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JPEG File Interchange Format

The JPEG File Interchange Format is an image file format standard. It defines supplementary specifications for the container format that contains the image data encoded with the JPEG algorithm; the base specifications for a JPEG container format is defined in the Annex B of the JPEG standard, known as JPEG Interchange Format. JFIF builds over JIF to solve some of JIF's limitations, including unnecessary complexity, component sample registration, aspect ratio, color space; because JFIF is a supplementary standard, the resulting file format may be referred to as "JPEG/JFIF". JFIF is mutually incompatible with the newer Exchangeable image file format. JFIF defines a number of details that are left unspecified by the JPEG Part 1 standard JPEG allows multiple components to have different resolutions, but it does not define how those differing sample arrays should be aligned; the JFIF standard requires samples to be sited "interstitially" – meaning the decoder can treat each component array as representing an array of equal-sized rectangular pixels sampled in their centers, with each array having the same exterior boundaries as the image.

This is convenient for computer users, but is not the alignment used in MPEG-2 and most video applications. The JPEG standard does not include any method of coding the aspect ratio of an image. JFIF provides resolution or aspect ratio information using an application segment extension to JPEG, it uses Application Segment #0, with a segment header consisting of the null-terminated string spelling "JFIF" in ASCII followed by a byte equal to 0, specifies that this must be the first segment in the file, hence making it simple to recognize a JFIF file. Exif images recorded by digital cameras do not include this segment, but comply in all other respects with the JFIF standard; the JPEG standard used for the compression coding in JFIF files does not define which color encoding is to be used for images. JFIF defines the color model to be used: either Y for greyscale, or YCbCr derived from RGB color primaries as defined in CCIR 601, except with a different "full range" scaling of the Y, Cb and Cr components.

Unlike the "studio range" defined in CCIR 601, in which black is represented by Y=16 and white by Y=235 and values outside of this range are available for signal processing "headroom" and "footroom", JFIF uses all 256 levels of the 8-bit representation, so that Y=0 for black and Y=255 for peak white. The RGB color primaries defined in JFIF via CCIR 601 differ somewhat from what has become common practice in newer applications. Moreover, CCIR 601 did not provide a precise definition of the RGB color primaries. Color interpretation of a JFIF image may be improved by embedding an ICC profile, colorspace metadata, or an sRGB tag, using an application that interprets this information. A JFIF file consists of a sequence of markers or marker segments; the markers are defined in part 1 of the JPEG Standard. Each marker consists of two bytes: an FF byte followed by a byte, not equal to 00 or FF and specifies the type of the marker; some markers stand alone, but most indicate the start of a marker segment that contains data bytes according to the following pattern: FF xx s1 s2 The bytes s1 and s2 are taken together to represent a big-endian 16-bit integer specifying the length of the following "data bytes" plus the 2 bytes used to represent the length.

In other words, s1 and s2 specify the number of the following data bytes as 256 ⋅ s 1 + s 2 − 2. According to part 1 of the JPEG standard, applications can use APP marker segments and define an application specific meaning of the data. In the JFIF standard, the following APP marker segments are defined: JFIF APP0 marker segment JFIF extension APP0 marker segment They are described below; the JFIF standard requires that the JFIF APP0 marker segment follows the SOI marker. If a JFIF extension APP0 marker segment is used, it must follow the JFIF APP0 marker segment. So a JFIF file will have the following structure: In the mandatory JFIF APP0 marker segment the parameters of the image are specified. Optionally an uncompressed thumbnail can be embedded. Following the JFIF APP0 marker segment may be a JFIF extension APP0 marker segment; this segment may only be present for JFIF versions above. It allows to embed a thumbnail image in 3 different formats; the thumbnail data depends on the thumbnail format as follows: The newer Exchangeable image file format is comparable to JFIF, but the two standards are mutually incompatible.

This is because both standards specify that their particular application segment must follow the SOI marker. In practice, many programs and digital cameras produce files with both application segments included; this will not affect the image decoding for most decoders, but poorly designed JFIF or Exif parsers may not recognise the file properly. JFIF is compatible with Adobe Photoshop's JPEG "Information Resource Block" extensions, IPTC Information Interchange Model metadata, since JFIF does not preclude other application segments, the Photoshop extensions are not required to be the first in the file. However, Photoshop saves CMYK buffers as four-component "Adobe JPEGs" that are not conformant with JFIF. Since

Nokia Asha 310

The Nokia Asha 310 known as the Nokia Asha 3010 or the Nokia ASHA 310 RM-911, was released in March 2013. It is the first in the line of the Asha range of phones to have dual subscriber identity module slots and Wi-Fi connectivity, it was a reinvention of the Asha range to remain competitive with new Android devices. It cost $102.00 at its launch date. It has a touchscreen, comes with either a 2 or 4 GB micro SD card, has 64 MB of RAM, a 2 MP camera and a battery that can last up to 600 hours in standby mode; the phone can play music for up to 54 hours or video for up to 9.5 hours, has a maximum of 17 hours talk time. The phone has two regular SIM card slots on the left side of the phone, it has a feature called "Easy Swap" that allows up to five SIM cards to be swapped without turning the phone off whilst the default SIM is located below the battery. Despite being a low-end phone, it has been reported as being well built in terms of the external appearance, it has been reported that its camera produces.

It has been reported that due to the Nokia Asha's 310s small 3-inch display that the on-screen keyboard is difficult to use so the keypad should be used as opposed to its QWERTY configuration. Despite its low hardware specifications, the Nokia Asha 310 has been said to still run at a reasonable speed. Browsing the Web on the phone is said to be ’choppy’ whilst navigating web pages, making it only good for simple tasks as opposed to anything major such as streaming a video file; the Nokia Asha 310 uses the Series 40 operating system shortened to S40. It is used on the Vertu line of phones; the S40 has more features than its predecessor, the S30. It is not used for smartphones, it is an embedded software system. It has an integrated web browser based on the WebKit open source components WebCore and JavaScriptCore. User-installed applications on Series 40 are mobile Java applications; the Nokia Asha 310 comes with cellular and Wi-Fi positioning, allowing the phone's location to be pinpointed on a map.

It comes with the application Nokia Maps pre-installed, allowing the user to plan their journey and search for different locations. However, only the map of the user's region can be preloaded for viewing whilst offline; the Nokia Asha 310 has a lock-screen that shows the date and time, connectivity status, app shortcuts, a notification bar, a back button, menu keys. Swiping either left or right will switch between the homescreen, the app drawer and the dialler; the notification bar allows the user to access the call functions as well as messaging, content player apps, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth toggles and sound options. Pre-installed apps include Facebook, Twitter, eBuddy and a SIM Card Manager which allows you to set the default network or be given a choice of networks every time the SIM card is used to perform an action; the Nokia Asha’s camera is fixed-focus, can take photos of 2 MP quality and has the option of a 4× digital zoom. It has a focal length of a minimum focusing range of 60 cm. Camera features include: Auto and manual white balance, centre weighted auto exposure, exposure compensation, full screen viewfinder, landscape orientation and still image editor.

The Nokia asha 310's rear camera video resolution has a video frame rate of 10 fps. One of the features of the video camera is. Supported video recording formats are 3GP/H.263, MP4/MPEG-4. The Nokia Asha 310 has a video playback rate of 15 fps and has the following video playback codecs: H.263, H.264/AVC, MPEG-4, VC-1, Windows video. It has the video streaming options of Download and Play, Real Time Video Streaming; the Nokia Asha 310 contains many general security features: Device lock, PIN code and device lock password. The phone contains the following Wi-Fi security modes: WPA, WEP, WPA2, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Personal; the Nokia Asha is built upon many environmentally friendly factors. The phone itself is free of polyvinyl chloride, free of nickel, free of BFR, rFR as in NSL; the packaging is made up of renewable products. Packaging is minimized and the packaging is 100% recyclable; the Nokia Asha 310 has an energy-efficient feature built in: the phone will remind the user to unplug the charger when the phone is charged, to help save electricity.

Types of calls that the Nokia Asha 310 offers are: conference calls and VoIP calls. It contains many call features such as: Call waiting, call forwarding, Call logs: dialled and missed; the phone includes noise cancelling technology. The main ways to input data into the Nokia Asha 310 are by using the touchscreen and by using the operating keys, such as the volume keys, lock key, call key and the power/end key; the Nokia Asha contains an accelerometer sensor. An accelerometer is a device; the phone contains a number of other tool that help with personal management, such as Personal information management features: Digital clock, calculator, calendar, alarm clock, Phonebook, To-do list, alarm clock with ringtones and a Dictionary. The phone can sync with other devices using the sync type of: Remote SyncML synchronisation; the Nokia Asha 310 contains the following messaging features: Instant messaging, Multiple SMS deletion, Text messaging, Automatic resizing of images for MMS, Multimedia messaging, Conversational chat style SMS, Unified inbox for SMS and

Marwood Apartments

The Marwood Apartments is an apartment building located at 53 Marston Street in Detroit, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2019. Detroit expanded in the 1910s and 1920s, creating a boom in housing construction of all types, notably including the construction of large apartment buildings. In 1925, developer Emil C. Pokorny of Pokorny & Company hired local architect Harvey J. Haughey to design this building, one of five Porknoy developed in Detroit. Construction began late that year, was finished in mid-1925; the apartments were rented as furnished units. The apartments were marketed to professionals and white-collar workers, residents included a number of teachers as well as an embalmer, stenographers, a solicitor, an accountant, bookkeepers. Notable early residents at the Marwood included boxing promoter manager Al Werbe, silent film start Allan Forrest, organist F. Dudleigh Vernor, who composed the song Sweetheart of Sigma Chi. In 2016, the Marwood Apartments was acquired by Develop Detroit, a nonprofit dedicated to preserving affordable housing.

The group plans to renovate the 53 existing apartments, construct a sized building on an adjacent lot, which will add up to 60 new apartment units. The Marwood Apartments is a U-shaped four-and-a-half-story, Neoclassical multi-tone red brick building, it has a raised basement. The U shape creates a narrow courtyard in the center, which leads to the building entrance at the back of the courtyard; the entrance is located in a projecting, one-story pavilion, consists of a door with surrounding sidelight and transom. Flanking the entrance are tall arched opening on the first floor, containing double-hung windows. Five windows double-hung are on each floor above; the front of the courtyard is decorated with limestone piers. The ends of the "U" make up the front facade; each end has a tall limestone basement level, with window sills. The brick walls above contain projecting stretcher courses at regular intervals, creating a rusticated look; every floor has four window openings with limestone lintels below and limestone keystones above.

A limestone entablature and a stone balustrade within a limestone frame tops the building. Other walls have similar window openings


Oxamide is the organic compound with the formula 2. This white crystalline solid is soluble in ethanol soluble in water and insoluble in diethyl ether. Oxamide is the diamide derived from oxalic acid. Oxamide is produced from hydrogen cyanide, oxidized to cyanogen, hydrolyzed, it can be prepared from formamide by glow-discharge electrolysis. The main application is as a substitute for urea in fertilizers. Oxamide hydrolyzes slowly, sometimes preferred vs the quick release by urea, it is used as a stabilizer for nitrocellulose preparations. It finds use in APCP rocket motors as a high performance burn rate suppressant; the use of oxamide in concentrations of 1-3 wt% has shown to slow the linear burn rate while having minimal impact on propellant specific impulse. N, N'-substituted oxamides are supporting ligands for the copper-catalyzed amination and amidation of aryl halides in, including unreactive aryl chloride substrates, it dehydrates above 350 °C releasing cyanogen. Oxamide derivatives form self-assembled monolayers consisting of a hydrogen bonded network

Rose Maylie

Rose Fleming Maylie is a character in Charles Dickens' novel Oliver Twist, discovered to be Oliver's maternal aunt. Though she plays a significant role in the novel, she is omitted from dramatisations of the story. Rose is portrayed as pure and beautiful. Seventeen years old at the time of the novel's events, she is set up as a dramatic foil to Nancy, around the same age and sees her own degradation in contrast to Rose. Rose is an orphan, she is raised from childhood by Mrs. Maylie, who adopted her from a poor family who were looking after her, she refers to Rose as her niece. Rose is haunted by the thought that she may be illegitimate, so she rejects the suit of Mrs. Maylie's son Harry for fear that marriage to her may harm his career in the church. Bill Sikes and Toby Crackit, two thieves, break into the Maylies' house, accompanied by Oliver, who they use to get access, as he is small enough to climb through a window. Oliver is wounded by Giles, the butler of the Maylies. Rose learns about Oliver's plight from Nancy.

She offers to help Nancy escape from Sikes. Rose teams up with Mr. Brownlow to rescue Oliver, it is revealed that she is Oliver's aunt. Her sister Agnes Fleming was Oliver's mother. Like Oliver, she was a victim of Monks' plotting. Towards the end of the novel Rose becomes ill and is on the point of death. Harry declares his love for her, she recovers and the couple are married. Rose Maylie is omitted from the musical Oliver! and the film thereof. She is missing from the 1948 and 2005 film versions of the novel. Rose's familial relationships differ from those of the original novel, with Mr. Brownlow appearing as her uncle or adopted guardian. In the 1922 film she is portrayed by Esther Ralston. In the 1933 film she is played by Barbara Kent. In the 1982 television film she is played by Eleanor David. In the 1985 miniseries she is played by Lysette Anthony, who plays her sister Agnes. In the 1997 Disney television film, she is played by Olivia Caffery. In the 1999 miniseries of Oliver Twist, Rose is played by English actress Keira Knightley.

In the 2007 miniseries, Rose is played by Scottish actress Morven Christie

Bundesstra├če 7

The Bundesstraße 7 is a German federal highway that stretches from the Dutch border at Venlo in the West to Rochlitz near Chemnitz in the East. It is 530 km long; because of its western origin some stretches of the B 7 are designated as "Holländische Straße", e.g. in Kassel and Calden. The former Reichsstraße 7 extended from Schmölln over Meerane, Glauchau and Freiberg to Dresden, where it linked with the Reichsstraße 6; the former portion between Chemnitz and Dresden is now called the Bundesstraße 173. The segment between Wuppertal and Hagen was constructed in 1788, making it one of the oldest roads in western Germany; the stretch connecting Iserlohn and Menden was built between 1816 and 1817. Between Eisenach and Erfurt the B 7 follows the path of the former Via Regia; the original plan marked Dresden as he eastern terminus, however this portion was completed during the Third Reich and called the Bundesstraße 173. In some areas the Bundesstraße 7 is replaced by Autobahns. For example, between Hagen-Hohenlimburg and the former autobahn terminus in the eastern city of Iserlohn the B 7 becomes the Bundesautobahn 46.

Between Kassel and Eisenach the B 7 is slated to be replaced by the new Bundesautobahn 44, the first piece of, opened at Hessisch Lichtenau was in October 2005. Environmental concerns have been raised about the project, as the autobahn is proposed to run through the national park Meißner-Kaufunger Wald. Since August 2005 heavy transport vehicles have been banned from a 157 km stretch of the B 7; the ban is enforced between Kassel at the A 7 junction and Wehretal. Vehicles originating or ending in the Kassel area are exempt from the ban. Http:// - photographs of the Bundesstraße 7 List of federal highways in Germany