Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten, commonly shortened to JP, is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper. It is based in Viby, a suburb of Århus and its main competitors are the broadsheet Politiken and compact Berlingske. The foundation behind the newspaper, Jyllands-Postens Fond, defines it as an independent liberal newspaper, the paper officially supported the Conservative Peoples Party until 1938. The newspaper was founded in 1871 and issued its first copy on 2 October of that year, the name Jyllandsposten was used, the hyphen being adopted in 1945. The current name was introduced in 1969 and it refers to itself as Denmarks international newspaper. Jyllandsposten quickly became one of Jutlands most modern newspapers and secured an exclusive access to government telegraph wires between 21,00 and midnight every day and this enabled Jyllandsposten to publish news one day earlier than most of its competitors. Gradually the paper expanded, enlarging its format and adding more and more pages, the first issues had only contained four pages.
In 1889 it abandoned the traditional Gothic script in favour of the Latin script used today, Gothic script had been abolished by the Danish spelling reform of 1875, but was still in wide use. Politically the paper supported the Højre party – which became the Conservative Peoples Party in 1915, the paper advocated business interests and strongly opposed socialism. It was critical of business monopolies, in international affairs, it was generally supportive of Britain and critical of Germany, which it considered the only country that wished to attack Denmark, to quote an 1872 edition. This nationalist sentiment was a reaction to Germanys annexation of portions of southern Jutland following the Second War of Schleswig in 1864. Editorially the newspaper supported the Danish minority in Germany and advocated for a new located at the Danevirke. Throughout World War I Jyllands-Posten continued its attacks on Germany despite the governments policy of neutrality in the conflict. In 1918, the newspaper was outlawed in Germany, in 1929, the paper established an office in Copenhagen, and established a corporation with The Times.
In 1931, the paper was acquired by a joint stock company whose main investor became editor-in-chief, in 1934 the newspaper began to use photographs in its layouts. Foreign news stories were supplied by Ritzau, The Times, during the 1920s and 1930s, the editorial line of the paper was right-wing Conservative. Another issue was support of the Danish minority in Germany, the paper expressed its admiration for the authoritarian regimes of Italy and Germany on several occasions, a line assumed by many European newspapers. In 1933, the newspaper advocated that Denmark follow Germanys example, in March 1933, the paper wrote, Only dry tears will be cried at the grave of the Weimar Republic
Free newspapers are distributed free of charge, either in central places in cities and towns, on public transport, with other newspapers, or separately door-to-door. The revenues of such newspapers are based on advertising, some are dailies, some are weeklies. In 1885 the General-Anzeiger für Lübeck und Umgebung was launched, the paper was founded in 1882 by Charles Coleman, whose family was from Scotland, as a free twice-a-week advertising paper in the Northern German town of Lübeck. In 1885 the paper went daily, from the beginning the General-Anzeiger für Lübeck had a mixed model, for 60 pfennig it was home delivered during three months. Unknown, however, is when the free distribution ended, the company website states that the ’sold’ circulation in 1887 was 5,000, in 1890 total circulation was 12,800 in 1890. In 1906 the Australian Manly Daily was launched and it was distributed on the ferry boats to Sydney and is now published as a free community daily by Rupert Murdochs News Ltd. In 1984 the Birmingham Daily News was launched in Birmingham, England and it was distributed free of charge on weekdays to 300,000 households in the West Midlands and was the first such publication in Europe.
It was profitable until the early 1990s recession, when it was converted into a title by its owners Reed Elsevier. By 1992, a number of former paid-for local newspapers in the United Kingdom, such as the Walsall Observer, were being closed down and converted to free newspapers. In 1995, the year the Palo Alto Daily News began, Metro started what may be the first free daily newspaper distributed through public transport in Stockholm. Later, Metro launched free papers in many European and other countries, in the UK, the Daily Mail and General Trust group launched its own edition of Metro in London in 1999, effectively beating Metro International to the London market. The paper now has 13 editions across the country and a readership of 1.7 million. In the 1960s, he converted that newspaper and three others in the county to paid circulation, in the early 1970s, in Boulder, regents at the University of Colorado kicked the student-run Colorado Daily off campus because of editorials against the Vietnam War.
Regents hoped the paper would die, instead it began to focus on the community as a tabloid published five days a week. In the next couple of decades, a number of free dailies opened in Colorado, not coincidentally, most were started by University of Colorado graduates. Free dailies opened in Aspen, Breckenridge, Glenwood Springs, Grand Junction, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride. In 1995, the founders of free dailies in Aspen and Vail teamed up to start the Palo Alto Daily News in Palo Alto, the Palo Alto paper was profitable within nine months of its launch and usually carries more than 100 retail ads per day. Each goes by the Daily News name with the name in front
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
The newspaper announced that this was an attempt to contribute to the debate about criticism of Islam and self-censorship. Muslim groups in Denmark complained, and the issue led to protests around the world, including violent demonstrations. Islam has a tradition of aniconism, and it is considered highly blasphemous in most Islamic traditions to visually depict Muhammad. This, compounded with a sense that the cartoons insulted Muhammad and Islam and they presented a dossier containing the twelve cartoons from the Jyllands-Posten, and other information some of which was found to be falsified. As a result, the issue received prominent media attention in some Muslim countries, leading to protests across the world in late January, some groups responded to the outpouring of protest by endorsing the Danish policies, launching Buy Danish campaigns and other displays of support. The cartoons were reprinted in newspapers around the world both in a sense of solidarity and as an illustration in what became a major news story.
Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen described the controversy as Denmarks worst international relations incident since the Second World War, the cartoons and the reaction to them aggravated already-strained relations. The Danish tradition of high tolerance for freedom of speech became a focus of some attention. Critics of the cartoons described them as Islamophobic, racist, or baiting and blasphemous to Muslims, others saw them as a manifestation of ignorance about the history of Western imperialism, double standards, and stereotyping. Three artists declined Bluitgens proposal out of fear of reprisals, one artist agreed to assist anonymously, he said that he was afraid for his and his familys safety. The story gained some traction, and the major Danish newspapers reported the story the following day, the supposed refusals from these first three artists to participate was seen as evidence of self-censorship out of fear of violence from Islamists, which led to much debate in Denmark.
The Danish news paper Politiken stated at February 12,2006, the author refused, and nobody has ever been able to confirm whether the incident is properly described. At an editorial meeting of Jyllands-Posten on 19 September, reporter Stig Olesen mooted the idea of asking the members of the newspaper illustrators union if they would be willing to draw Muhammad and this would be an experiment to see the degree to which professional illustrators felt threatened. Flemming Rose, culture editor, was interested in the idea,12 drawings had been submitted—three from newspaper employees and two which did not directly show Muhammad. The editors thought that some of the illustrators who had not responded were employed by newspapers and were thus contractually prohibited from working for Jyllands-Posten. Carsten Juste has said that the survey lacked validity and the story fell short of sound journalistic basis, on 30 September 2005, Jyllands-Posten published an article entitled Muhammeds ansigt incorporating the cartoons.
The article consisted of the 12 cartoons and a text, in which Rose wrote, Modern. They demand a position, insisting on special consideration of their own religious feelings
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Ekstra Bladet is a Danish tabloid newspaper focusing on sensationalist news and political revelations. Since 1979 it has always had a partly or completely naked woman on page nine which is referred to as Side 9 Pigen, the current editor is Poul Madsen, who on 6 September 2007 replaced Hans Engell. The newspaper began publication 1904 in a Politiken newspaper, and a year later, the headquarters of the paper is in Copenhagen. Victor Andreasen served as the editor-in-chief of the paper for two times, between 1963 and 1967 and between 1971 and 1976. In December 2010 Ekstra Bladet editor-in-chief Poul Madsen threatened to complain to the European Court of Justice after its submission of an application to Apples App Store was rejected, Madsen claimed the application was deemed offensive, and in an editorial described Apple as being an American nanny. Since 5 October 2012 Tipsbladet, a football magazine, has been sold with the Friday edition of Ekstra Bladet. Ekstra Bladets readership and circulation has declined in recent years, during the last six months of 1957 the paper had a circulation of 68,178 copies on weekdays.
The circulation of the paper was 210,000 copies in 1991,198,000 copies in 1992 and 185,000 copies in 1993 and it fell to 177,000 copies in 1994, to 168,000 in 1995 and to 166,000 copies in 1996. Although its circulation grew to 169,000 copies in 1997 and it was 134,000 copies in 2000 and 127,000 copies in 2001. The circulation of the fell to 119,000 copies in 2002. It was the fourth best selling Danish newspaper in 2003 with a circulation of 110,000 copies, in 2004 the paper had a circulation of 110,000 copies. There is another report giving its 2004 circulation as 106,000 copies, in 2012 the paper had a circulation of 60,000 copies. In March 2013 the Alexa rank of ekstrabladet. dk was 1.949, making it one of the 2.000 most popular websites worldwide
Politiken is a leading Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1884 and played a role in the formation of the Danish Social Liberal Party, since 1970 it has been independent of the party but maintains a liberal and centre-left stance. It now runs a newspaper, politiken. dk. The papers design won international awards, and a number of its journalists won the Cavling Prize. Dagbladet Politiken was founded on 1 October 1884 in Copenhagen by Viggo Hørup, Edvard Brandes, Hørup and Brandes formed the newspaper after being fired as editors from the Morgenbladet over political differences. Hørup led the paper as editor-in-chief for fifteen years from its start in 1884, in 1904, the tabloid Ekstra Bladet was founded as a supplement to Politiken and was spun off as an independent newspaper on 1 January 1905. The paper established its present location in central Copenhagen at The City Hall Square in 1912, in 1987 Politiken started its business supplement.
The paper was published by Politikens Hus until 1 January 2003 when the merged with Jyllands-Posten A/S to form JP/Politikens Hus. Thus, Jyllands-Posten became its sister paper, Politiken is published in broadsheet format. The newspaper publishes an international edition named Politiken Weekly which compiles the most important stories of the week for Danes living abroad, on 28 April 1940, three weeks after the German invasion of Denmark, Politiken ran an editorial in which Winston Churchill was called a dangerous man. To have been to please the German occupation force, though no other Danish newspaper took such steps at the time, usually, it was enough to keep within the newly introduced censorship. The article led to 15,000 readers, about 10% of subscribers, during the early 1900s Politiken had a cultural radical political stance. Historically the paper was connected to the Danish Social Liberal Party, the paper has a far-leaning social and centre-left stance. Seidenfaden explained that Politiken has never intended to reprint the cartoon drawing as a statement of opinion or values.
Politiken started with a circulation of 2,000 copies. Its circulation was 23,142 copies in 1901, in 1910 its circulation rose to 41,400 copies. Later it became one of Denmarks leading newspapers in terms of both circulated copies and number of readers and its circulation was 165,615 copies in 1950. During the last six months of 1957 the paper had a circulation of 148,169 copies on weekdays and it fell to 142,847 copies in 1960