Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Terence Fisher was a British film director who worked most notably for Hammer Films. Fisher was one of the most prominent horror directors of the second half of the 20th century, he was the first to bring gothic horror alive in full colour, the sexual overtones and explicit horror in his films, while mild by modern standards, were unprecedented in his day. His first major gothic horror film was The Curse of Frankenstein, which launched Hammer's long association with the genre and made British actors Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee leading horror stars of the era, he went on to film a number of adaptations of classic horror subjects, including Dracula, The Mummy, The Curse of the Werewolf. Given their subject matter and lurid approach, Fisher's films, though commercially successful, were dismissed by critics during his career, it is only in recent years. His most famous films are characterised by a blend of fairytale myth and the supernatural alongside themes of sexuality, ‘the charm of evil’.
Drawing on a Christian conservative outlook, there is a hero who defeats the powers of darkness by a combination of faith in God and reason, in contrast to other characters, who are either blindly superstitious or bound by a cold, godless rationalism. For detailed discussions of Fisher's work, see Terence Fisher: Horror and Religion by Paul Leggett, British Film Makers: Terence Fisher by Peter Hutchings, The Films of Terence Fisher: Hammer Horror and Beyond by Wheeler Winston Dixon. Fisher was born in a district of London, he served in the Merchant Navy for five years. He first broke into the film industry as a clapper boy at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd’s Bush in 1933. Fisher did his first work as an assistant editor in 1934. At Gainsborough Pictures he received his first editor credit on Tudor Rose. Following this came Jack of All Trades for Robert Stevenson, Where There's a Will and Windbag the Sailor for William Beaudine. At Warner Bros he edited Mr. Satan, On the Night of the Fire, Atlantic Ferry, The Peterville Diamond, Flying Fortress.
Fisher did Tomorrow We Live and Candlelight in Algeria for British Aviation Films, They Met in the Dark for Marcel Hellman, The Dark Tower for Warners, One Exciting Night. Among his final films as editor were The Wicked Lady, one of the most popular British films of the time, Master of Bankdam. Fisher's first film as director was A Song for Tomorrow, a second feature for Highbury Productions. For the same company he To the Public Danger; these were low budget films, though Fisher moved over to Gainsborough for more prestigious movies: Portrait from Life with Mai Zetterling. Fisher returned to supporting features with Home to Danger for Eros Films. Fisher's first feature for Hammer Films was The Last Page, one of a number of low budget thrillers that studio were making with an imported American star to appeal to the US market. Hammer liked Fisher's work and kept him on for Wings of Danger with Zachary Scott, Stolen Face with Paul Henreid and Lizabeth Scott. After making Distant Trumpet for Meridian Films, Fisher returned to Hammer for Mantrap with Henreid.
He made Final Appointment outside Hammer with John Bentley went back to Hammer for Mask of Dust with Richard Conte. He made the comedy the Final Appointment sequel Stolen Assignment. Next came another movie with Bentley, The Flaw before he made two crime films, The Gelignite Gang and The Last Man to Hang?. He was hired by Tempean Films to make a final crime thriller with an imported American star, Kill Me Tomorrow with Pat O'Brien. During the 1950s Fisher worked in British television, directing episodes of series such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Sword of Freedom. Fisher's career changed direction permanently when Hammer asked him to direct The Curse of Frankenstein, their first colour horror film, it was the company’s most important project to date, Fisher was hand-picked by Hammer management to helm the movie as he had a reputation for reliability. Working from a script by Jimmy Sangster that re-imagined the lengthy original novel as a gruesome, morally ambiguous chamber piece, the film saw British TV star Peter Cushing cast as Baron Victor Frankenstein whilst the little-known supporting actor Christopher Lee portrayed the Creature.
It was quality production and an international box office smash. Hammer had more financial success with Fisher’s second gothic horror film Dracula, starring Lee in the title role and Cushing as his adversary Doctor Van Helsing. Once again reducing the scope of its source
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The Curse of Frankenstein
The Curse of Frankenstein is a 1957 British horror film by Hammer Film Productions, loosely based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. It was Hammer's first colour horror film, the first of their Frankenstein series, its worldwide success led to several sequels, the studio's new versions of Dracula and The Mummy, established "Hammer Horror" as a distinctive brand of Gothic cinema. The film was directed by Terence Fisher and stars Peter Cushing as Victor Frankenstein and Christopher Lee as the Creature, with Hazel Court and Robert Urquhart. Professor Patricia MacCormac called it the "first gory horror film, showing blood and guts in colour." In 19th-century Switzerland, Baron Victor Frankenstein is in prison. He tells the story of his life to a visiting priest, his mother's death leaves the young Frankenstein in sole control of the Frankenstein estate. He agrees to continue to pay a monthly allowance to his impoverished Aunt Sophia and his young cousin Elizabeth. Soon afterwards, he engages a man named Paul Krempe to tutor him.
After several years of intense study, Victor learns all. The duo begin collaborating on scientific experiments. One night, after a successful experiment in which they bring a dead dog back to life, Victor suggests that they create a perfect human being from body parts. Krempe assists Victor at first, but withdraws, unable to tolerate the continued scavenging of human remains after Victor's fiancee—his now grown-up cousin Elizabeth —comes to live with them. Frankenstein assembles his creation with a robber's corpse found on a gallows and both hands and eyes purchased from charnel house workers. For the brain, Victor seeks out an aging and distinguished professor so that the monster can have a sharp mind and the accumulation of a lifetime of knowledge, he invites the professor to his house in the guise of a friendly visit, but pushes him off the top of a staircase, killing him in what appears to others to be an accident. After the professor is buried, Victor removes his brain. Krempe attempts to stop him, the brain is damaged in the ensuing scuffle.
Krempe tries to persuade Elizabeth to leave the house, as he has before, but she refuses. With all of the parts assembled, Frankenstein brings life to the creature; the creature's damaged brain leaves it violent and psychotic, without the professor's intelligence. Frankenstein locks up the creature but it escapes and kills an old blind man it encounters in the woods. Krempe shoots the creature in the head with a shotgun and he and Victor bury it in the woods, but after Krempe leaves town, Frankenstein digs it up and revives it, he uses the creature to murder his maid, who claims she is pregnant by him and threatens to tell the authorities about his strange experiments if he refuses to marry her. Paul returns to the house at Elizabeth's invitation the evening before she and Victor are to be married. Victor shows Paul the revived creature, Paul says that he is going to report Victor to the authorities immediately. During the scuffle that follows, the creature escapes to the castle roof, where it threatens Elizabeth.
Victor throws an oil lantern at it. Its body dissolves leaving no proof that it existed. Victor is imprisoned for Justine's murder; the priest does not believe Frankenstein's story. When Krempe visits, Frankenstein begs him to testify that it was the creature who killed Justine, but he refuses and denies all knowledge of the experiment. Krempe leaves joins Elizabeth, telling her there is nothing they can do for him. Frankenstein is led away to the guillotine. Peter Cushing as Victor Frankenstein Christopher Lee as the Creature Hazel Court as Elizabeth Robert Urquhart as Dr. Paul Krempe Valerie Gaunt as Justine Noel Hood as Aunt Sophia Melvyn Hayes as Young Victor Paul Hardtmuth as Professor Bernstein Fred Johnson as Grandpa Producer Max Rosenberg approached Michael Carreras at Hammer Films with a deal to produce Frankenstein and the Monster from a script by Milton Subotsky. Both men were cut out of their profit participation making only a $5000 fee for bringing the production to Hammer. Rosenberg and Subotsky established Amicus Films, Hammer’s main rival in the production of horror films during the 1960s.
Screenwriter Jimmy Sangster, who adapted Mary Shelley's novel for Hammer, never mentioned seeing Subotsky's script or being aware of Rosenberg's involvement. Sangster had worked as a production manager and said that he was keenly aware of production costs and kept the budget in mind when writing the script. Sangster said that his awareness of cost influenced him to not write scenes involving the villagers storming the castle, seen in the Universal horror films "because we couldn't afford it". Sangster in an interview in with film historian Jonathan Rigby indicated that he hadn't seen any of the Frankenstein films that Universal made, he just adapted the book "the way I saw it". Peter Cushing, best known for his many high profile roles in British television, had his first lead part in a movie with this film. Meanwhile, Christopher Lee's casting resulted from his height, though Hammer had earlier considered the taller Bernard Bresslaw for the role. Universal fought hard to prevent Hammer from duplicating aspects of their 1931 film, so it was down to make-up artist Phil Leakey to design a new look for the cre
The Revenge of Frankenstein
The Revenge of Frankenstein is a 1958 British horror film made by Hammer Film Productions. Directed by Terence Fisher, the film stars Peter Cushing, Francis Matthews, Michael Gwynn and Eunice Gayson. In the United States, it was released in 1958 on a double bill with Curse of the Demon; the Revenge of Frankenstein was a sequel to The Curse of Frankenstein, the studio's 1957 adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. In 1860, Baron Victor Frankenstein, sentenced to death, escapes execution by the guillotine by having a priest beheaded and buried in his place, with the aid of one of his followers. Three years Frankenstein, now going by the alias of Doctor Victor Stein, has become a successful physician in Carlsbruck, catering to the wealthy while attending to the poor in a paupers' hospital. Hans Kleve, a junior member of the medical council, recognises him and blackmails him into allowing him to become his apprentice. Together with Karl, the hunchback who facilitated Frankenstein's escape and Kleve continue with the Baron's experiment: transplanting a living brain into a new body, one, not a crude, cobbled-together monster.
The deformed Karl is more than willing to volunteer his brain, thereby gaining a new, healthy body after meeting the new assistant at the hospital, the lovely Margaret. The transplant succeeds, but when the excited Kleve tells Karl that he will be a medical sensation, Karl panics and convinces Margaret to free him. Kleve notes that the chimpanzee into which Frankenstein had transplanted the brain of an orangutan ate its mate, worries about Karl, but his concerns are brushed off by Frankenstein. Karl flees from the hospital and hides in Frankenstein’s laboratory, where he burns his preserved hunchback body, he is attacked by the drunken janitor, who manages to strangle the man. Frankenstein and Kleve discover Karl begin searching for him; the next morning, Margaret finds Karl in her aunt's stable. While she goes to fetch Kleve, Karl experiences difficulties with his leg; when Kleve and Margaret arrive, he is gone. At night, he strangles a local girl; the next night, he rushes into an evening reception.
Having redeveloped his deformities, he begs Frankenstein for help, using his real name, before collapsing and dying. Frankenstein, disregarding Kleve's pleas that he should leave the country, appears before the medical council, where he denies being the infamous Baron Frankenstein; the unsatisfied councillors open Frankenstein's grave, only to discover the priest's body, conclude that the real Frankenstein is still alive. At the same time and angry patients at the hospital brutally attack Frankenstein and leave him for dead. Kleve rescues his dying mentor and rushes him to the laboratory, where he extracts Frankenstein's brain from his body just before the police arrive. Kleve shows claiming that he tried in vain to save his life. Alone again and uneasy about his skills, Kleve begins transplanting the brain into another body—one that Frankenstein had been preparing earlier and, made to resemble him... Sometime in London, Kleve assists Frankenstein—now calling himself Doctor Franck—in welcoming some patients...
According to Jimmy Sangster James Carreras presold the film in America taking a poster with him. When Carreras returned he approached Sangster with the project asking him to write the sequel. Sangster responded, "I killed Frankenstein in the first film." Sangster stated that Carreras told him he had six weeks to write the project before shooting started and that "you'll think of something". The film was shot at Bray Studios and production commenced on January 6, 1958, three days after filming wrapped on Dracula, which starred Cushing and was directed by Fisher. Conductor and composer Leonard Salzedo was hired to write the score, most of the regular Hammer crew returned in other roles, including Jack Asher as cinematographer, Bernard Robinson on design and Phil Leakey on make-up. Three novelizations of the film were published; the first one by Jimmy Sangster was published by Panther Books in 1958. A third novelization, by Shaun Hutson was published in March 2013. Variety called The Revenge of Frankenstein "a high grade horror film" with "rich" production values and a script, "well-plotted, peopled with interesting characters, aided by good performances."
Motion Picture Daily noted, "a horror picture turned out with creative imagination. The most notable contribution the Hammers have made to the genre is their stunning use of color for frightening effects". Hammer Films "have demolished once and for all the theory that horror films should always be in black-and-white". Harrison's Reports declared it "a first-rate picture of its kind."The Monthly Film Bulletin was negative, writing: "A contrived plot and a notable lack of pace and imagination are responsible for the failure of this lavish and painstaking production to be convincing on the level of a horror film. Peter Cushing's stylish and diffident performance serves only to underline the farcical effects of a crude and pedestrian handling of the little legitimate horror left."The Revenge of Frankenstein holds a 92% approval rating on movie review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on eight reviews. Frankenstein in popular culture List of films featuring Frankenstein's monster Hallenbeck, Bruce G.
The Hammer Frankenstein: British Cult Cinema, Midnight Marquee Press, ISBN 978-1936168330 The Revenge of Frankenstein on IMDb The Revenge