations of the gods. In order to avoid the difficulty of giving an exhaustive list of deities when devoting a temple or sacred building, a structure explicitly dedicated to "all deities" came to be referred to as a "Pantheon"; the best known of such structures is the Pantheon of Rome, first built between the years 27 BCE and 14 CE. The building standing today was constructed on the same site around 126 CE, it was dedicated to "all gods" as a gesture embracing the religious syncretism in the multicultural Roman Empire, with subjects worshipping gods from many cultures and traditions. The building was renovated for use as a Christian church in 609 under Pope Boniface IV. he relation between the building and the primary reference point of the term'pantheon', the pantheon of the gods, has always been a matter of the greatest uncertainty.
By the sixteenth century these two aspects, the building and the grouping of gods, had become merged, to the extent that the building in Rome became the principal
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits; the Moon is after Jupiter's satellite Io the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed not long after Earth; the most accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, thus always shows the same side to Earth, the near side; the near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. After the Sun, the Moon is the second-brightest visible celestial object in Earth's sky, its surface is dark, although compared to the night sky it appears bright, with a reflectance just higher than that of worn asphalt.
Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon's average orbital distance is 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth; the Moon's apparent size in the sky is the same as that of the Sun, since the star is about 400 times the lunar distance and diameter. Therefore, the Moon covers the Sun nearly during a total solar eclipse; this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the Moon's distance from Earth is increasing. The Moon was first reached in September 1959 by an unmanned spacecraft; the United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon's origin, internal structure, the Moon's history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.
Both the Moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar calendar systems and mythology; the usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon", which in nonscientific texts is not capitalized. The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnô, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s "moon", "month", which comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *meh₁- "to measure", the month being the ancient unit of time measured by the Moon; the name "Luna" is used. In literature science fiction, "Luna" is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon; the modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin word for the Moon, luna. The adjective selenic is so used to refer to the Moon that this meaning is not recorded in most major dictionaries.
It is derived from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη, from, however derived the prefix "seleno-", as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium. Both the Greek goddess Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia; the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana comes from the Proto-Indo-European *diw-yo, "heavenly", which comes from the PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," which in many derivatives means "sky and god" and is the origin of Latin dies, "day"; the Moon formed 4.51 billion years ago, some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. Several forming mechanisms have been proposed, including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force, the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon, the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk; these hypotheses cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.
The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after an impact of a Mars-sized body with the proto-Earth. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and the material accreted and formed the Moon; the Moon's far side has a crust, 30 mi thicker than that of the near side. This is thought to be; this hypothesis, although not perfect best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don't come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon's birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory. Before the conference, there were parti
Howard Porter (artist)
Howard Porter is an American comic book artist from southern Connecticut. Howard Porter graduated from Paier College of Art in Connecticut. One of his teachers there was Frank McLaughlin. McLaughlin worked as a comic book inker and he began to give Porter work assisting him in his inking jobs which led Porter to assist other inkers and find work for himself in the industry. Porter became a penciller, his first major run on a title came with DC Comics' The Ray, where he worked with writer Christopher Priest. Shortly afterward, Porter worked on DC's summer 1995 crossover event Underworld Unleashed, with writer Mark Waid, followed by the Justice League of America relaunch, JLA, with writer Grant Morrison and inker John Dell. Porter temporarily left comics to work in banking, doing graphic design work for Credit Suisse First Boston, he left that job in 2003 to open an artists' studio with comics artist Ron Garney. Porter returned to comics that year with a six-issue run of Marvel Comics' Fantastic Four, reuniting with writer Waid.
In July 2004, Porter signed a two-year exclusive contract with DC, began as regular penciller of The Flash, with writer Geoff Johns and inker John Livesay. In 2006, DC announced Porter would pencil the limited series The Trials of Shazam!, collaborating with writer Judd Winick. He was unable to finish the series because he injured his hand and had to take time out from comics for recovery. Unable to draw, he worked as a school bus driver until his return in late 2008, when he drew DC Universe: Decisions #2, he became the regular penciller on Titans and was the first artist for the Doc Savage series. He drew an issue of The Brave and the Bold featuring a team-up between Static and Black Lightning, he became the regular penciler on DC Comics' Magog for the series' first ten issues, before being replaced by Scott Kolins. As of 2016, Howard Porter is still drawing for DC Comics, with recent works including Superman Beyond', "Justice League 3000", "Superman" and "Scooby-Doo." In September 2014, Porter was the artist put forward by DC to create the poster and key art for the UFC 181 MMA fight event.
Porter - a huge fan of the UFC - created art featuring the main four fighters on the UFC 181 card as superheroes. The Ray #0–11, 13, 14 Underworld Unleashed #1–3 Extreme Justice #7, 9 JLA #1–7, 10–16, 18, 19, 22–25, 28–31, 34, 36–41, 43–45 DC Secret Files – JLA: Secret Files & Origins #1, DC Comics, August 1997 Fantastic Four #503–508 Aquaman #12, 14 The Flash #207–211, 213–217, 220–225 The Trials of Shazam #1–9 JLA Classified #37, 39 Countdown to Final Crisis #32 #34 DC Universe: Decisions #2, 4 Titans #7–11 Magog #1–7 Doc Savage #1– Green Arrow #6–10, ongoing series, DC Comics, 2011– He-Man and the Masters of the Universe #2 Superman Beyond #1–8, DC Comics, 2012