Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord Lieutenant was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy, from the French vice roi or deputy king, and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant. The Kings representative possessed a number of overlapping roles and he was the representative of the King, the head of the executive in Ireland, a member of the English or British Cabinet, the font of mercy and patronage, commander-in-chief in Ireland. His Government exercised effective control of parliament through the exercise of the powers of patronage, namely the awarding of peerages, baronetcies.
Critics accused successive viceroys of using their power as a corrupt means of controlling parliament. On one day in July 1777, Lord Buckinghamshire as Lord Lieutenant promoted 5 viscounts to earls,7 barons to viscounts, under-Secretary for Ireland, The head of the civil service in Ireland. Lord Justices, Three office-holders who acted in the Lord Lieutenants stead during his absence, the Lord Justices were before 1800 the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of All Ireland. Lords Lieutenant were appointed for no set term but served for His/Her Majestys pleasure, in reality that meant for as long as wished by the British Government. Where a ministry fell, the Lord Lieutenant was usually replaced by a supporter of the new ministry, until the 16th century, Irish or Anglo-Irish noblemen such as the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare traditionally held the post of Justiciar or Lord Deputy. Following the plantations, noblemen from Great Britain were given the post, the last Irish Catholic to hold the position was Lord Tyrconnell from 1685–91, during the brief Catholic Ascendancy in the reign of James II that was ended by the Williamite war in Ireland.
Until 1767 none of the latter lived full-time in Ireland, instead they resided in Ireland during meetings of the Irish Parliament. However the British cabinet decided in 1765 that full-time residency should be required to enable the Lord Lieutenant to keep a eye on public affairs in Ireland. The office was restricted to members of the Anglican faith, the first Catholic appointed to the post since the reign of the Catholic King James II was in fact the last viceroy, Lord FitzAlan of Derwent, in April 1921. His appointment was possible because the Government of Ireland Act 1920 ended the prohibition on Catholics being appointed to the position, FitzAlan was the only Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ever to hold office when the former Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. The post ebbed and flowed in importance, being used on occasion as a form of exile for prominent British politicians who had fallen foul of the Court of St. Jamess or Westminster, on other occasions it was a stepping stone to a future career.
Two Lords Lieutenant, Lord Hartington and the Duke of Portland, instead it was the Chief Secretary for Ireland who became central, with he, not the Lord Lieutenant, sitting on occasion in the British cabinet. The official residence of the Lord Lieutenant was the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle, the Geraldine Lords Deputy, the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare, being native Irish, both lived in, among other locations, their castle in Maynooth, County Kildare
Lady Randolph Churchill
Jeanette, Lady Randolph Churchill, CI, RRC, DStJ was an American-born British socialite, the wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and the mother of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. She was raised in Brooklyn and New York City and she had two surviving sisters and Leonie. Another sister, Camille died when Jennie was nine, leonard Jerome was rumoured to be the father of the American opera singer Minnie Hauk. There is some controversy regarding the time and place of her birth, a plaque at 426 Henry St. gives her year of birth as 1850, not 1854. However, on 9 January 1854, the Jeromes lived nearby at number 8 Amity Street and it is believed that the Jeromes were temporarily staying at the Henry Street address, which was owned by Leonards brother Addison, and that Jennie was born there during a snowstorm. A noted beauty, Jennie Jerome worked as an editor in early life. Hall family lore insists that Jennie had Iroquois ancestry, through her grandmother, however. Lady Randolph was an amateur pianist, having been tutored as a girl by Stephen Heller.
Heller believed that his pupil was good enough to attain concert standard with the necessary hard work. The couple had met at sailing regatta on the Isle of Wight in August 1873, having been introduced by the Prince of Wales, Although they became engaged within three days of this initial meeting, the marriage was delayed for months while their parents argued over settlements. By this marriage, she was known as Lady Randolph Churchill. The Churchills had two sons, the prime minister, was born less than eight months after the marriage. According to his biographer William Manchester, Winston was most likely conceived before the marriage, a recent biography has stated that he was born two months prematurely after Lady Randolph had a fall. When asked about the circumstances of his birth, Winston Churchill would reply, Although present on the occasion, Lady Randolphs sisters believed that the biological father of the second son, John was Evelyn Boscawen, 7th Viscount Falmouth. Lady Randolph is believed to have had numerous lovers during her marriage, including Karl Kinsky, the Prince of Wales, and Herbert von Bismarck.
As was the custom of the day in her class, Lady Randolph played a limited role in her sons upbringing, relying largely upon nannies. Winston worshipped his mother, writing her numerous letters during his time at school and begging her to visit him and he wrote about her in My Early Life, She shone for me like the evening star. I loved her dearly – but at a distance, after he became an adult, they became good friends and strong allies, to the point where Winston regarded her almost as a political mentor, more as a big sister than as a mother
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Mary Soames, Baroness Soames, LG, DBE, FRSL was the youngest of the five children of Winston Churchill and his wife, Clementine. She was the wife of Christopher Soames, Mary Spencer-Churchill was raised at Chartwell and educated at the Manor House at Limpsfield. She accompanied her father as aide-de-camp on several of his overseas journeys, including his trip to Potsdam. She was Patron of the National Benevolent Fund for the Aged, a successful author, Lady Soames wrote an acclaimed biography of her mother, Clementine Churchill, in 1979. Lady Soames was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her public service and she was appointed a Lady Companion of the Order of the Garter on 23 April 2005, and was invested on 13 June at Windsor Castle. On 31 May 2014, Lady Soames died at her home in London at the age of 91 following a short illness and her ashes are buried next to those of her husband within the Churchill plot at St Martins Church, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire. The sale far exceeded pre-auction estimates, Mary Soames married the Conservative politician Christopher Soames in 1947 and they had five children, The Rt.
He married Catherine N. Weatherall on 4 June 1981 and they were divorced in 1988 and he remarried Serena Mary Smith on 21 December 1993. They have two children, a son and a daughter and she married James MacManus on 4 July 1981 and they were divorced in 1989. He married Susanna Keith in 1978 and she married Richard Hambro in 1973 and they were divorced in 1982. She remarried William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel on 15 April 1989 and he married Camilla Rose Dunne in 1988. Christopher Soames, MBE May 1965 –1972, The Hon, mrs. Soames, MBE1972 –19 April 1978, The Hon. Lady Soames, MBE19 April 1978 –14 June 1980, the Lady Soames, MBE14 June 1980 –23 April 2005, The Rt Hon. The Lady Soames, DBE23 April 2005 –31 May 2014, a film clip ALLIES TAKE KISKA ETC. is available at the Internet Archive
A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. They were called special correspondents in the 19th century and their jobs require war correspondents to deliberately go to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there, they attempt to get enough to the action to provide written accounts, photos. Thus, being a war correspondent is often considered the most dangerous form of journalism, on the other hand, war coverage is one of the most successful branches of journalism. Newspaper sales increase greatly in wartime and television news ratings go up, News organizations have sometimes been accused of militarism because of the advantages they gather from conflict. William Randolph Hearst is often said to have encouraged the Spanish–American War for this reason, only some conflicts receive extensive worldwide coverage, however. Among recent wars, the Kosovo War received a deal of coverage. Written war correspondents have existed as long as journalism, before modern journalism it was more common for longer histories to be written at the end of a conflict.
The first known of these is Herodotuss account of the Persian Wars, who some years wrote a history of the Peloponnesian Wars was an observer to the events he described. Her description of the events took place in the Marshall House are particularly poignant because she was in the midst of battle. A further modernization came with the development of newspapers and magazines, one of the earliest war correspondents was Henry Crabb Robinson, who covered Napoleons campaigns in Spain and Germany for The Times of London. Another early correspondent was William Hicks who letters describing the Battle of Trafalgar were published in The Times, early film and television news rarely had war correspondents. Rather, they would simply collect footage provided by sources, often the government. This footage was often staged as cameras were large and bulky until the introduction of small, the situation changed dramatically with the Vietnam War when networks from around the world sent cameramen with portable cameras and correspondents.
This proved damaging to the United States as the brutality of war became a daily feature on the nightly news. The discourse in mediated conflicts is influenced by its public character, by forwarding information and arguments to the media, conflict parties attempt to use the media influence to gain support from their constituencies and persuade their opponents. The continued progress of technology has allowed live coverage of events via satellite up-links, the rise of twenty-four hour news channels has led to a heightened demand for coverage. William Howard Russell, who covered the Crimean War, for The Times, is described as the first modern war correspondent
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.
However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party.
The Prime Minister acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the Sovereign
By September 1940—two months into the battle—faulty German intelligence suggested that the Royal Air Force was close to defeat at the hands of the Luftwaffe. The German air fleets were ordered to attack London, thereby drawing up the last remnants of RAF Fighter Command into a battle of annihilation, Adolf Hitler and commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, sanctioned the change in emphasis on 6 September 1940. From 7 September 1940, one year into the war, London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days, on 15 September 1940, a large daylight attack against London was repulsed with significant German losses. Thereafter, the Luftwaffe gradually decreased daylight operations in favour of nocturnal attacks and industrial centres outside London were attacked. The main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool was bombed, the North Sea port of Hull, a convenient and easily found target or secondary target for bombers unable to locate their primary targets, was subjected to raids in the Hull Blitz during the war.
More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, by May 1941, the threat of an invasion of Britain had ended, and Hitlers attention turned to Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The bombing failed to demoralise the British into surrender or significantly damage the war economy, the eight months of bombing never seriously hampered British production and the war industries continued to operate and expand. The German offensives greatest effect was forcing the dispersal of aircraft production, British wartime studies concluded that cities generally took 10 to 15 days to recover when hit severely but exceptions like Birmingham took three months. The German air offensive failed for several reasons, discussions in OKL revolved around tactics rather than strategy. Poor intelligence on British industry and economic efficiency was a factor, in the 1920s and 1930s, air power theorists Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell espoused the idea that air forces could win wars, without a need for land and sea fighting.
It was thought there was no defence against air attack, particularly at night, enemy industry, seats of government and communications could be destroyed, taking away their means to resist. It was thought the bombing of residential centres would cause a collapse of civilian will, where the populace was allowed to show overt disapproval of the state, were thought particularly vulnerable. This thinking was prevalent in both the RAF and the United States Army Air Corps, the policy of RAF Bomber Command became an attempt to achieve victory through the destruction of civilian will and industry. In the Luftwaffe, there was a view of strategic bombing. OKL did not believe that air power alone could be decisive, contrary to popular belief, evidence suggests that the Luftwaffe did not adopt an official bombing policy in which civilians became the primary target until 1942. The vital industries and transport centres that would be targeted for shutdown were valid military targets and it could be claimed civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight.
German legal scholars of the 1930s carefully worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. Wever outlined five points of air strategy, To destroy the air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. It was formed in Egypt in December 1914, and operated during the Battle of Gallipoli, General William Birdwood commanded the corps, which comprised troops from the First Australian Imperial Force and 1st New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The corps disbanded in 1916, following the Allied evacuation of the Gallipoli peninsula, the Corps was reestablished, briefly, in the Second World War during the Battle of Greece in 1942. Plans for the formation began in November 1914 while the first contingent of Australian and New Zealand troops were still in convoy bound for, as they thought, Birdwood arrived in Cairo on 21 December 1914 to assume command of the corps. However, protests from New Zealand led to adoption of the name Australian, the administration clerks found the title too cumbersome so quickly adopted the abbreviation A. & N. Z. A. C. or simply ANZAC. Shortly afterwards it was adopted as the codename for the corps.
The 2nd and 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigades were assigned as corps level troops, despite being synonymous with Australia and New Zealand, ANZAC was a multi-national body. Following the evacuation of Gallipoli in December 1915, the Australian, the New Zealand contingent expanded to form their own division, the New Zealand Division. The First Australian Imperial Force underwent a reorganisation resulting in the formation of two new divisions, the 4th and 5th divisions. These divisions were reformed into two corps, I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps, I ANZAC Corps, under the command of General Birdwood, departed for France in early 1916. II ANZAC Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Alexander Godley, followed soon after, in January 1916, the 4th Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps with Australian and New Zealand troops was formed, the 1st and 3rd battalions were Australian and the 2nd Battalion British. Then in March 1916, the ANZAC Mounted Division with three Australian and one New Zealand brigade, was formed for service in Egypt and Palestine, there was the 1st Wireless Signal Squadron, which served with the British expeditionary force in Mesopotamia in 1916–17.
During World War II, the Australian I Corps HQ moved to Greece in April 1941, as the corps controlled the New Zealand 2nd Division, it was officially renamed ANZAC Corps in April. The Battle of Greece was over in weeks and the corps HQ left Greece on 23–24 April, some troops evacuated to Alexandria, but the majority were sent to Crete to reinforce its garrison against an expected air and sea German invasion. Australians and New Zealanders were respectively deployed around the cities of Rethymno, the invasion began the morning of 20 May and, after the fierce Battle of Crete, which lasted ten days, Crete fell to the Germans. Most of the defenders of Chania withdrew across the island to the south coast and were evacuated by the Royal Navy from Sfakia, many others evaded capture for several months, hiding in the mountains with generous assistance from the local Cretan population. During the Vietnam War, two companies from the Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment were integrated into Royal Australian Regiment battalions and these integrated battalions had the suffix added to their name.
An ANZAC battalion served as one of the battalions of the 1st Australian Task Force from early March 1968 until its withdrawal in December 1971
Churchill War Rooms
The Churchill War Rooms is a museum in London and one of the five branches of the Imperial War Museum. Construction of the Cabinet War Rooms, located beneath the Treasury building in the Whitehall area of Westminster and they became operational in August 1939, shortly before the outbreak of war in Europe. They remained in operation throughout the Second World War, before being abandoned in August 1945 after the surrender of Japan, after the war the historic value of the Cabinet War Rooms was recognised. In the early 1980s the Imperial War Museum was asked to take over the administration of the site, the museum was reopened in 2005 following a major redevelopment as the Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms, but in 2010 this was shortened to the Churchill War Rooms. The building now accommodates HM Treasury, work to convert the basement of the New Public Offices began, under the supervision of Ismay and Sir Leslie Hollis, in June 1938. The work included installing communications and broadcasting equipment, sound-proofing, ventilation, as ultimate authority lay with the civilian government the Cabinet, or a smaller War Cabinet, would require close access to senior military figures.
This implied accommodation close to the armed forces Central War Room, in May 1939 it was decided that the Cabinet would be housed within the Central War Room. During its operational life two of the Cabinet War Rooms were of particular importance, once operational, the facilitys Map Room was in constant use and manned around the clock by officers of the Royal Navy, British army and Royal Air Force. These officers were responsible for producing a daily intelligence summary for the King, Prime Minister, the other key room was the Cabinet Room. Until the opening of the Battle of France, which began on 10 May 1940, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlains war cabinet met at the War Rooms only once, in October 1939. Following Winston Churchills appointment as Prime Minister, Churchill visited the Cabinet Room in May 1940 and declared, in total 115 Cabinet meetings were held at the Cabinet War Rooms, the last on 28 March 1945, when the German V-weapon bombing campaign came to an end. Up to 5 feet thick, the Slab was progressively extended, two other notable rooms include the Transatlantic Telephone Room and Churchills office-bedroom.
From 1943, a SIGSALY code-scrambling encrypted telephone was installed in the basement of Selfridges and this enabled Churchill to speak securely with American President Roosevelt in Washington, with the first conference taking place on 15 July 1943. Later extensions were installed to both 10 Downing Street and the specially constructed Transatlantic Telephone Room within the Cabinet War Rooms, Churchills office-bedroom included BBC broadcasting equipment, Churchill made four wartime broadcasts from the Cabinet War Rooms. His daughter Mary Soames often slept in the allocated to Mrs Churchill. After the end of the war, the Cabinet War Rooms became redundant and were abandoned and their maintenance became the responsibility of the Ministry of Works. Even so, a tour was organised for journalists on 17 March, with members of the press being welcomed by Lord Ismay and shown around the Rooms by their custodian, Mr. George Rance. While the Rooms were not open to the public, they could be accessed by appointment
Lord Randolph Churchill
Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill was a British statesman. Churchill was a genuine Tory radical, who coined the term Tory Democracy and his most acerbic critics resided in his own party among his closest friends, but his disloyalty to Lord Salisbury was the beginning of the end of what should have been a glittering career. His devoted son, who knew his father in life. Born at 3 Wilton Terrace, London, Randolph Spencer was the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, and his wife, Lady Frances Vane. He was at first privately educated, and attended Tabors Preparatory School, Cheam, in January 1863 he travelled the short distance by private train to Eton College, where he remained until July 1865. He did not stand out either at work or sport while at Eton, his contemporaries describe him as a vivacious. Among lifelong friendships made at school were Edward Hamilton and Archibald Primrose, in October 1867 he matriculated and was admitted at Merton College, Oxford. At Oxford, now Lord Dalmeny, joined him at the parties as members of the Bullingdon Club.
Randolph was frequently in trouble with the university authorities for drunkenness, smoking in academic dress and his rowdy behavior was infectious, rubbing off on friends and contemporaries, he gained a reputation as an enfant terrible. He had a liking for sport, but was a reader, playing hard. Churchill experienced none of the early doubts but made many mistakes and he never regretted being an early friend and admirer of the Disraelis. It was however the cause of dissension that emerged in his relations with a colder more aloof, disciplinarian Salisbury. Churchills youthful exuberance did not prevent him gaining a degree in jurisprudence. A year Churchill and his brother, were initiated into the rites of Freemasonry. His maiden speech, delivered in his first session, prompted compliments from Harcourt and Disraeli, Lord Randolph Churchill married a New Yorker, Jennie Jerome, daughter of Leonard Jerome, on 15 April 1874. According to Frank Harris, the editor of Fortnightly Magazine, who published the allegation in his scandalous 1924 autobiography, My Life and Loves, dr Clayton was, however, a society doctor with many patients among the British upper class.
Harris book recounted a story told by Louis Jennings, who had published Randolphs 1880-1888 speeches, Jennings account as reported by Harris has never been corroborated. By 1924, Harris had fallen out with Winston Churchill, for whom he had been a literary agent, Harris had made similar but false or unsubstantiated assertions about Oscar Wilde and Guy de Maupassant