California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Jaguar F-Type is a two-door, two-seater sports car, manufactured by British luxury car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover under their Jaguar marque since 2013. The car's JLR D6a platform is based on a shortened version of the XK's platform, it serves as the spiritual successor to the famous E-Type while being the replacement for the XK grand tourer. The car was launched as a 2-door soft-top convertible, with a 2-door fastback coupé version launched in 2013; the F-Type name was first used on a pair of unrelated concepts as far back as 1982, when Jaguar realised that the XJ-S had grown too large in size and weight to be classed as a proper successor to the E-Type. Two new projects, codenamed the XJ41 and XJ42 got to an advanced state of development by 1988, however the project was cancelled when Ford Motor Company took over Jaguar in 1989, the newly installed management determined that upgrading the company's dated production facilities was a higher priority; the XJ-S was given a major facelift instead as a stop gap solution.
The XJ41/XJ42 studies evolved into the Aston Martin DB7 and the Jaguar XK8 which were launched in 1994 and 1996 - the latter being more of a direct replacement for the XJS than a true successor to the E-Type. A second F-Type concept was unveiled at the Detroit Motor Show in January, 2000, it was a two-seat speedster with a 3.0-litre V6 engine from the S-Type saloon. Geoff Lawson, Jaguar's Head of Styling, had been working on the development of the car, but his sudden death in 1999 led Ian Callum, the new Head of Styling, to continue the project; this project was soon cancelled, but revived, with Callum once again being assigned to work on the development of the new Jaguar sports car. The C-X16 concept takes cues from the 2010 C-X75 plug-in hybrid concept sports car, including the shape of the front grille and the wrap-around rear lights, along with a side-hinged opening rear window reminiscent of the 1961 E-Type fastback coupé; the concept car was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. Jaguar stated that the C-X16 was their smallest car since the 1954 Jaguar XK120, at: 4,445 mm length.
The F-Type, previewed stylistically by the C-X16, was developed under the project code "X152". The convertible version of F-Type was first revealed in Sundance, London, followed by a presentation at the 2012 Paris Motor Show and the 2013 Goodwood Festival of Speed; the coupé version was unveiled at the 2013 Los Angeles Auto Show and 2013 Tokyo Motor Show, followed by 2013 Jaguar Academy of Sport Annual Awards, an exclusive event in Canary Wharf, London. The vehicle was set to go on sale in spring 2014. Launch models scheduled include the F-Type, F-Type S and F-Type R. At the Geneva Motor Show in March 2016, Jaguar unveiled the F-Type SVR. Available in both coupé and convertible body styles along with having all-wheel-drive, it features the same 5.0-litre supercharged V8 engine from the V8 S and R, but produced a maximum power output of 575 PS at 6,500 rpm and 700 N⋅m of torque at 3,500-5,000 rpm, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.5 seconds and to can attain a top speed of 322 km/h, making it the first Jaguar road car since the XJ220 to reach 200 mph.
The SVR convertible can attain a top speed of 194 mph. The F-Type utilises an all-aluminium unitary chassis, assembled with flush rivets and glue. Sound and vibration insulation is provided by the addition of a special underbody tray and engine mounts, a double bulkhead between the engine bay and passenger compartment; the convertible roof is an electrically operated retractable fabric piece. Jaguar says by eschewing metal it can keep the car's centre of gravity low, while a Thinsulate layer means thermal and sound insulation is akin to a solid roof. At launch, the entry-level model used Jaguar’s new 3.0-litre V6 supercharged petrol engine, producing a maximum power output of 340 PS, enabling the car to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 5.1 seconds, attain a top speed of 161 mph. The F-Type S has the same engine uprated at 380 PS, allowing the car to attain a top speed of 171 mph, achieve acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in 4.8 seconds. Next in the range is the V8 F-Type R, with Jaguar’s 5.0-litre, 550 PS supercharged V8 petrol engine, allowing the car to attain a top speed of 186 mph and accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.0 seconds.
Topping the range is the F-Type SVR, with the same engine as the F-Type R uprated at 575 PS enabling the car to attain a top speed of 200 mph and accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.5 seconds. The layout is front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, or all-wheel drive for the F-Type SVR; the gearbox is an eight-speed automatic with paddle-shifters offering manual override. In 2015, a ZF six-speed manual became available as an option on the V6 models. There is a mechanical limited-slip differential on the V6 S and an electronic limited-slip differential on the V8. In 2018, a 2.0L turbocharged Inline-4 engine was added as the new entry level powertrain, Jaguar's first four-cylinder sports car. The F-Type has a double-wishbone front and rear suspension with adaptive dampers and adjustable suspension settings to allow the driver to adjust ride and handling; the car has a total of 25 different driving modes programmed to suit different road conditions and driving styles. The interior of the F-Type has a two-seater setup with the leather upholstery and control buttons finished in aluminium.
There is a touchscreen display in the centre co
Volkswagen New Beetle
The Volkswagen New Beetle is a compact car, introduced by Volkswagen in 1997, drawing heavy inspiration from the exterior design of the original Beetle. Unlike the original Beetle, the New Beetle has its engine in the front, driving the front wheels, with luggage storage in the rear. Many special editions have been released, such as the Malibu Barbie New Beetle. In 2011 for the 2012 model year, the Beetle, replaced the New Beetle, it is referred to as the New Beetle as well. At the 1994 North American International Auto Show, Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Volkswagen Beetle. Designed by J Mays and Freeman Thomas at the company's California design studio, the concept car was based on the platform of the Volkswagen Polo. A red cabriolet concept was featured at the Geneva Motor Show in 1994. Production design approval was reached in mid-1995, with a design freeze resulting 22 months of development time for production. In October 1995, the Volkswagen Concept Two was shown at the Tokyo Motor Show an early preview of the production model due in early 1998.
Strong public reaction to the Concept One convinced the company that it should develop a production version, launched as the New Beetle in 1997 for the 1998 model-year, based on the Golf IV's larger PQ34 platform. The New Beetle is related to the original only in appearance. For the 1998 model year, only the TDI compression-ignition engine was turbocharged. In June 1999, Volkswagen introduced the 1.8T, the first turbocharged spark-ignition engine offered for the New Beetle. Volkswagen created a web site dedicated to the 1.8T. A convertible was added for the 2003 model-year to replace the Volkswagen Cabrio. However, the New Beetle Convertible was never offered with a compression-ignition engine in North America; the New Beetle carries many design similarities with the original VW Beetle: separate fenders, vestigial running boards, sloping headlamps and large round tail lights, as well as a high rounded roofline. It was assembled in VW's Puebla factory in Mexico. Dimension: Length: 4,129 mm Width: 1,721 mm Height: 1,498 mm Wheelbase: 2,515 mm Curb weight: 1,230 kg Luggage volume: 12 cu ft Luggage volume with rear seat folded: 27.1 cu ft Max speed: 177–210 km/h Acceleration: 6.5-13.2 sec The New Beetle achieved five stars in the 2011 Euro NCAP tests compared to four stars in the 2000 Euro NCAP tests scoring 25 points.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety gave the New Beetle a Good overall score in their frontal crash test. 2004 models come standard with side airbags. Engine choices include the 115 hp 2.0 L inline-four for the base model, the 100 hp 1.9 L TDI turbodiesel inline-four, the 150 hp 1.8 L turbo inline-four for the Turbo and Sport models. The Turbo S model included the 1.8 L turbo but with 180 hp. It included a sport suspension, six-speed manual transmission, aluminum interior trim, revised front/rear fascias and bigger wheels and tires. A close relative of the Turbo S was the 2002–2004 Color Concept; this limited edition variant was available in limited exterior colors, with interior door panel inserts, seat inserts, floor mat piping and wheel opening inserts color-matched to the exterior paint. Wheel color inserts and style varied with model year, it came standard with the 150 hp 1.8 turbo gasoline engine, 5 speed manual gear box, speed-activated rear spoiler, power windows/sunroof/door locks, heated leather seats, fog lamps.
All 1.8L Turbo and Turbo S inline-four models were equipped with a retractable rear spoiler, not available on the 1.9 L TDI inline-4, 2.0 L inline-four and 2.5 L inline-five models. For the 2006 model, the exterior was redesigned with more angular bumpers and wheel wells, these models were fitted with the 2.5 L 5-cylinder engine with 150 hp, fitted on the Rabbit and Jetta becoming the sole engine option. The New Beetle would not be given the upgraded 2.5 L engine that 2008 and Jettas and Rabbits received. The RSi is a limited 250 unit version of the New Beetle, it included a 224 PS 3.2 litre VR6 engine, a 6-speed gearbox, Volkswagen's four-wheel drive system 4motion, Remus twin-pipe exhaust. It was rumoured Porsche tuned the suspension but this was carried out in-house at VW Individual; the suspension was altered at the rear, with geometry more geared to the race track and a rear cross brace behind the rear seats, 80 mm wider fenders, unique front and rear bumpers, a rear diffuser, large rear wing, 18x9 OZ Superturismo wheels with 235/40ZR-18 tyres.
Inside, it was trimmed in carbon fiber, billet aluminium, bright orange leather. The front seats were Recaro racing buckets. Notable disadvantages found were brief rear tire life. At the 2005 North American International Auto Show, the Volkswagen New Beetle Ragster concept car was introduced, it was supposed to be a preview of the future design of the New Beetle. The base of the Ragster was a New Beetle Convertible modified with a new roof, giving it a much lower roofline, a unique paint job with silver double stripes; the interior differs from the original New Beetle, being a 2+2, an
Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008. The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951; the Land Rover name was used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport, Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are assembled in England, India and other markets; the design for the original vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks. It was called Land Rover. Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, working in conjunction with his brother Spencer, the managing director of Rover; the design may have been influenced by the Jeep and the prototype nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green.
Early vehicles like the Series I were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced. Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. Prior to this, it was a product line of the Rover Company, subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation following Leyland Motor Corporation’s takeover of Rover in 1967; the ongoing commercial success of the original Land Rover series models, latterly the Range Rover in the 1970s in the midst of BL's well-documented business troubles prompted the establishment of a separate Land Rover company but still under the BL umbrella, remaining part of the subsequent Rover Group in 1988, under the ownership of British Aerospace after the remains of British Leyland were broken up and privatised. In 1994 Rover Group plc, including Land Rover, was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group. In 2006 Ford purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million.
BMW had retained ownership of the brand to protect the integrity of the Land Rover brand, with which'Rover' might be confused in the US 4x4 market and allowed it to be used under licence by MG Rover until it collapsed in 2005, at which point it was offered to the Ford Motor Company, who by owned Land Rover. On 11 June 2007, Ford announced. Private equity firms such as Alchemy Partners of the UK, TPG Capital, Ripplewood Holdings, Cerberus Capital Management and One Equity Partners of the US, Tata Motors of India and a consortium comprising Mahindra & Mahindra of India and Apollo Management all expressed interest in purchasing the marques from the Ford Motor Company. On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared. In 2008, On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors, that it expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008. On 18 January 2008, Tata Motors, a part of the Tata Group, established Jaguar Land Rover Limited as a British-registered and wholly owned subsidiary.
The new company was to be used as a holding company for the acquisition of the two businesses from Ford - Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover. That acquisition was completed on 2 June 2008 at a cost of £1.7 billion. Included in the deal to buy Land Rover and Jaguar Cars were the rights to three other British brands: the Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover. On 1 January 2013, the group, operating as two separate companies, although on an integrated basis, underwent a fundamental restructuring; the parent company was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, Jaguar Cars Limited was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the assets of Land Rover were transferred to it. The consequence was that Jaguar Land Rover Limited became responsible in the UK for the design and marketing of both Jaguar and Land Rover branded products, Land Rover and Jaguar Cars ceased to be separate vehicle producing entities. 1947: Rover's chief designer Maurice Wilks and his associates create a prototype using Jeep chassis and components 1948: The first Land Rover was launched 30 April 1948, at the Amsterdam Motor Show 1958: Series II launched 1961: Series IIA began production 1967: Rover becomes part of Leyland Motors British Leyland as Rover Triumph 1970: Introduction of the Range Rover 1971: Series III launched 1974: Land Rover abandons US market facing competitive pressure from Japanese 4x4 brands 1975: BL collapses and is nationalised, publication of the Ryder Report recommends that Land Rover be split from Rover and be treated as a separate company within BL and becomes part of the new commercial vehicle division called the Land Rover Leyland Group 1976: One-millionth Land Rover leaves the production line 1978: Land Rover Limited formed as a separate subsidiary of British Leyland 1980: Rover car production ends at Solihull with the transfer of SD1 production to Cowley, Oxford.
5-door Range Rover introduced 1983: Land Rover 90 /110 /127 introduced 1986: BL plc becomes Rover Group plc.
Aston Martin DB9
The Aston Martin DB9 is a British grand tourer first shown by Aston Martin at the 2003 Frankfurt Auto Show. Available both in coupé and a convertible bodystyles, the latter being known as the Volante, the DB9 was the successor of the DB7, it was the first model built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility. The DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, has an aluminium construction; the chassis is the Ford developed VH platform whilst the engine is the 5.9-litre V12 from the Vanquish. The 2013 model year facelift saw many improvements to the design, the engine and the overall driving experience; the DB9 is rated well by car critics, who appreciate the car's exterior design. In spite of comments regarding the DB9's poor handling, reviewers liked the car's ride and driving experience; some held issue with the DB9's small rear seats, cargo space and poor satnav. Aston Martin Racing adapted the DB9 for sports car racing, producing the DBR9 for FIA GT1 and the DBRS9 for FIA GT3; these two cars are modified DB9 models adapted for motorsport.
Additionally, the engine has been tweaked in both the cars to produce torque. Production of the DB9 ended after 12 years in 2016, having been replaced by the DB11 which uses an all-new platform and engine; the DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, was first introduced at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show. The letters "DB" are the initials of David Brown, the owner of Aston Martin for a significant part of its history. Although it succeeded the DB7, Aston Martin did not name the car DB8 due to fears that the name would suggest that the car was equipped with a V8 engine, it was reported that Aston Martin believed that naming the car "DB8" would indicate a gradual evolution and misrepresent the car. The DB9 is the first model to be built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility in England. In a 2007 interview, the Aston Martin CEO Dr. Ulrich Bez stated that, though Aston Martin was traditionally a maker of more exclusive automobiles, he believed Aston Martin needed to be more visible and build more cars. At launch, Aston Martin planned to build between 1,500 cars per year.
In 2007, the DB9 was revised with upgraded electrical components which helped reliability, new front seat design, LED approach lights on the door handles and lowered suspension. The DB9 Volante no longer had a 266 km/h top-speed limiter, allowing it to attain an unrestricted top speed of 299 km/h should conditions allow; the DB9 received a facelift in July 2008. This facelift was the increase in engine power and torque, to 477 PS and 600 N⋅m, a redesigned centre console. Externally, the DB9 remained unchanged; the 2013 model year's new facelift design that resembled the 2011 Virage, as well as increased engine power of up to 517 PS and 620 N⋅m of torque. The DB9's interior has a walnut wood trim. In newer editions, the leather joins. On the dashboard and Bluetooth are standard in models. Models offered a Dolby Prologic sound system can be connected to satellite radio, a six-CD changer, an iPod connector, a USB connector, or an auxiliary input jack; this sound system can be upgraded to a Olufsen stereo.
The coupé comes standard with rear seats. A seating package, which removes the back seats and replaces the front seats with lighter seats made of Kevlar and carbon fibre; the boot capacity is 187 L in the coupé or 136 L in the Volante. Made to follow the DB7 model, the DB9 is, according to Aston's initial press release, "a contemporary version of classic DB design elements and characteristics", it retains the traditional Aston Martin grille and side strakes, the design attempts to keep the lines simple and refined. The boot of the car is pronounced, like that of the DB4 and DB5. At the front, DB9 is without a separate nose cone, has no visible bumpers; the exterior skin is made of aluminium, though the front bumpers and bonnet are made of composite materials. For the 2013 model year, Aston Martin made minor changes to the bodywork by adapting designs from the 2011 Virage, including enlarging the recessed headlight clusters with bi-xenon lights and LED daytime running strips, widening the front splitter, updating the grille and side heat extractors, updating the LED rear lights with clear lenses and integrating a new rear spoiler with the boot lid.
The Aston Martin DB9 was launched equipped with a 5.9-litre V12 engine being used in the V12 Vanquish. The generates 570 N⋅m of torque at 5,000 rpm and a maximum power of 456 PS at 6,000 rpm; the DB9 has a top speed of 299 km/h. The engine sits behind the front-axle line to improve weight distribution; the 2009 model year DB9 had an increase of engine power and torque, as the V12 now has a power output of 477 PS and 600 N⋅m of torque, resulting in a power to weight ratio of 271 PS per tonne, an increase of 11 PS per tonne over the previous model. The top speed increased to 306 km/h and the 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time improved by 0.1 seconds to 4.6 seconds for the manual version of the car. Changes to the engine for the 2013 model year DB9 increased the power output to 517 PS and torque to 620 N⋅m; the car's 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time decreased to 4.5 seconds and the top speed stood at 295 km/h. The DB9 can be equipped with either a six-speed convention
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
The Volkswagen Polo is a car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1975. It is sold in Europe and other markets worldwide in hatchback and estate variants; the Polo has been produced in six generations. Related Volkswagen Group models include the Škoda Fabia, SEAT Ibiza and Audi A1; the Volkswagen Polo won the 2010 World Car of the Year. As of 2018, there have been six separate generations of the Polo identified by a "Series" or "Mark" number; some generations were facelifted midway through production, with the updated versions known unofficially by an addition of the letter F to the mark number, e.g. Mk2F; some press and enthusiasts consider the facelifts to be separate models and hence have used the unofficial designations Polo Mk1 to Mk7 for previous generations. Each model of Polo is identified by a two or three character Volkswagen Group Typ number. Official VW Polo history describes Mark I to Mark IV using either Roman numerals or Arabic numerals, with facelifted variants known as "Phase II" models.
The body style has been varied through the life of the car as a hatchback which derived from the Audi 50. A sedan version was marketed as the Volkswagen Derby. Volkswagen vehicles built off different platforms have carried the Polo nameplate. For example, the Volkswagen Polo Playa hatchback sold in Southern Africa in the late 1990s was a rebadged SEAT Ibiza which has a different body shell from the Polo Mk3 sold in Europe at the same time; the current saloon is only available in China, Latin America and South Africa and other Southern Africa countries. Starting in 1982, Volkswagen sold the Polo in Japan through an agreement with Japanese dealership Yanase that specializes in European and North American vehicles. Of all Volkswagens imported into Japan, only the Polo and the Golf, until 1997, complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations until the introduction of the VW Up! in 2012. Volkswagen helped consolidate the preeminence of the so-called hot hatch genre of high-performance hatchbacks with their Golf GTI in 1975, has produced a number of performance versions of the Polo.
The first of these was the Polo GT version of the Polo Mk1F. The Polo Mk2 and Mk2F were available as supercharged G40 models; the GT G40 with its 1.3-litre 85 kW could reach 100 km/h in 8.1 seconds from standstill and had a maximum speed of 196 km/h. It was used by Volkswagen to set a number of world endurance speed records, such as the 1.3-litre class records for speed over 24 hours and speed over a distance of 5,000 km. The fastest version of the Polo Mk3 on the United Kingdom market was the 1.6-litre 16-valve 92 kW model. A 88 kW Polo GTI model was produced, but only in a limited edition in Germany, this was the first time the GTI label had been used for a Polo. A GTI version of the Polo Mk3F, with a 92 kW 1.6-litre petrol engine was produced. In 2004 Volkswagen Individual, a specialist division of Volkswagen, produced a limited number of Club Sports with a 1.8-litre turbocharged engine producing 132 kW. Available only in Germany, this was based on the one; the Club Sport came with a roll cage inside Recaro racing seats as standard.
A GTI version of the Polo Mk4F was launched in 2006. This features styling similar to that of the contemporary Golf GTI and a turbocharged 20-valve 110 kW 1.8-litre petrol engine. It has a top speed of 216 km/h. Volkswagen Individual have engineered an faster Polo called the Polo GTI Cup Edition. Available with the same 1.8-litre turbocharged engine, albeit with 130 kW, its claimed 0–100 km/h is 7.5 seconds and it has a claimed top speed of 225 km/h. Volkswagen Racing in South Africa rallied a four wheel drive Polo Mk4F which shared some components with its sister World Rally Championship Škoda Fabia. Mk4 Polos have been entered into the Junior World Rally Championship; the Polo competed in the Russian Touring Car Championship. There have been a number of one make race series for the Polo, starting with the G40 Cup for Polo Mk2 and Mk2F G40 versions; the current Polo Cup championship for 78 kW cars is a support race at rounds of the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters. Sébastien Ogier won the FIA World Rally Championship for Drivers in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 driving a Volkswagen Polo R WRC.
The first Polo was a rebadged version of the Audi 50 hatchback launched in August 1974. The Audi 50 was discontinued in 1978; the Mk1 and Mk2 versions of the Polo were standalone models in the Volkswagen range. With the expansion of the Volkswagen Group: Audi, SEAT and Škoda were acquired, the platform used for the Polo was shared with other models; the Polo shared its platform with the SEAT Ibiza Mk2. The Ibiza was launched before the Polo Mk3 and shared all its mechanicals, the dashboard and other interior components, although there were no body panels shared between the two cars; the saloon and estate versions of the Polo Mk3 were rebadged SEAT Córdoba models and had no body panels in common with the Polo hatchback. The SEAT Inca and Volkswagen Caddy vans were based on this model; the Volkswagen Lupo and SEAT Arosa were based on a shortened version of the Polo Mk3 platform. The Polo Mk4 continued this trend of platform sharing, with the SEAT Ibiza Mk3 and Škoda Fabia Mk1 and Mk2 both being developed on the same platform and featuring several of the same engines.
The 2009 Polo Mk5 is developed on the latest platform, known as the PQ25, the same platform used in the SE