The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill, was a law, it was designed by the American Legion, who helped to push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters. The act avoided the disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans that caused political turmoil for a decade and a half after that war. Benefits included dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college or vocational/technical school, low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, as well as one year of unemployment compensation, it was available to all veterans, on active duty during the war years for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged—exposure to combat was not required. The recipients did not pay any income tax on the G. I. benefits, since they were not considered earned income. By 1956 7.8 million veterans had used the G. I. Bill education benefits, some 2.2 million to attend colleges or universities and an additional 5.6 million for some kind of training program.
Historians and economists judge the G. I. Bill a major political and economic success—especially in contrast to the treatments of World War I veterans—and a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that encouraged long-term economic growth. Canada operated a similar program for its World War II veterans, with a beneficial economic impact. Since the original U. S. 1944 law, the term has come to include other benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service. During the 1940s, "fly-by-night" for-profit colleges sprang up to collect veterans' education grants, because the program provided limited oversight. Today, for-profit colleges and their lead generators have taken advantage of the post-9/11 G. I. Bill to target veterans for subpar products and services. According to CBS News, about 40 percent of all G. I. Bill education funds go to for-profit colleges; the Department of Veterans Affairs has a G. I. Bill feedback form for recipients to address their complaints against colleges.
In 2012, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13607, to ensure that predatory colleges did not aggressively recruit military service members and their families. In 2017, President Donald Trump signed the Forever GI Bill extending the allowable time period for veterans to pursue educational opportunities. On June 22, 1944, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill of Rights, was signed into law. During the war, politicians wanted to avoid the postwar confusion about veterans' benefits that became a political football in the 1920s and 1930s. Veterans' organizations that had formed after the First World War had millions of members. Ortiz says their efforts "entrenched the VFW and the Legion as the twin pillars of the American veterans' lobby for decades."Harry W. Colmery, Republican National Committee chairman and a former National Commander of the American Legion, is credited with writing the first draft of the G. I. Bill, he jotted down his ideas on stationery and a napkin at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.
C. U. S. Senator Ernest McFarland, AZ, National Commander of the American Legion Warren Atherton, CA were involved in the bill's passage and are known the "fathers of the G. I. Bill." One might term Edith Nourse Rogers, MA, who helped write and who co-sponsored the legislation, as the "mother of the G. I. Bill"; as with Colmery, her contribution to writing and passing this legislation has been obscured by time. The bill that President Roosevelt proposed had a means test—only poor veterans would get one year of funding; the American Legion proposal provided full benefits for all veterans, including women and minorities, regardless of their wealth. An important provision of the G. I. Bill was low interest, zero down payment home loans for servicemen, with more favorable terms for new construction compared to existing housing; this encouraged millions of American families to move out of urban apartments and into suburban homes. Another provision was known as the 52–20 clause for unemployment. Unemployed war veterans would receive $20 once a week for 52 weeks for up to one year while they were looking for work.
Less than 20 percent of the money set aside for the 52–20 Club was distributed. Rather, most returning servicemen found jobs or pursued higher education; the original G. I. Bill ended in 1956. A variety of benefits have been available to military veterans since the original bill, these benefits packages are referred to as updates to the G. I. Bill. A greater percentage of Vietnam veterans used G. I. Bill education benefits than Korean War veterans. Although the G. I. Bill did not advocate discrimination, it was interpreted differently for blacks than for whites. Historian Ira Katznelson argued that "the law was deliberately designed to accommodate Jim Crow"; because the programs were directed by local, white officials, many veterans did not benefit. In the New York and northern New Jersey suburbs 67,000 mortgages were insured by the G. I. Bill, but fewer than 100 were taken out by non-whites. By 1946, only one-fifth of the 100,000 blacks who had applied for educational benefits had registered in college.
Furthermore black colleges an
Harvey Comics was an American comic book publisher, founded in New York City by Alfred Harvey in 1941, after buying out the small publisher Brookwood Publications. His brothers, Robert B. and Leon Harvey, joined shortly after. The company soon got into licensed characters; the artist Warren Kremer is associated with the publisher. Harvey's signature mascot is a harlequin jack-in-the-box character. Harvey Comics was founded by the Harvey brothers; the title's headliners were a patriotic hero like The Shield. Harvey added more anthologies, including Pocket Comics. From the new titles only one would stay around for a while: The Black Cat, a Hollywood starlet-superhero, published into the 1950s. Harvey began a shift to licensed characters when in 1942 took over as the radio hero Green Hornet's publisher from Holyoke after six issues. Harvey added additional titles such. Licensed characters included Joe Palooka, Dick Tracy, other newspaper strip characters; the company became best known for characters it published in comics from 1950s onward those it licensed from the animation company Famous Studios, a unit of Paramount Pictures, starting in 1951.
These include Little Audrey, Casper the Friendly Ghost, Baby Huey, Herman and Katnip. Harvey licensed popular characters from newspaper comic strips, such as Mutt and Jeff and Sad Sack. In addition, Harvey developed such original properties as Little Dot and Little Lotta. While the company tried to diversify the comics it published, with brief forays in the 1950s and 1960s into superhero, horror and other forms in such imprints as Harvey Thriller and Thrill Adventure, children's comics were the bulk of its output. On July 27, 1958, Harvey purchased the October 1950–March 1962 Famous Studio cartoons; the Famous cartoons were repackaged and distributed to television as Harveytoons, Harvey continued production on new comics and a handful of new cartoons produced for television. Casper the Friendly Ghost, Famous' most popular original character, now became Harvey's top draw. Associated characters such as Spooky the Tuff Little Ghost, The Ghostly Trio, Casper's horse Nightmare, Hot Stuff the Little Devil, Wendy the Good Little Witch were added to the Harvey line.
By the early 1980s, Marvel Comics was in negotiations with Harvey Comics to assume publication of some of their characters. Harvey editor Sid Jacobson, along with the other Harvey staff, were interviewed by Mike Hobson, Marvel's group vice-president of publishing; as part of the process, Jacobson created several new characters which were well received by Hobson and sealed the deal. Marvel Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter appointed editor Tom DeFalco as executive editor to coordinate with the Harvey staff, who were hired by Marvel. On the day Marvel was set to take over the Harvey publications, Harvey Comics pulled out of the deal due to an internal disagreement among the two remaining Harvey brothers and Leon. Harvey would cease publishing their comics in 1982. In summer 1984, Steve Geppi paid $50,000 for, among other properties, Harvey's entire archive of original art from the Harvey comic Sad Sack. Geppi made this agreement with Steve Harvey, who at the time was president of Harvey Publications, Inc. as well as president of Sad Sack, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvey Publications, Inc.
In 1985 the Marvel imprint Star Comics published. Harvey sued Star for copyright infringement; the Royal Roy comic ended after the lawsuit was dropped. In 1986, Harvey resumed publication under the leadership of Alan Harvey, focusing on a few core titles and reprints. In 1987, Harvey sued Columbia Pictures, for $50 million, claiming that the Ghostbusters logo used in the 1984 film was too reminiscent of Fatso from the Casper series; the court ruled in Columbia's favor, due to Harvey's failure to renew the copyrights on early Casper stories and the "limited ways to draw a figure of a cartoon ghost". In 1989, Harvey was sold to Jeffrey Montgomery's HMH Communications, located in Santa Monica, California, it was renamed Harvey Comics Entertainment, publishing reprints in the early 1990s as Harvey Classics. In 1993 the company created two imprints, Nemesis Comics and Ultracomics, to publish Ultraman comics, as well as a couple of other titles. In 1994 Marvel took over publishing and distribution for HCE.
In addition, Montgomery himself began selling a package of older cartoons featuring the characters Harvey had purchased from Paramount. To local stations. With Claster Television serving as his distributor, Montgomery launched Casper & Friends in 1990. After the rerun package was pulled in 1994, Carbunkle Cartoons and Film Roman conceived two new animated series for Baby Huey and Richie Rich, with Montgomery as executive producer. During this period, Montgomery sold 20% of the compan
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Entertaining Comics, more known as EC Comics, was an American publisher of comic books, which specialized in horror fiction, crime fiction, military fiction, dark fantasy, science fiction from the 1940s through the mid-1950s, notably the Tales from the Crypt series. EC was owned by Maxwell Gaines and specialized in educational and child-oriented stories. After Max Gaines' death in a boating accident in 1947, his son William Gaines took over the company and began to print more mature stories, delving into genres of horror, fantasy, science-fiction and others. Noted for their high quality and shock endings, these stories were unique in their conscious, progressive themes that anticipated the Civil Rights Movement and dawn of 1960s counterculture. In 1954–55, censorship pressures prompted it to concentrate on the humor magazine Mad, leading to the company's greatest and most enduring success. By 1956, the company ceased publishing all of its comic lines besides Mad; the firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications.
When that company merged with DC Comics in 1944, Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible, began his new company with a plan to market comics about science and the Bible to schools and churches. A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing's proto-comic book Funnies on Parade, with Dell Publishing's Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics, considered by historians the first true American comic book; when Max Gaines died in 1947 in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years in the Army Air Corps, Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University, planning to work as a chemistry teacher, he never instead took over the family business. In 1949 and 1950, Bill Gaines began a line of new titles featuring horror, science fiction, military fiction and crime fiction, his editors, Al Feldstein and Harvey Kurtzman, who drew covers and stories, gave assignments to such prominent and accomplished freelance artists as Johnny Craig, Reed Crandall, Jack Davis, Will Elder, George Evans, Frank Frazetta, Graham Ingels, Jack Kamen, Bernard Krigstein, Joe Orlando, John Severin, Al Williamson, Basil Wolverton, Wally Wood.
With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman and Craig. Other writers including Carl Wessler, Jack Oleck, Otto Binder were brought on board. EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; this was in contrast to the industry's common practice, in which credits were missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack Kirby – Joe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted. EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror and The Haunt of Fear; these titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories' protagonists. The company's war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times.
Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racism, drug use, the American way of life. EC always claimed to be "proudest of our science fiction titles", with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House's Planet Comics. Crime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir; as noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran's 1983 hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a "film noir-ish bag of effects" in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M. Cain. Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hajdu to observe: To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal-- the life that made the Cold War worth fighting-- nothing else in the panels of EC comics, not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings, not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.
Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC's trademark. Gaines would stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking "springboards" for story concepts; the next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story. At EC's peak, Feldstein edited seven titles. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles. Davis and Ingels drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material. With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced; some of EC's more well-known themes include: An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist as poetic justice for a character's crimes. In "Collection Completed" a man takes up taxidermy; when he kills and stuffs her beloved cat
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Seduction of the Innocent
Seduction of the Innocent is a book by American psychiatrist Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a negative form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. The book was taken at the time, was a minor bestseller that created alarm in parents and galvanized them to campaign for censorship. At the same time, a U. S. Congressional inquiry was launched into the comic book industry. Subsequent to the publication of Seduction of the Innocent, the Comics Code Authority was voluntarily established by publishers to self-censor their titles. Seduction of the Innocent cited overt or covert depictions of violence, drug use, other adult fare within "crime comics" – a term Wertham used to describe not only the popular gangster/murder-oriented titles of the time, but superhero and horror comics as well; the book asserted. Comics the crime/horror titles pioneered by EC, were not lacking in gruesome images. Many of his other conjectures about hidden sexual themes, met with derision within the comics industry.
Wertham's claim that Wonder Woman had a bondage subtext was somewhat better documented, as her creator William Moulton Marston had admitted as much. It should be noted that at this time homosexuality was still viewed as a mental disorder by society, it was still classified as such by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Wertham claimed that Superman was both un-American and fascistic. Wertham critiqued the commercial environment of comic book publishing and retailing, objecting to air rifles and knives advertised alongside violent stories. Wertham sympathized with retailers who did not want to sell horror comics, yet were compelled to by their distributors' table d'hôte product line policies. Seduction of the Innocent was illustrated with comic-book panels offered as evidence, each accompanied by a line of Wertham's commentary; the first printing contained a bibliography listing the comic book publishers cited, but fears of lawsuits compelled the publisher to tear the bibliography page from any copies available, so copies with an intact bibliography are rare.
Early complete editions of Seduction of the Innocent sell for high figures among book and comic book collectors. Beginning in 1948, Wertham wrote and spoke arguing about the detrimental effects that comics reading had on young people. Seduction of the Innocent serves as a culminating expression of his sentiments about comics and presents augmented examples and arguments, rather than wholly new material. Wertham's concerns were not limited to comics' impact on boys: He expressed a concern for the effect of impossibly proportioned female characters on girl readers. A. David Lewis writes that Wertham's anxiety over the perceived homosexual subtext of Batman and Robin was aimed at the welfare of a child introduced to that sort of family unit, not on some inherent immorality of homosexuality. Will Brooker points out in Batman Unmasked: Analyzing a Cultural Icon that Wertham's notorious reading of Batman and Robin as a homosexual couple was not of his own invention, but was suggested to him by homosexual males whom he interviewed.
Seduction of the Innocent caught the attention of Senator Estes Kefauver. Kefauver had a reputation as a mob hunter, it was a known fact that the mob had strong connections with the distribution of comics and magazines, he saw Wertham's agenda as a tool he could use against the organized crime within the industry, as a platform from where he could spread his message more efficient, Wertham appeared before the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency. In testimony before the committee, he made claims like how the comic-book industry was more dangerous for children than Hitler was; the hearing was broadcast on television, becoming a new mass medium, made other media join in. It made headlines on the front New York Times' front page. If the government didn't act beyond the hearing, Kefauver lost interest in comics after he was selected as presidential candidate, the public damage was done; the hearing was in April, the same summer 15 publishers went out of business. At EC Comics, Mad magazine was the only surviving title.
The committee's questioning of their next witness, EC publisher William Gaines, focused on violent scenes of the type Wertham had described. Although the committee's final report did not blame comics for crime, it recommended that the comics industry tone down its content voluntarily. Publishers developed the self-censorship Comics Code Authority. According to Carol L. Tilley, Wertham "manipulated, overstated and fabricated evidence" in support of the contentions expressed in Seduction of the Innocent, he misprojected both the sample size and substance of his research, making it out to be more objective and less anecdotal than it was. He did not adhere to standards worthy of scientific research, instead using questionable evidence for his argument that comics were a cultural failure. Wertham used New York City adolescents from troubled backgrounds with previous evidence of behavior disorders as his primary sample population. For instance, he used children at the Lafargue Clinic to argue that comics disturbed young people, but according to a staff member's calculation seventy percent of children under the age of sixteen at the clinic had diagnoses of behavior p