James Mercer Langston Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City as a young man. One of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, he famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". Like many African Americans, Hughes had a complex ancestry. Both of Hughes' paternal great-grandmothers were enslaved African Americans and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners in Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County, said to be a relative of statesman Henry Clay; the other was a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she married Lewis Sheridan Leary of mixed race, before her studies.
Lewis Leary subsequently joined John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in West Virginia in 1859, where he was fatally wounded. Ten years in 1869, the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family, her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Euro-American and Native American ancestry. He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. After their marriage, Charles Langston moved with his family to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans, his and Mary's daughter Caroline became married James Nathaniel Hughes. They had two children. Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns, his father left the family soon after the boy was born and divorced Carrie. The senior Hughes traveled to Cuba and Mexico, seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation, Hughes's mother traveled.
Langston was raised in Lawrence, Kansas, by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in her grandson a lasting sense of racial pride. Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, glorified them in his work, he lived most of his childhood in Lawrence. In his 1940 autobiography The Big Sea, he wrote: "I was unhappy for a long time, lonesome, living with my grandmother, it was that books began to happen to me, I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books—where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas."After the death of his grandmother, Hughes went to live with family friends and Auntie Mary Reed, for two years. Hughes lived again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois, she had remarried.
The family moved to the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, where he attended Central High School and was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, whom he found inspiring. His writing experiments began. While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet, he stated that in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype about African Americans having rhythm. I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us. During high school in Cleveland, Hughes wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, began to write his first short stories and dramatic plays, his first piece of jazz poetry, ``. Hughes had a poor relationship with his father, whom he saw when a child, he lived with his father in Mexico in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, I liked Negroes much." His father had hoped Hughes would choose to study at a university abroad, train for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia, his tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average, he left in 1922 because of racial prejudice among teachers. He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Harlem was a center of vibrant cultural life. Hughes worked at various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.
S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Europe. In Europe, Hughes left the S. S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. There he met and had a romance with Anne Marie Coussey
Sears and Company, colloquially known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1893, reincorporated by Richard Sears and new partner Julius Rosenwald in 1906. Based at the Sears Tower in Chicago and headquartered in Hoffman Estates, the operation began as a mail ordering catalog company and began opening retail locations in 1925; the first location was in Indiana. In 2005, the company was bought by the management of the American big box chain Kmart, which formed Sears Holdings upon completion of the merger. Sears had the largest domestic revenue of any retailer in the United States until October 1989, when Walmart surpassed it. In 2018, Sears was the 31st-largest retailer in the United States. After several years of declining sales, its parent company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on October 15, 2018. Sears announced on January 16, 2019 it had won its bankruptcy auction and would shrink and remain open with about 400 stores.
In 1863, Richard Warren Sears was born in Stewartville, Minnesota to a wealthy family, which moved to nearby Spring Valley. In 1879, Sears' father died shortly after losing the family fortune in a speculative stock deal. Sears moved across the state to work as a railroad station agent in North Redwood, as well as in Minneapolis. While in North Redwood, a jeweler received an impressive shipment of watches. Sears purchased them sold them at a low price to the station agents and made a considerable profit, he started a mail-order watch business in Minneapolis in 1886, calling it "R. W. Sears Watch Company." Within the first year, he met Alvah C. Roebuck, a watch repairman; the next year Roebuck relocated the business to Chicago. In 1887, R. W. Sears Watch Company published Richard Sears' first mail-order catalog, offering watches and jewelry. In 1889 Sears sold his business for US$100,000 and relocated to Iowa, intending to be a rural banker. Sears returned to Chicago in 1892 and established a new mail-order firm, again selling watches and jewelry, with Roebuck as his partner, operating as the A. C. Roebuck watch company.
In 1893, they renamed the company to Sears, Roebuck & Company and began to diversify the product lines offered in their catalogs. Before the Sears catalog, farmers near small rural towns purchased supplies—often at high prices and on credit—from local general stores with narrow selections of goods. Prices were relied on the storekeeper's estimate of a customer's creditworthiness. Sears took advantage of this by publishing catalogs offering customers a wider selection of products at stated prices. By 1894, the Sears catalog had grown to 322 pages, including many new items such as sewing machines, sporting goods, automobiles. By 1895, the company was producing a 532-page catalog. Sales were greater than $400,000 in 1893 and more than $750,000 two years later. By 1896, dolls and groceries had been added to the catalog. Despite the strong and growing sales, the national Panic of 1893 led to a full-scale recession, causing a cash squeeze and large quantities of unsold merchandise by 1895. Roebuck decided to quit, returning in a publicity role.
Sears offered Roebuck's half of the company to Chicago businessman Aaron Nusbaum, who in turn brought in his brother-in-law Julius Rosenwald, to whom Sears owed money. In August 1895, they bought Roebuck's half of the company for $75,000; the company was reincorporated in Illinois with a capital stock of $150,000 in August 1895. The 1895 transaction was handled by Albert Henry Loeb of Chicago law firm Adler. Copies of the transaction documents are now displayed on the walls of the law firm. Sears and Rosenwald got along well with each other, but not with Nusbaum. Rosenwald brought to the mail-order firm a rational management philosophy and diversified product lines: dry goods, consumer durables, hardware and nearly anything else a farm household could desire. Sales continued to grow and the prosperity of the company and their vision for greater expansion led Sears and Rosenwald to take the company public in 1906, with a stock placement of $40 million, they had to incorporate a new company in order to bring the operation public.
The current company inherits the history of the old company, celebrating the original 1892 incorporation, rather than the 1906 revision, as the start of the company. Sears' successful 1906 initial public offering marks the first major retail IPO in American financial history and represented a coming of age, financially, of the consumer sector; the company traded under the ticker symbol S, was a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1924 to 1999. In 1906, Sears opened its catalog plant and the Sears Merchandise Building Tower in Chicago's West Side; the building was the anchor of what would become the massive 40-acre Sears and Company Complex of offices and mail-order operations at Homan Avenue and Arthington Street. The complex served as corporate headquarters until 1973, when the Sears Tower was completed and served as the base of the mail-order catalog business until 1993. By 1907, under Rosenwald's leadersh
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Meridel Le Sueur
Meridel Le Sueur was an American writer associated with the proletarian movement of the 1930s and 1940s. Born as Meridel Wharton, she assumed the name of her mother's second husband, Arthur Le Sueur, the former Socialist mayor of Minot, North Dakota. Le Sueur, the daughter of William Winston Wharton and Marian "Mary Del" Lucy, was born into a family of social and political activists, her grandfather was a supporter of the Protestant fundamentalist temperance movement, she "grew up among the radical farmer and labor groups... Like the Populists, the Farmers' Alliance and the Wobblies, the Industrial Workers of the World." Le Sueur was influenced by poems and stories that she heard from Native American women. "After a year studying dance and physical fitness at the American College of Physical Education in Chicago, Meridel moved to New York City, where she lived in an anarchist commune with Emma Goldman and studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts." Her acting career took place in California, where she worked in Hollywood as an extra in The Perils of Pauline and Last of the Mohicans, as a stuntwoman in silent movies, as a writer and journalist.
Starting in her late teens, she wrote for liberal newspapers about unemployment, migrant workers, the Native American fight for autonomy. By 1925, she had become a member of the Communist Party. Like other writers of the period such as John Steinbeck, Nelson Algren, Jack Conroy, Le Sueur wrote about the struggles of the working class during the Great Depression, she published articles in The American Mercury. She wrote several popular children’s books, including the biographies, Nancy Hanks of Wilderness Road, The Story of Davy Crockett, The Story of Johnny Appleseed, Sparrow Hawk, among others, her best known books are North Star Country, a people’s history of Minnesota, Salute to Spring, the novel The Girl, written in the 1930s but not published until 1978. In the 1950s, Le Sueur was blacklisted as a communist, but her reputation was revived in the 1970s, when she was hailed as a proto-feminist for her writings in support of women’s rights, she wrote on Goddess spirituality in a poetry volume titled Rites of Ancient Ripening, illustrated by her daughter.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, she taught writing classes in her mother's home on Dupont Avenue near Douglas Avenue in Minneapolis. She was something of a magnet for aspiring writers, she lived in the Twin Cities for some time. During the 1960s, she traveled around the country, attending campus protests and conducting interviews. In the 1970s, she spent much time living among the Navajo people in Arizona, returning to Minnesota in the summers to visit her growing extended family and friends. Late in her life, she lived with family in Minnesota; the short 1932 piece "Women on the Breadlines" is one of Le Sueur's most recognized proletarian works. Here, LeSueur wrote of the struggles that women faced during the Depression Era and how they were confined to limiting roles. While most of the characters presented in this work are struggling women searching for work, some are depicted as having nowhere to go but to "work in the streets." Through this and other works, Le Sueur opened the door for future female artists that wanted to write confrontational poetry, mediating the personal and the political.
She is commemorated in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the Meridel Le Sueur building in the Cedar-Riverside neighborhood. The 1999 song "Go" on the album Come On Now Social, by the Indigo Girls has a spoken passage inspired by Le Seur's "I Was Marching". A play based on LeSueur's life, "Hard Times Come Again No More," written by her friend, Martha Boesing, was performed at the Hennepin Center for the Arts' Illusion Theater in Minneapolis in 1994. 1930s The Girl, novel 1940 Salute to Spring, short stories 1945 North Star Country, poems 1949 Nancy Hanks of Wilderness Road: A Story of Abraham Lincoln's Mother, children's book ISBN 9780930100360 1951 Chanticleer of Wilderness Road: A Story of Davy Crockett, children's book 1954 The River Road: A Story of Abraham Lincoln, children's book ISBN 9780930100377 1954 Little Brother of the Wilderness: The Story of Johnny Appleseed, children's book 1955 Crusaders: The Radical Legacy of Marian and Arthur LeSueur New York: Blue Heron Press, ISBN 9780873511742 1973 Conquistadores 1974 Mound Builders 1975 Rites of Ancient Ripening, poems 1975 My people and my home.
Twin Cities Women's Film Collective. 1975. OCLC 500291129. 1982 O. K. Baby 1984 I Hear Men Talking and Other Stories ISBN 9780931122378 1984 Word is movement: journal notes. Tulsa, OK: Cardinal Press. ISBN 9780943594071. 1985 "Interview. Meridel Le Sueur is interviewed by Allan Francovich". OCLC 85824580. 1987 Sparrow Hawk, children's book ISBN 9780930100223 1991 The dread road. Albuquerque: West End Press. ISBN 9780931122637. 1990 Harvest song: collected essays and stories.: West End Press. ISBN 9780931122606. 1993 Ripening: Selected Work, edited by Elaine Hedges, The Feminist Press. ISBN 9780935312416 1992 "Women and spirituality". Meridel LeSueur, Carol Ann Russell, Rachel Tilsen, Neala Schleuning speak at the 1992 Women and spirituality conference held at Mankato State University Oct. 10-11, 1992. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 1997 "The dread road: a radio drama". Neon Crow Theatre Lab. OCLC 82999160. "When the workers send for you you know you're good. Sometimes they would send money to pay the bus fare." "I tell the young writers: ` Carry a notebook.
That is the secret of a radical writer. Write it down as it is happening.'" Boehnlein, James M
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
We've Come for You All
We've Come for You All is the ninth studio album by American thrash metal band Anthrax. It was released on May 6, 2003 through Nuclear Blast in Europe and Sanctuary Records in North America; this was the first Anthrax record to feature Rob Caggiano on lead guitar and their final studio album with John Bush on vocals. The album was recorded over a one-year span at the BearTracks Recording Studio in New York; the cover art was designed by comic book artist Alex Ross, while the production was handed by Scrap 60 Productions team. The Who vocalist Roger Daltrey and Pantera guitarist Dimebag Darrell made guest appearances on the album; the album received positive reviews by contemporary music critics, with About.com crediting it for "getting the band back on track". Despite this, the album only reached number 122 on the Billboard 200, with first week sales of 10,000 copies. To date, We've Come, it was nominated for Outstanding Hard Rock Album at the 2004 California Music Awards, but lost to Blink 182's self-titled album.
This album followed Volume 8: The Threat Is Real, released in 1998. Anthrax decided to sign with record label Nuclear Blast for the release of their upcoming album. Asked if changing the record company will affect the songwriting, guitarist Scott Ian replied: "To be honest, I don't care about that at all. You know, business is business and the creative side is the creative side. Creatively, there was no big challenge. We just wanted to try to make the best record we can."The band started writing new material during the months of May and June 2001, entered the studio in November the same year. The recording process was shortly interrupted because the band went on a tour with Judas Priest early in 2002, they returned to the studio in March and in the next few months worked on the record and finished it. According to Ian, the whole process of making the album took the band a year. Ian said that there is no leftover material out of the recording sessions, except for the song "Ghost", released as a B-side on the single "Taking the Music Back".
The Who vocalist Roger Daltrey and Pantera guitarist Dimebag Darrell made guest appearances on the album. Daltrey was featured in the song "Taking the Music Back", while Darrell contributed to the songs "Cadillac Rock Box" and "Strap It On"; the band explained their appearances by saying they "felt the need to invite some friends to make something special for the album and the result is fantastic."The album was produced by Scrap 60 Productions team, consisted of Anthrax guitarist Rob Caggiano, Eddie Wohl, Steve Regina. The front cover was designed by comic book artist Alex Ross. Vocalist John Bush stated that the band was honored to work with Ross, who did the artwork for their previous pair of recordings. Bush explained. Apart from suggesting the album's title as an idea, Bush said that the other members had not participated much in creating the cover art; the release date of the album was delayed several times. The album was set for a release on February 4, 2003 in Europe and Japan, on February 24 in the US and Canada.
After the prolongation of the release date for territories outside Japan and Europe, drummer Charlie Benante posted an explanation on the band's official website: "I hate to tell you this but... the record got pushed back to April 15. It's only been 73 years since Vol. 8, what's another week or two? The record company needed the extra time to put more time into the promotion. One day all this crap will be over, you'll be rocking out to some killer shit." It was announced that the release date for Europe would be pushed back to March 3, 2003 setting it on May 6. The problems occurred after a breakdown in negotiations between Beyond Records and Sanctuary Records over a buy-out of the band's contract. According to Blabbermouth, Beyond Records was in the process of selling their entire catalog to Sanctuary, but the arrangement had fallen through. However, the problems were resolved and the record was distributed through Sanctuary in North America and Nuclear Blast in Europe; the album debuted at No. 122 on the Billboard 200 chart with first week sales of just under 10,000 units.
Since its release in May 2003, We've Come. Apart from entering the French Albums Chart at number 95, the record did not manage to chart in any other country. Referring to the low record sales, Ian posted a message on the band's official web site saying: "That's more than I thought it would do after five years away. That's what Volume 8 did in its first week and this one was based on just Internet promo." Bush opined that this record wasn't different from their previous releases. "It's still an Anthrax album with many different parts. Our sound is recognizable each time you listen to one of our songs and that's something we want for our music. You have the fastest rhythms, the more danceable ones, you have everything you can expect from an Anthrax record." Benante said that elements from their earlier albums are still present on the record, though it explores "other territories". Johnny Loftus from AllMusic described the music as a strained fusion of thrash and traditional heavy metal, accompanied by the harsh vocals of Bush.
He noted the record for using modern production techniques, as well as displaying melodies and instrumentation that have always been Anthrax's trademark. Magazine Rock Hard observed that the record was a combination of "tradition and modernity", with strong vocals and "thrashy" tunes, they pointed that the sound was c