Lewis & Clark Law School
The Northwestern School of Law of Lewis and Clark College, is an American Bar Association-approved private law school in Portland, Oregon. The law school received ABA approval in 1970 and joined the Association of American Law Schools in 1973. Lewis & Clark Law School offers the Juris Doctor degree, including a range of scholastic concentrations and legal certificate programs, as well as a Master of Laws degree in environmental, natural resources, energy law and an LLM degree in animal law]; each class in the three-year J. D. program has 180 students. The dean of Lewis & Clark Law School is Jennifer J. Johnson, Erskine Wood Sr. endowed Professor of Law, a securities law scholar and arbitration expert, as well as a member of the American Law Institute. Lewis & Clark law students can complete their degrees on full-time or part-time schedules, take courses during the day or evening, focus in a number of legal specialties; the institution has a general law review and a range of specialty programs, including environmental law, public interest law, the lawyering program.
According to Lewis & Clark's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 61.7% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-preferred employment nine months after graduation. The law school grounds are adjacent to a forested natural area, replete with 14-miles of biking and jogging trails in Tryon Creek State Park; the Law School is 4-miles from downtown, in the Southern hills of Portland, west of the Willamette River, at the base of the undergraduate campus of Lewis & Clark College. The Lewis & Clark College undergraduate, graduate school, law campus grounds collectively occupy 137 acres, centered on the M. Lloyd Frank Estate on Palatine Hill in the Collins View neighborhood of Southwest Portland. Lewis & Clark Law School's origins began with the University of Oregon establishing a Department of Law in Portland in 1885. After the Oregon State Legislature moved the program to Eugene, Oregon in 1915, several law faculty members resisted the move, formed the Northwestern College of Law.
In 1965, the faculty and overseers of Northwestern College of Law joined with the president and trustees of Lewis & Clark College to incorporate the Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College. Harold G. Wren was Dean of the law school from 1969-72. Today the college has over staff. Faculty members appear as experts in legal proceedings, publish legal texts and contribute primary research findings to legal scholarship around the country; the Paul L. Boley Law Library is the largest law library in Oregon and the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest with a collection of over 505,000 volumes as of 2014. Boley is home to clinical space and program offices; the 2019 U. S. News & World Report ranked the school at 104 as a Tier 2 institution. Individual programs continue to receive high marks at Clark. In 2019, Lewis & Clark Law School ranked second of environmental law programs in the United States, according to U. S. News & World Report's rating system. Meanwhile, the Lewis & Clark Part-Time Program was ranked 7th in the country as of 2015.
The Lewis & Clark Law Review was ranked among the top 5% of all law journals and the top 20% of general-interest law reviews by the 2015 Washington and Lee Law Review Rankings and Google Scholar. Center for Animal Law Studies Earthrise Law Center Green Energy Institute National Crime Victim Law Institute Natural Resources Law Institute Northwest Environmental Defense Center Western Resources Legal Center International Environmental Law Project Lewis & Clark Law School supports three student-edited scholarly journals: Environmental Law Review Animal Law Review Lewis & Clark Law Review Lewis & Clark law students benefit from the campus serving as a destination for several national moot courts. In 2013, Chief Justice of the United States John G. Roberts launched Lewis & Clark's Environmental Moot Court Competition, presiding as a guest judge; the campus serves as the permanent host of the National Native American Law Students Association Moot Court Competition and the International Law Students Association Pacific Regional Philip C.
Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition. Additionally, the ILSA Student Initiated Lecture Series at Lewis & Clark has been internationally recognized for academic excellence. In addition, the law school has developed a number of exclusive global summer externship placements. There are options in India for students interested in business, transactional, public interest, human rights, environmental practice through placement with firms and NGOs in Delhi and Mumbai; the law school has secured exclusive placements in Asia, for students interested in international law firm experience. Past placements include firms in Shanghai, China. According to Lewis & Clark's official 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 61.7% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-preferred employment nine months after graduation. Lewis & Clark's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 27.2%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation.
The average cost of attendance at Lewis & Clark Law School for the 2016-17 school year includes tuition. Lewis & Clark Law School
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Oregon Public Broadcasting
Oregon Public Broadcasting is the primary television and radio public broadcasting network for most of the U. S. state of Oregon as well as southern Washington. OPB consists of five full-power television stations, dozens of VHF or UHF translators, over 20 radio stations and frequencies. Broadcasts include local and regional programming as well as television programs from the Public Broadcasting Service and American Public Television, radio programs from National Public Radio, Public Radio International, American Public Media, Public Radio Exchange, the BBC World Service, among other distributors, its headquarters and television studios are located in Portland. OPB is a major producer of television programming for national broadcast on PBS and Create through distributors like APT, with shows such as History Detectives, Barbecue America, Foreign Exchange, Rick Steves' Europe, travel shows hosted by Art Wolfe; as of 2006, OPB had over one million viewers throughout its region and an average of over 380,000 radio listeners each week.
The part of southwestern Oregon not served by OPB is served by Jefferson Public Radio and Southern Oregon Public Television. OPB traces its roots to January 23, 1923, when KFDJ-AM signed on from the Corvallis campus of Oregon Agricultural College; the radio station's call letters were changed to KOAC-AM on December 11, 1925. In 1932, KOAC became a service of the Oregon State Board of Higher Education General Extension DivisionKOAC Radio won OPB's first Peabody Award when it was recognized for Outstanding Public Service by a Local Station for a 1942 program called Our Hidden Enemy, Venereal Disease. KOAC-TV in Corvallis began operations on October 7, 1957. KOAC-AM-TV soon became the primary stations for a large statewide network of radio and television stations. Known as Oregon Educational Broadcasting, it became the Oregon Educational and Public Broadcasting Service in 1971. In 1981, OEPBS was spun off from the Oregon State System of Higher Education and became a separate state agency, Oregon Public Broadcasting.
The former Portland satellites, KOAP-FM-TV, became the flagship stations. In 1993, OPB severed its last direct ties to the state government, became a community-licensed organization supported by the state of Oregon. In addition to the studio and transmission facilities in Corvallis, there was another production studio located on the top floor of Villard Hall at the University of Oregon in Eugene, connected by microwave link. Up until 1965, all programs from the Eugene studio were live, since they did not get any video recording equipment until then. During that time period, the Eugene studio operated two RCA TK31 cameras. KOAP-TV in Portland signed on the air February 6, 1961. KTVR-TV in La Grande went on the air December 6, 1964 as a commercial television station that affiliated with NBC and carried select ABC network programs. KTVR operated as a semi-satellite of Boise, Idaho station KTVB, but had a La Grande studio at 1605 Adams Ave. producing a nightly newscast and other local programming.
However, by 1967, the La Grande studio and office had been closed and KTVR became a full-fledged satellite of KTVB. KTVR was unique in the Pacific Time Zone, because as a repeater of a Mountain Time Zone station, its "prime-time" schedule was broadcast from 6 to 9 p.m. OEPBS bought KTVR on August 31, 1976 and converted it to PBS on February 1, 1977. At first, KTVR rebroadcast programming from KWSU-TV in Pullman, Washington and KSPS-TV in Spokane, Washington until OEPBS completed a transmission link to La Grande. On September 1, 1977 OEPBS took KTVR off the air for transmitter repairs, due to increasing technical problems. KTVR returned to the air on January 1978, carrying OEPBS programming for the first time. KOAB-TV in Bend began broadcasting on February 24, 1970 as KVDO-TV, an independent station licensed to Salem. Channel 3 struggled to compete with Portland's established independent, KPTV, in 1974 the station was purchased by Liberty Communications, then-owners of Eugene's ABC affiliate KEZI.
The intention was to make KVDO a full-power satellite of KEZI. KATU, Portland's ABC affiliate, responded by taking legal action, forcing KEZI to instead operate KVDO on a limited basis. OEPBS purchased the station on February 19, 1976, turned the station into a PBS member station, rebroadcasting OEPBS programming, available from KOAC and KOAP. A few days on February 28, 1976, a disgruntled viewer protesting KVDO's sale to OEPBS cut guy wires, toppling the channel 3 transmitter tower. On September 20, 1976, KVDO signed back on the air with a new tower. On August 6, 1983, after many complaints about duplication of service to Salem-area viewers, KVDO was shut down. OEPBS petitioned the FCC to move Channel 3's license and channel allocation to Bend, which had no PBS coverage. On December 22, 1983, channel 3 signed back on the air as KOAB; the call letters were modified to KOAB-TV when KOAB-FM signed on the air January 23, 1986. KOAC won a 1972 Peabody Award for a program called Conversations with Will Shakespeare and Certain of His Friends.
KEPB-TV in Eugene began operation on February 27, 1990 as Eugene's first public television station, bringing most of Eugene a clear signal for PBS programming from the first time ever. Although KOAC-TV had long claimed Eugene as part of its primary coverage area, it only provided rimshot coverage to most of Eugene itself, was marginal at best in the southern portion of the city. In the early 2000s, OPB installed Oregon’s first digital trans
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a U. S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of Nevada District of Oregon Eastern District of Washington Western District of WashingtonIt has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts: District of Guam District of the Northern Mariana IslandsHeadquartered in San Francisco, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships; the court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U. S. Court of Appeals Building, Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U. S. Court of Appeals.
Panels of the court travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, cases from northern California, Nevada and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel; the large size of the current court is because both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased since the U. S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891; the court was granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Montana, Nevada and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.
The Ninth Circuit had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943. However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978; the cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."
Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho and Nevada. Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope.... It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we are, or not interpreting them as we never do." Some argue. From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, 61% were reversed. From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79 percent of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.
Some argue. Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse; the court thus provides for a limited en banc review of a randomly selected 11 judge panel. This means that en banc reviews may not reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place; the result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
The Portland Tribune is a free newspaper published twice weekly, each Tuesday and Thursday, in Portland, United States. The Tribune is part of the Pamplin Media Group, which publishes a number of community newspapers in the Portland metropolitan area, owns and operates the talk radio station KPAM, several other radio stations throughout the Pacific Northwest; the Tribune has twice been chosen as the nation's best non-daily paper. Launched in 2001, the paper was published twice-weekly until 2008, when it was reduced to weekly, returned to twice-weekly publication in 2014. Portland businessman Robert B. Pamplin, Jr. announced his intention to found the paper in the summer of 2000. The first issue of the twice-weekly paper was published February 9, 2001, joining The Oregonian, the city's only daily general interest newspaper, the alternative weeklies Willamette Week and The Portland Mercury. At the time, it was a rare example of the expansion of print news, in a time when many cities were seeing newspapers merge or go out of business.
But its launch preceded a significant national downturn in advertising sales, which posed difficulties for a startup newspaper. Eleven months after its launch, the Tribune cut back on home deliveries; the newspaper was losing money faster than anticipated after its first year. By late 2006, its newsroom staff had been reduced to 27. On May 5, 2008, the paper announced it would switch effective to a once-a-week print format, with a Thursday print edition accompanied by daily updates to its website. In July 2009, "difficult economic conditions" led to the layoff of two reporters and the resignation of its managing editor, resulting in a newsroom staff of 14. In March 2014, the Portland Tribune resumed twice-weekly publication of its print edition, with reinstatement of a Tuesday edition, while continuing to publish a Thursday edition; the paper deals exclusively with issues local to Portland and the U. S. state of Oregon. The paper is known for its extensive coverage of local high school and professional sports teams, with concentration on the NBA, Pac-10, Big Sky Conference and West Coast Conference.
A business section was added to the print edition in 2014, along with other coverage expansion, including health and fitness content and more regional coverage. The Tribune sponsors the annual Portland Regional Spelling Bee for middle school students; the champion participates in the Scripps National Spelling Bee in Washington, D. C. Hillsboro Tribune Official website
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas