Stockerau is a town in the district of Korneuburg in Lower Austria, Austria. Leisure facilities are various: wellness centre, sports centre with three gyms and table tennis gym, skittle alley and football stadium. In addition there are indoor and outdoor tennis facilities. Stockerau offers a range of exhibitions, concerts and singing evenings in the cultural centre "Belvedereschlößl". In the cellar of this castle, built in 16th century and revitalised by the town community in the year 1984, you will find the district museum. Between Stockerau and the Danube there is a large forest. Saint Coloman was martyred here in 1012, is known as St. Coloman of Stockerau. 1893–1908 Julius Schaumann 1908–1912 Josef Weineck 1912–1914 Wenzel Kreuz 1919–1927 Eduard Rösch 1927–1933 Josef Wolfik 1933–1938 Johann Schidla 1938–1945 Heinrich Mayrl 1945–1970 Josef Wondrak 1970–1979 Franz Blabolil 1979–2006 Leopold Richentzky since 2006 Helmut Laab Given its close distance to Vienna, S3 of the Vienna S-Bahn operates half-hourly service to Vienna as well as hourly service to Hollabrunn.
Regional trains operate from Vienna to Retz and Znojmo in the north and Wiener Neustadt and Payerbach-Reichenau in the south. Ernst Herbeck, German poet Wolfgang Katzian, trade unionist Daniela Kix, tennis player Josef Pröll, politician Karl Ritter and composer Manuela Zinsberger, soccer goalkeeper Johannes Grenzfurthner and filmmaker Official website
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid was King of Bohemia, Duke of Cracow, King of Poland. He was the only son of Ottokar's second wife Kunigunda, he was born in ten years after the marriage of his parents. Kunigunda was the daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich, lord of Slavonia, son of a Grand Prince of Kiev, Anna of Hungary, daughter of Béla IV of Hungary, his great-grandfather was the German king Philip of Swabia. Wenceslaus II was the grandfather of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, he was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1276 Rudolf I, King of the Romans, placed Ottokar under the ban of the empire and besieged Vienna; this compelled Ottokar in November 1276 to sign a new treaty by which he gave up all claims to Austria and the neighbouring duchies, retaining for himself only Bohemia and Moravia. Ottokar's son Wenceslaus was betrothed to Rudolph's daughter Judith, it was an uneasy peace. Wenceslaus's father died on 26 August 1278 in the Battle on the Marchfeld shortly before Wenceslaus' seventh birthday.
Before Wenceslaus became of age, the government was handled by Otto V, Margrave of Brandenburg, said to have held Wenceslaus captive in several locations. He returned to Bohemia at the age of twelve, his mother's second husband, Záviš of Falkenštejn, ruled instead of him for a few years. On 24 January 1285, Wenceslaus married Judith of Habsburg, daughter of Rudolf I, to whom he had been betrothed since 1276. In 1290, Wenceslaus began ruling independently. In 1291, Przemysł II, High Duke of Poland, ceded the sovereign Duchy of Kraków to Wenceslaus. Kraków was associated with the overlordship of Poland, but Przemysł held the other duchies and in 1295 was crowned King of Poland. After Przemysł's death in 1296, Wenceslaus became overlord of Poland and in 1300, had himself crowned King of Poland. In 1298, silver was discovered at Kutná Hora in Central Bohemia. Wenceslaus took control of the mine by making silver production a royal monopoly and issued the Prague groschen, which became the most popular of the early Groschen-type coins.
Kutná Hora was one of the richest European silver strikes ever: between 1300 and 1340 the mine may have produced as much as 20 tons of silver a year. In 1300, Wenceslaus issued; this was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines. Queen Judith died in 1297. Wenceslaus' second wife was Elisabeth Richeza, daughter of Przemysł II, King of Poland, she remarried to Rudolph of Habsburg, duke of Austria, who became king of Bohemia for a brief period in those unruly years. In 1301, Wenceslaus' kinsman Andrew III of Hungary died and the Árpád dynasty became extinct in the male line. Wenceslaus was one of the relatives who claimed the throne, he accepted it from a party of Hungarians on behalf of his young son, betrothed to Andrew's only child, Elizabeth. On 27 August 1301, his son was crowned in Székesfehérvár as King of Hungary under the name Ladislaus V. At that time the Kingdom of Hungary was split into several de facto principalities, young Wenceslaus was only accepted as the King of Hungary by the rulers in Upper Hungary, in modern day Burgenland and on territory around the capital, Buda.
But the Abas and Matthew Csák switched sides in 1303 and started to support Wenceslaus' rival Charles Robert of Anjou. The young Wenceslaus, in Ofen, became afraid and wrote to his father in Prague for help, his father took a large army and invaded Buda, but having considered the situation, he took his son and the Hungarian crown and returned to Bohemia. Ivan Kőszegi was named to represent Wenceslaus III in Hungary. Wenceslaus II died on 21 June 1305, at the age of 33 of tuberculosis, he was succeeded by Wenceslaus III, the last of the Přemyslid kings in the male line. Wenceslaus II is considered as one of the most important Czech Kings, he built a great empire stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Danube river and established numerous cities, such as Plzeň in 1295. He won for his family three royal crowns; the Kingdom of Bohemia was the largest producer of silver in Europe in his time. He created the penny of Prague, an important European currency for centuries. During his reign, there was great urban development.
He planned to build the first university in Central Europe. The power and wealth of the Kingdom of Bohemia gave rise to great respect, but to the hostility of European royal families, his son King Wenceslaus III was unable to maintain a mighty empire, soon after the untimely death of Wenceslaus II, his empire began to crumble. In 1285 in Eger, he married Judith of Habsburg, daughter of Rudolph I of Germany and his wife Gertrude of Hohenburg, she died shortly after their 10th child was born: Přemysl Otakar. Wenceslaus III. Agnes, twin of Wenceslaus. Anne, married in 1306 to Henry of Carinthia. Elisabeth, married in 1310 to John of Luxembourg. Guta. John. John. Margaret, married in 1308 to Bolesław III the Generous, D
Zavis of Falkenstein
Zavis of Falkenstein, a member of the Vítkovci dynasty, was a Bohemian noble and opponent of King Ottokar II. Zavis was a scion of the Vítkovci lords of Krumlov, his father Budiwoj had married the Austrian noblewoman Perchta of Falkenstein, he entered the service of his mother's family as burgrave of Falkenstein Castle. Like many other Bohemian nobles he was concerned over the rise of the Přemyslid prince Ottokar II, son and heir of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, who in 1251 was installed as Austrian duke. Bohemian king from 1253, Ottokar founded the royal city of Budějovice and Zlatá Koruna Abbey to hinder further expansion of the Vítkovci domains. However, his position was undermined when he entered into a fierce conflict with Count Rudolf of Habsburg, elected King of the Romans in 1273. Rudolf reclaimed numerous other ` alienated' territories; the insurgents pillaged Zlatá Koruna. He was retired to his Bohemian and Moravian hereditary lands. Although the Přemyslid king could suppress the Bohemian uprising with decisive action and forced Zavis to flee, Rudolf demanded the restoration of the Vítkovci estates.
The struggle continued until Ottokar was defeated by Rudolf's forces and killed in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. Upon the king's death, the Bohemian lands were ruled by the Ascanian margrave Otto of Brandenburg, acting as regent and guardian of Ottokar's minor son Wenceslaus II. Soon, new tensions arose with queen dowager Kunigunda and Margrave Otto had mother and son imprisoned at Bezděz Castle. Kunigunda was able to escape to Opava, where she allied with Zavis of Falkenstein, her late husband's enemy, she appointed him burgrave of Hradec and both also began an affair. In turn, the margrave removed the heir to the throne out of the country to Spandau in Brandenburg where he was arrested until 1282; as conditions in the princeless Bohemian kingdom worsened, the local nobles urged for the return of Wenceslaus II. Otto of Brandenburg retired, not without collecting a considerable ransom and the confirmation of the Ascanian possessions in Upper Lusatia. Wenceslaus was released from custody and returned to Prague in 1283.
Two years in 1285, Wenceslaus married Judith of Habsburg, daughter of King Rudolf. At the same time Zavis appeared as second husband of dowager queen Kunigunda. Once Otto of Brandenburg was expelled, he took his place at the head of local nobles along with Bishop Tobias Bechun of Prague, gained strong influence over the young king and manned important offices with his relatives and fellows. Given the situation at the Bohemian court, Rudolf took his daughter back to Austria after the wedding ceremony. Zavis nepotism provoked the discontent of the Bohemian nobility and the mistrust of Rudolf of Habsburg, after Wenceslaus refused to support the succession of his brother-in-law Albert under Zavis' influence; when Kunigunda died only a few months in September 1285, Zavis proceeded to the court of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary, whose sister Elizabeth he married in 1287. The couple took residence at Svojanov Castle and Zavis again tried to gain influence on Bohemian politics. In turn, Rudolf of Habsburg guided his daughter Judith to the Prague throne and urged for measures taken against the usurpator.
The court requested the return of late Kunigunda's royal estates held by Zavis. When he refused he was accused of high treason and arrested in 1289. A revolt by his brothers failed and Zavis was executed on 24 August 1290 at Hluboká Castle, he became the subject of Josef Richard Rozkošný's opera Záviš z Falkenštejna in 1877
Dolní Dobrouč is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 2,500 inhabitants. Villages Horní Dobrouč and Lanšperk are administrative parts of Dolní Dobrouč. Village website
České Libchavy is a village in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 500 inhabitants. Village website
Ústí nad Orlicí District
Ústí nad Orlicí District is a district within Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. Its capital is city Ústí nad Orlicí; the district has borders with Pardubice District to the west, Svitavy District to the south and Chrudim District to the southwest. List of towns and villages of the Ústí nad Orlicí District