Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, founded in 1916 as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers or SMPE, is a global professional association, of engineers and executives working in the media and entertainment industry. An internationally recognized standards organization, SMPTE has more than 800 Standards, Recommended Practices, Engineering Guidelines for broadcast, digital cinema, audio recording, information technology, medical imaging. In addition to development and publication of technical standards documents, SMPTE publishes the SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, provides networking opportunities for its members, produces academic conferences and exhibitions, performs other industry-related functions. SMPTE Membership is open to any individual or organization with interest in the subject matter. SMPTE standards documents are copyrighted and may be purchased from the SMPTE website, or other distributors of technical standards. Standards documents may be purchased by the general public.
Significant standards promulgated by SMPTE include: All film and television transmission formats and media, including digital. Physical interfaces for transmission of television signals and related data SMPTE color bars Test card patterns and other diagnostic tools The Material eXchange Format, or MXF SMPTE ST 2110SMPTE's educational and professional development activities include technical presentations at regular meetings of its local Sections and biennial conferences in the US and Australia and the SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal; the society sponsors many awards, the oldest of which are the SMPTE Progress Medal, the Samuel Warner Memorial Medal, the David Sarnoff Medal. SMPTE has a number of Student Chapters and sponsors scholarships for college students in the motion imaging disciplines. SMPTE is a 5013 non-profit charitable organization. Related organizations include Advanced Television Systems Committee Moving Picture Experts Group Joint Photographic Experts Group ITU Radiocommunication Sector ITU Telecommunication Sector Digital Video Broadcasting BBC Research Department European Broadcasting Union SMPTE's first standard in 1917 was for speed at which film is shown.
SMPTE's Task Force on 3D to the Home produced a report on the issues and suggested minimum standards for the 3D Home Master that would be distributed after post production to the ingest points of distribution channels for 3D video content. A group within the standards committees has begun to work on the formal definition of the SMPTE 3D Home Master. SMPTE, instituted in 1999, a technology committee for the foundations of Digital Cinema: DC28; the SMPTE presents awards to individuals for outstanding contributions in fields of the society. Recipients include: Renville “Ren” H. McMann Jr. James Cameron Oscar B. "O. B." Hanson George Lucas John Logie Baird Philo Taylor Farnsworth Ray M. Dolby Linwood G. Dunn Herbert T. Kalmus Walt Disney Vladimir K. Zworykin Samuel L. Warner George Eastman Thomas Alva Edison Louis Lumiere C. Francis Jenkins The Progress Medal, instituted in 1935, is SMPTE's oldest and most prestigious medal, awarded annually for contributions to engineering aspects of the film and/or television industries.
Recipients include: Douglas Trumbull Ioan Allen David Wood Edwin Catmull Birney Dayton Clyde D. Smith Roderick Snell S. Merrill Weiss Dr. Kees Immink Stanley N. Baron William C. Miller Bernard J. Lechner Edwin E. Catmall Ray Dolby Harold E. Edgerton Vladimir K. Zworykin John G. Frayne Walt Disney Chuck Pagano James M. DeFilippis Bernard J. Lechner Stanley N. Baron William F. Schreiber Adrian Ettlinger Joseph A. Flaherty, Jr. Peter C. Goldmark W. R. G. Baker Albert Rose Charles Ginsburg Robert E. Shelby Arthur V. Loughren Otto H. Schade The Eastman Kodak Gold Medal, instituted in 1967, recognizes outstanding contributions which lead to new or unique educational programs utilizing motion pictures, high-speed and instrumentation photography or other photography sciences. Recent recipients are Andrew Laszlo James MacKay Dr. Roderick T. Ryan George Spiro Dibie Jean-Pierre Beauviala List of film topics Category:SMPTE standards Glossary of video terms SMPTE colour bars SMPTE D10 SMPTE D11 SMPTE RP-133: Medical Diagnostic Imaging Test Pattern SMPTE 421M: VC-1 video codec SMPTE 291M: Ancillary Data Packet and Space Formatting SMPTE Universal Leader Digital Picture Exchange General Exchange Format Material Exchange Format Media dispatch protocol SMPTE 2032 parts 1, 2 and 3 Video tape recorder standards defined by SMPTE Charles S. Swartz.
Understanding Digital Cinema. A Professional Handbok. Elsevier, 2005. Official website
International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and commercial standards, it is headquartered in Geneva and works in 164 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 164 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety and healthcare. Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality.
The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis; the standards serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally. The three official languages of the ISO are English and Russian; the name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации. ISO is not an acronym; the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos, as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later. ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages, our founders decided to give it the short form ISO.
ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO."Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, their use is restricted. The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations, it was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives; the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget.
The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards. ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 was created in 1987 to "evelop, maintain and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 was created in 2009 for the purpose of "tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources". ISO has 163 national members. ISO has three membership categories: Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country; these are the only members of ISO. Correspondent members are countries; these members do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies, they can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of: Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. Subscriptions from member bodies; these subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national trade figures. Sale of standards. ISO's main products are international standards. ISO publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, guides. International standards These are designated using the format ISO nnnnn: Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1. ASTM is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. Yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some
DV is a format for storing digital video. It was launched in 1995 with joint efforts of leading producers of video camera recorders; the original DV specification, known as Blue Book, was standardized within the IEC 61834 family of standards. These standards define common features such as physical videocassettes, recording modulation method and basic system data in part 1. Part 2 describes the specifics of 625-50 systems; the IEC standards are available as publications sold by IEC and ANSI. In 2003, DV was joined by a successor format HDV, which used the same tape format with a different video codec; some cameras at the time had the ability to switch between HDV recording modes. All tape-based video formats are becoming obsolete as tapeless HD cameras recording on memory cards, hard disk drives, solid-state drives, optical discs have become the norm, although the DV encoding standard is sometimes still used in tapeless cameras. DV uses lossy compression of video. An intraframe video compression scheme is used to compress video on a frame-by-frame basis with the discrete cosine transform.
Following ITU-R Rec. 601 standard, DV video employs interlaced scanning with the luminance sampling frequency of 13.5 MHz. These results in 480 scanlines per complete frame for the 60 Hz system, 576 scanlines per complete frame for the 50 Hz system. In both systems the active area contains 720 pixels per scanline, with 704 pixels used for content and 16 pixels on the sides left for digital blanking; the same frame size is used for 4:3 and 16:9 frame aspect ratios, resulting in different pixel aspect ratios for fullscreen and widescreen video. Prior to the DCT compression stage, chroma subsampling is applied to the source video in order to reduce the amount of data to be compressed. Baseline DV uses 4:2:0 subsampling in the 50 Hz variant. Low chroma resolution of DV is a reason this format is sometimes avoided in chroma keying applications, though advances in chroma keying techniques and software have made producing quality keys from DV material possible. Audio can be stored in either of two forms: 16-bit Linear PCM stereo at 48 kHz sampling rate, or four nonlinear 12-bit PCM channels at 32 kHz sampling rate.
In addition, the DV specification supports 16-bit audio at 44.1 kHz, the same sampling rate used for CD audio. In practice, the 48 kHz stereo mode is used exclusively; the audio and metadata are packaged into 80-byte Digital Interface Format blocks which are multiplexed into a 150-block sequence. DIF blocks are the basic units of DV streams and can be stored as computer files in raw form or wrapped in such file formats as Audio Video Interleave, QuickTime and Material Exchange Format. One video frame is formed from either 10 or 12 such sequences, depending on scanning rate, which results in a data rate of about 25 Mbit/s for video, an additional 1.5 Mbit/s for audio. When written to tape, each sequence corresponds to one complete track. Baseline DV employs unlocked audio; this means. However, this is the maximum drift of the audio/video synchronization. Sony and Panasonic created their proprietary versions of DV aimed toward professional & broadcast users, which use the same compression scheme, but improve on robustness, linear editing capabilities, color rendition and raster size.
All DV variants. Film-like frame rates are possible by using pulldown. DVCPRO HD supports native progressive format. DVCPRO known as DVCPRO25, is a variation of DV developed by Panasonic and introduced in 1995 for use in electronic news gathering equipment. Unlike baseline DV, DVCPRO uses locked audio and 4:1:1 chroma subsampling for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz variants to decrease generation losses. Audio is available in 16-bit/48 kHz precision; when recorded to tape, DVCPRO uses wider track pitch - 18 μm vs. 10 μm of baseline DV, which reduces the chance of dropout errors during recording. Two extra longitudinal tracks provide support for timecode control. Tape is transported 80% faster compared to baseline DV, resulting in shorter recording time. Long Play mode is not available. In 1996 Sony responded with its own professional version of DV called DVCAM. Like DVCPRO, DVCAM uses locked audio, which prevents audio synchronization drift that may happen on DV if several generations of copies are made; when recorded to tape, DVCAM uses 15 μm track pitch, 50% wider compared to baseline.
Accordingly, tape is transported 50% faster, which reduces recording time by one third compared to regular DV. Because of the wider track and track pitch, DVCAM has the ability to do a frame-accurate insert edit, while regular DV may vary by a few frames on each edit compared to the preview. DVCPRO50 was introduced by Panasonic in 1997 for high-value electronic news gathering and digital cinema, is described as two DV codecs working in parallel; the DVCPRO50 doubles the coded video data rate to 50 Mbit/s. This has the effect of cutting total record time of any given storage medium in half. Chroma resolution is improved by using 4:2:2 chroma subsampling. DVCPRO50 was used in many productions. For example, BBC used DVCPRO50 to record high-budget TV series, such as Space Race and Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. A similar format, D-9, offered
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
The tab key Tab ↹ on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop. The word tab derives from the word tabulate, which means "to arrange data in a tabular, or table, form." When a person wanted to type a table on a typewriter, there was a lot of time-consuming and repetitive use of the space bar and backspace key. To simplify this, a horizontal bar was placed in the mechanism called the tabulator rack. Pressing the tab key would advance the carriage to the next tabulator stop; the original tabulator stops were adjustable clips that could be arranged by the user on the tabulator rack. Fredric Hillard filed a patent application for such a mechanism in 1900; the tab mechanism came into its own as a rapid and consistent way of uniformly indenting the first line of each paragraph. A first tab stop at 5 or 6 characters was used for this, far larger than the indentation used when typesetting. For numeric data, the logical place for the tab stop is the location of the least significant digit.
Tabbing to this location and pressing the backspace key to back up to the position of the first digit is practical but slow. Various schemes for numeric tabs were proposed. For example, in 1903, Harry Dukes and William Clayton filed for a patent on a tab mechanism with multiple tab keys numbered 1, 10, 100, etc. Pressing 1 was a simple tab. Pressing 10 advanced to the space before the tab, pressing 100 advanced to the position 2 spaces before the tab. Tab stops were set by adding and removing clips from the tab rack, but Edward Hess working for the Royal Typewriter Company filed for a patent in 1904 covering a system where the tab stops were permanently mounted on the tab bar. To set or reset a tab for a particular column, the tab stop for that column was rotated in or out of engagement. In 1940, James Koca filed for a patent on a mechanism allowing the tab stops for each column to be set and cleared from the keyboard, eliminating the need for the typist to bend over the back of the machine to directly manipulate the tab rack.
These keys, if present, are labeled tab set and tab clear. In word processing and text editing, the Tab key will move the insertion point to the next tab stop in a table, insert the ASCII tab character, or insert many space characters; when filling out a computerized form, pressing Tab will sometimes move the cursor to the next field, eliminating the need to use a mouse to click in an adjacent field. In many graphical applications on Windows, the Tab key will move the focus to every control or widget such as buttons so that the user interface can be used without a mouse at all. On macOS, this is an option called "Full Keyboard Access". A feature called tab completion can be used to complete a typed piece of text. For example, in some command-line interfaces, you may type the first few characters of a command or file-name press Tab. If there is no ambiguity about your intent, the rest of the characters will appear automatically; this usage is more common on Linux and Unix-like systems than Windows.
In'PC' video games, the Tab key is often used to show scores in multiplayer games. For single player games it is used to show the world map or the player's inventory. In Python, the Tab character can be used for defining code blocks, although it is discouraged in PEP-8. An example of such Python code would be: The most known and common tab is a horizontal tab, which in ASCII has the decimal character code of 9, may be referred to as Ctrl+I or ^I. In C and many other programming languages the escape code \t can be used to put this character into a string constant; the horizontal tab is generated by the Tab key on a standard keyboard. A vertical tab exists and has ASCII decimal character code 11, escape character \v. In EBCDIC the code for HT is 5, VT is 11. Printer mechanisms used mechanical tab stops to indicate where the tabs went; this was done horizontally with movable metal prongs in a row, vertically with a loop of mylar or other tape the length of a page with holes punched in it to indicate the tab stops.
These were manually set to match the pre-printed forms. The intention was to have the printers be programmed with control characters to set and clear the stops: ISO 6429 includes the codes 136, 137 and 138. In practice, settable tab stops were rather replaced with fixed tab stops, de facto standardized at every multiple of 8 characters horizontally, every 6 lines vertically. A printing program could send zero or more tabs to get to the closest tab stop above and left of where it wanted to print send line feeds and spaces to get to the final location. Tab characters became a form of data compression. Despite five characters being ½″ and the typical paragraph indentation at that time, the horizontal tab size of 8 evolved because as a power of two it was easier to calculate with the limited digital electronics available. Vertical tab was supported on these terminals. In contrast to the de facto 8 character standard, some IDEs use a default horizontal tab size of 4 characters. Tab-separated values are a common de facto standard for exporting and importing database or spreadsheet field values.
Text divided into fields delimited by tabs can be pasted into a word processor and formatted into a table with a single command. For example, in Microsoft Word 2010, Insert > Tab
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to 1.5 Mbit/s without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable/satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting possible. Today, MPEG-1 has become the most compatible lossy audio/video format in the world, is used in a large number of products and technologies; the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced. The MPEG-1 standard is published as ISO/IEC 11172 – Information technology—Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s. The standard consists of the following five Parts: Systems Video Audio Conformance testing Reference software Modeled on the successful collaborative approach and the compression technologies developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group and CCITT's Experts Group on Telephony, the Moving Picture Experts Group working group was established in January 1988.
MPEG was formed to address the need for standard video and audio formats, to build on H.261 to get better quality through the use of more complex encoding methods. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Leonardo Chiariglione. Development of the MPEG-1 standard began in May 1988. Fourteen video and fourteen audio codec proposals were submitted by individual companies and institutions for evaluation; the codecs were extensively tested for computational complexity and subjective quality, at data rates of 1.5 Mbit/s. This specific bitrate was chosen for transmission over T-1/E-1 lines and as the approximate data rate of audio CDs; the codecs that excelled in this testing were utilized as the basis for the standard and refined further, with additional features and other improvements being incorporated in the process. After 20 meetings of the full group in various cities around the world, 4½ years of development and testing, the final standard was approved in early November 1992 and published a few months later.
The reported completion date of the MPEG-1 standard varies greatly: a complete draft standard was produced in September 1990, from that point on, only minor changes were introduced. The draft standard was publicly available for purchase; the standard was finished with the 6 November 1992 meeting. The Berkeley Plateau Multimedia Research Group developed an MPEG-1 decoder in November 1992. In July 1990, before the first draft of the MPEG-1 standard had been written, work began on a second standard, MPEG-2, intended to extend MPEG-1 technology to provide full broadcast-quality video at high bitrates and support for interlaced video. Due in part to the similarity between the two codecs, the MPEG-2 standard includes full backwards compatibility with MPEG-1 video, so any MPEG-2 decoder can play MPEG-1 videos. Notably, the MPEG-1 standard strictly defines the bitstream, decoder function, but does not define how MPEG-1 encoding is to be performed, although a reference implementation is provided in ISO/IEC-11172-5.
This means that MPEG-1 coding efficiency can drastically vary depending on the encoder used, means that newer encoders perform better than their predecessors. The first three parts of ISO/IEC 11172 were published in August 1993. All known patent searches suggest that, due to its age, MPEG-1 video and Layer I/II audio is no longer covered by any patents and can thus be used without obtaining a licence or paying any fees; the ISO patent database lists one patent for ISO 11172, US 4,472,747, which expired in 2003. The near-complete draft of the MPEG-1 standard was publicly available as ISO CD 11172 by December 6, 1991. Neither the July 2008 Kuro5hin article "Patent Status of MPEG-1, H.261 and MPEG-2", nor an August 2008 thread on the gstreamer-devel mailing list were able to list a single unexpired MPEG-1 video and Layer I/II audio patent. A May 2009 discussion on the whatwg mailing list mentioned US 5,214,678 patent as covering MPEG audio layer II. Filed in 1990 and published in 1993, this patent is now expired.
A full MPEG-1 decoder and encoder, with "Layer 3 audio", could not be implemented royalty free since there were companies that required patent fees for implementations of MPEG-1 Layer 3 Audio as discussed in the MP3 article. All patents in the world connected to MP3 expired 30 December 2017, which makes this format free for use. Despite this as early as on 23 April 2017 Fraunhofer IIS stopped charging for Technicolor's mp3 licensing program for certain mp3 related patents and software. Most popular software for video playback includes MPEG-1 decoding, in addition to any other supported formats; the popularity of MP3 audio has established a massive installed base of hardware that can play back MPEG-1 Audio. "Virtually all digital audio devices" can play back MPEG-1 Audio. Many millions have been sold to-date. Before MPEG-2 became widespread, many digital satellite/cable TV services used MPEG-1 exclusively; the widespread popularity of MPEG-2 with broadcasters means MPEG-1 is playable by most digital cable and satellite set-top boxes, digital disc and tape players, due to backwards compatibility.
MPEG-1 was used for full-screen video on Green Book CD-i, on Vid
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, fibre optics, solar energy and marine energy as well as many others; the IEC manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. The IEC charter embraces all electrotechnologies including energy production and distribution, electronics and electromagnetics, multimedia, telecommunication and medical technology, as well as associated general disciplines such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic compatibility and performance, dependability and development, safety and the environment; the first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, held in Paris.
At that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The International Electrotechnical Commission held its inaugural meeting on 26 June 1906, following discussions among the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, others, which began at the 1900 Paris International Electrical Congress, continued with Colonel R. E. B. Crompton playing a key role. In 1906, Lord Kelvin was elected as the first President of the International Electrotechnical Commission; the IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement the gauss and weber. It first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical and related technologies; this effort continues, the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries.
The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC. 82 countries are members while another 82 participate in the Affiliate Country Programme, not a form of membership but is designed to help industrializing countries get involved with the IEC. Located in London, the commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948, it has regional centres in Latin America and North America. Today, the IEC is the world's leading international organization in its field, its standards are adopted as national standards by its members; the work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, academia, test labs and others with an interest in the subject. IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC 60417: Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC 27 became IEC 60027.
Standards of the 60000 series are found preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union. In addition, it works with several major standards development organizations, including the IEEE with which it signed a cooperation agreement in 2002, amended in 2008 to include joint development work. Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC 26300, ISO/IEC 27001, CASCO ISO/IEC 17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations; the use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO and IEC CAB. Other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045-1. IEC standards are being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB and DIN.
IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, each NC represents its nation's electrotechnical interests in the IEC; this includes manufacturers, providers and vendors, consumers and users, all levels of governmental agencies, professional societies and trade associations as well as standards developers from national standards bodies. National committees are constituted in different ways; some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, some are private sector only. About 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry. IEC Member countries include: Source: In 2001 and in response to calls from t