Show Boat (1929 film)
Show Boat is a 1929 American romantic drama film based on the novel Show Boat by Edna Ferber. The film did not use the 1927 stage musical of the same name as a source, but scenes were added into the film incorporating two of the songs from the musical as well as other songs; this version was released by Universal in two editions, one a silent film for movie theatres still not equipped for sound, one a part-talkie with a sound prologue. The film was long believed to be lost, but most of it has been found and released on laserdisc and shown on Turner Classic Movies. A number of sections of the soundtrack were found in the mid-1990s on Vitaphone records, although the film was made with a Movietone soundtrack. Two more records were discovered in 2005; the eighteen-year-old Magnolia meets, falls in love with, elopes with riverboat gambler Gaylord Ravenal. After Captain Andy dies, Magnolia and their daughter Kim leave the boat and go to live in Chicago, where they live off Ravenal's gambling earnings and are alternately rich and poor.
Parthy announces she is coming to visit at a time when Ravenal is broke, fearing her wrath, he abandons Magnolia and Kim, after which Magnolia finds a job singing at a local club and becomes famous. Years Parthy dies, Magnolia, who had long been estranged from her because of her attitude toward Ravenal, returns to the show boat. Magnolia and Ravenal are reunited on the show boat at the end of the film, after Parthy's death, Magnolia gives her own inheritance money to her daughter Kim; the film stars: Laura La Plante as Magnolia Hawks Joseph Schildkraut as Gaylord Ravenal Emily Fitzroy as Parthenia'Parthy' Ann Hawks Otis Harlan as Capt'n Andy Hawks and the Master of Ceremonies in Prologue Alma Rubens as Julie Dozier Jack McDonald as Windy Jane La Verne as Magnolia as a Child/Kim Neely Edwards as Schultzy Elise Bartlett as Elly Stepin Fetchit as Joe Gertrude Howard as Queenie These were the years in which film studios were making a transition from silent films to sound films and this version of Show Boat was made as a silent film.
The studio panicked when they realized that audiences might be expecting a sound version of Show Boat now that sound films had become so popular, the film was temporarily withheld from release. Subsequently, several scenes were reshot to include about thirty minutes of dialogue and singing. At first, the songs recorded. However, Universal began to fear that audiences might instead be expecting, rather than just the Ferber novel, a film version of the stage musical, which had become a smash hit and was still playing on Broadway at the same time that the 1929 film premiered. So, a two-reel sound prologue, featuring original Broadway cast members Helen Morgan, Jules Bledsoe, Tess Gardella and the Jubilee Singers singing five songs from the show, was added, the movie was released both as a part-talkie and as a silent film without the prologue. Otis Harlan, who played Cap'n Andy in the film, served as Master of Ceremonies in the prologue, which featured legendary impresario Florenz Ziegfeld, producer of the stage musical version of Show Boat, Carl Laemmle, the producer of the film, as themselves.
In the actual storyline of the film, Laura la Plante, with a dubbed singing voice, performs five songs, two of them from the stage musical - "Ol' Man River", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man". Both of these songs were sung in circumstances different from any version of the musical; the other songs that Ms. La Plante sang in the film were traditional spirituals such as "I Got Shoes" and "Deep River", as well as a coon song of the early 1900s entitled "Coon, Coon", her singing voice was dubbed by soprano Eva Olivetti. It was long believed that an new score was written by Billy Rose for the film, but according to Miles Kreuger in his book Show Boat: The Story of a Classic American Musical, this turns out to not be true. Rose wrote only one new song for the film, the Broadway score was not dropped because of any suggestion by him, as is claimed; the singing voice of Stepin Fetchit, who played Joe in the film, was provided by Jules Bledsoe, the original Joe of the 1927 stage production of the musical. Fetchit mouthed the lyrics to a popular song of the time entitled "The Lonesome Road", which, as sung on the soundtrack by Bledsoe, served as the film's finale instead of a final reprise of Ol' Man River, as in the show.
The entire stage score, except for Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man, Bill, Ol' Man River, as well as the little-known songs C'mon Folks! and Hey Feller!, were replaced in the 1929 film by several spirituals and popular songs written by other songwriters, because of this, the movie was not a success. Most of the songs taken from the stage version were heard only in the prologue and in the film's exit music, not the film itself, it is though, that the fact that it was a part-talkie may have played a part in its failure. The then-recent 1929 film version of The Desert Song, an all-sound film literally faithful to the stage musical of the same name, had been a huge success, audiences were no longer willing to accept part-talking musical films. Several of the extant parts of the 1929 Show Boat have been combined and shown on Turner Classic Movies. Fragments of the prologue not included in the TCM showings - both sound and picture - were shown as part of the A&E's biography of Florenz Ziegfeld, have turned up on YouTube.
However, in the TCM version, the visual print of the Prologue sequence has been replaced with an "Overture" card. Show Boat at the American Film Institut
Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass; the best Foley art is so well integrated into a film. It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally uncomfortable. Foley artists recreate; the props and sets of a film do not react the same way acoustically as their real life counterparts. Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of the movie. Foley can be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the set of a movie during filming, such as overflying airplanes or passing traffic; the term "Foley" means a place, such as Foley-stage or Foley-studio, where the Foley process takes place. What is now called Foley originated as adding sounds added to live broadcasts of radio drama from radio studios around the world in the early 1920s.
Phonograph recordings of the era were not of sufficient quality or flexibility to faithfully reproduce most sound effects on cue, so a sound effects person had to create all sounds for radio plays live. Jack Donovan Foley started working with Universal Studios in 1914 during the silent movie era; when Warner studios released The Jazz Singer, its first film to include sound, Universal knew it needed to stay competitive and called for any employees who had radio experience to come forward. Foley became part of the sound crew that turned Universal's then-upcoming "silent" musical Show Boat into a musical; because microphones of the time could not pick up more than dialogue, other sounds had to be added in after the film was shot. Foley and his small crew projected the film on a screen while recording a single track of audio that captured their live sound effects, their timing had to be perfect, so that footsteps and closing doors synchronized with the actors' motions in the film. Jack Foley created sounds for films until his death in 1967.
His basic methods are still used today. Modern Foley art has progressed. Today, sounds do not have to be recorded live on a single track of audio, they can be captured separately on individual tracks and synchronized with their visual counterpart. Foley studios employ hundreds of props and digital effects to recreate the ambient sounds of their films. Foley complements or replaces sound recorded on set at the time of the filming, known as field recording; the soundscape of most films uses a combination of both. A Foley artist is the person. Foley artists use creativity to make viewers believe that the sound effects are real; the viewers should not be able to realize that the sound was not part of the filming process itself. Foley sounds are added to the film in post production; the need for replacing or enhancing sounds in a film production arises from the fact that often, the original sounds captured during shooting are obstructed by noise or are not convincing enough to underscore the visual effect or action.
For example, fist-fighting scenes in an action movie are staged by the stunt actors and therefore do not have the actual sounds of blows landing. Crashes and explosions are added or enhanced at the post-production stage; the desired effect is to add back to the original soundtrack the sounds that were excluded during recording. By excluding these sounds during field recording, adding them back into the soundtrack during post-production, the editors have complete control over how each noise sounds, its quality, the relative volume. Foley effects add realism to the audio quality for multimedia sources. Foley artists review the film as it runs to figure out what sounds they need to achieve the desired sound and results. Once they gather the material and prepare for use, they practice the sounds; when they accomplish the desired sound, they watch the film and add in the sound effects at the same time. This is similar to the way actors re-record dialogue, lip-syncing to the film image. Scenes where dialogue is replaced using dubbing feature Foley sounds.
Automatic dialogue replacement is the process. This is done by a machine that runs the voice sounds with the film forward and backward to get the sound to run with the film; the objective of the ADR technique is to add sound effects into the film after filming, so the voice sounds are synchronized. Many sounds are not added at the time of filming, microphones might not capture a sound the way the audience expects to hear it; the need for Foley rose when studios began to distribute films internationally, dubbed in other languages. As dialogue is replaced, all sound effects recorded at the time of the dialogue are lost as well. Foley is created by the sound artist mimicking the actual sound source in a recording studio. There are many little sound effects that happen within any given scene of a movie; the process of recording them all can be time-consuming. Foley art can be broken down into three main categories — feet and specifics; the category entails the sound of footsteps. To make the sound of walking down a staircase, Foley artists stomp their feet on a marble slab while watching the footage.
Foley studios carry many different types of shoes and several different types of floors to create footstep sounds. These floors, known as Foley Pits, vary from marble squares to rock pits. Creating just the right sound of footsteps can enhance
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
A humorist is an intellectual who uses humor in writing or public speaking. Humorists are distinct from comedians, who are show business entertainers whose business is to make an audience laugh, though some persons have occupied both roles in the course of their careers. Mark Twain was called the "greatest humorist this country has produced" in his New York Times obituary, William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature"; the United States national cultural center, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, has chosen to award a Mark Twain Prize for American Humor annually since 1998 to individuals who have "had an impact on American society in ways similar to the distinguished 19th century novelist and essayist best known as Mark Twain". Humor is the quality which makes experiences provoke laughter or amusement, while comedy is a performing art; the nineteenth century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humor to mean any type of comedy. A humorist is adept at seeing the humor in a situation or aspect of life and relating it through a story.
The humorist is a writer of books, newspaper or magazine articles or columns, stage or screen plays, may appear before an audience to deliver a lecture or read a piece of his or her work. The comedian always performs his or her work for an audience, either in live performance, audio recording, television, or film. According to Study.com, a humorist job requires a bachelor's degree, according to US Bureau of Labor statistics, earns a 2016 median salary of US$29.44. This is compared to the comedian, which requires a high school diploma and earns a median salary of $17.34. Phil Austin, of the comedy group the Firesign Theatre, expressed his thoughts about the difference in 1993 liner notes to the Fighting Clowns allbum: Clowns was the key word because clowning was what I thought had become our collective fate. I had once entertained higher ambitions for us, needless to say, although clowning is a wonderful thing, unless you are a clown in which case it's a job. To me, there is a great difference between a humorist and a clown, I had hoped that life for the Firesign Theatre would have led more toward the world of Mark Twain than the world of Beepo.
The humorist is a happy soul. He has time to think. Beepo, on the other hand, takes his chances directly facing—or mooning—the audience. Despite the name, conference of the Kennedy Center's Mark Twain Prize does not make the awardee a humorist; as of 2018, the center has chosen to confer the prize on one playwright. Renowned polymath Benjamin Franklin, as a newspaper editor and printer, became one of America's first humorists, most famously for Poor Richard's Almanack published under the pen name "Richard Saunders". Ring Lardner was a sports columnist and short story writer best known for his satirical writings about sports and the theatre. Robert Benchley, best known for his work as a newspaper columnist and film actor, began writing humorously for The Harvard Lampoon while attending Harvard University, for many years wrote essays and articles for Vanity Fair and The New Yorker. H. L. Menken was a journalist, cultural critic and scholar of American English. Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the 20th century.
He commented on the social scene, music, prominent politicians and contemporary movements. He is known for dubbing the Scopes trial "the Monkey Trial". James Thurber was a cartoonist, journalist and celebrated wit, best known for his cartoons and short stories published in The New Yorker. Bennett Cerf was one of the founders of the publishing firm Random House, known for his own compilations of jokes and puns, for regular personal appearances lecturing across the United States, for his television appearances on the panel game show What's My Line? Art Buchwald wrote a political satire op-ed column for The Washington Post, nationally syndicated in many newspapers. Garrison Keilor is an author, voice actor, radio personality, best known as the creator and host of the Minnesota Public Radio show A Prairie Home Companion from 1974 to 2016, he created the setting of many of his books. He voiced the hardboiled detective parody character Guy Noir on his radio show. Oscar Wilde was an Irish playwright known for his biting wit.
Jerome K. Jerome was an English writer and humorist, best known for the comic travelogue Three Men in a Boat. P. G. Wodehouse was one of the most read humorists of the 20th century. Tom Sharpe was a satirical novelist, best known for his Wilt series, as well as Porterhouse Blue and Blott on the Landscape. Alan Coren could be considered the English equivalent of Bennett Cerf: a writer and satirist, well known as a regular panelist on the BBC radio quiz The News Quiz and a team captain on BBC television
Spartacus is a 1960 American epic historical drama film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Dalton Trumbo, based on the novel of the same title by Howard Fast. It is inspired by the life story of Spartacus, the leader of a slave revolt in antiquity, the events of the Third Servile War, stars Kirk Douglas in the title role, Laurence Olivier as Roman general and politician Marcus Licinius Crassus, Peter Ustinov, who won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, as slave trader Lentulus Batiatus, John Gavin as Julius Caesar, Jean Simmons as Varinia, Charles Laughton as Sempronius Gracchus, Tony Curtis as Antoninus. Douglas, whose company Bryna Productions was producing the film, removed original director Anthony Mann after the first week of shooting. Kubrick, with whom Douglas had worked before, was brought on board to take over direction, it was the only film directed by Kubrick. Screenwriter Dalton Trumbo was blacklisted at the time as one of the Hollywood Ten. Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus, President-elect John F. Kennedy crossed American Legion picket lines to view the film, helping to end blacklisting.
The film won four Academy Awards and became the biggest moneymaker in Universal Studios' history, until it was surpassed by Airport. In 2017, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In the 1st century BC, the Roman Republic has slid into corruption, its menial work done by armies of slaves. One of these, a proud and gifted Thracian named Spartacus, is so uncooperative in his position in a mining pit that he is sentenced to death by starvation. By chance, he is displayed to unctuous Roman businessman Lentulus Batiatus, who - impressed by his ferocity - purchases Spartacus for his gladiatorial school, where he instructs trainer Marcellus to not overdo his indoctrination because he thinks "he has quality". Amid the abuse, Spartacus forms a quiet relationship with a serving woman named Varinia, whom he refuses to rape when she is sent to "entertain" him in his cell. Spartacus and Varinia are subsequently forced to endure numerous humiliations for defying the conditions of servitude.
Batiatus receives a visit from the immensely wealthy Roman senator Marcus Licinius Crassus, who aims to become dictator of the stagnant republic. Crassus buys Varinia on a whim, for the amusement of his companions arranges for Spartacus and three others to fight in pairs; when Spartacus is disarmed, his opponent, an African named Draba, spares his life in a burst of defiance and attacks the Roman audience, but is killed by an arena guard and Crassus. The next day, with the ludus' atmosphere still tense over this episode, Batiatus takes Varinia away to Crassus's house in Rome. Spartacus kills Marcellus, taunting him over his affections, their fight escalates into a riot; the gladiators overwhelm their guards and escape into the Italian countryside. Spartacus is elected chief of the fugitives and decides to lead them out of Italy and back to their homes, they plunder Roman country estates as they go, collecting enough money to buy sea transport from Rome's foes, the pirates of Cilicia. Countless other slaves join the group.
One of the new arrivals is Varinia. Another is a slave entertainer named Antoninus, who fled Crassus's service. Spartacus feels mentally inadequate because of his lack of education during years of servitude. However, he proves an excellent leader and organizes his diverse followers into a tough and self-sufficient community. Varinia, now his informal wife, becomes pregnant by him, he comes to regard the spirited Antoninus as a sort of son; the Roman Senate becomes alarmed as Spartacus defeats the multiple armies it sends against him. Crassus's populist opponent Gracchus knows that his rival will try to use the crisis as a justification for seizing control of the Roman army. To try and prevent this, Gracchus channels as much military power as possible into the hands of his own protege, a young senator named Julius Caesar. Although Caesar lacks Crassus's contempt for the lower classes of Rome, he mistakes the man's rigid outlook for nobility. Thus, when Gracchus reveals that he has bribed the Cilicians to get Spartacus out of Italy and rid Rome of the slave army, Caesar regards such tactics as beneath him and goes over to Crassus.
Crassus uses a bribe of his own to make the pirates abandon Spartacus and has the Roman army secretly force the rebels away from the coastline towards Rome. Amid panic that Spartacus means to sack the city, the Senate gives Crassus absolute power. Now surrounded by Romans, Spartacus convinces his men to die fighting. Just by rebelling and proving themselves human, he says that they have struck a blow against slavery. In the ensuing battle, after breaking the ranks of Crassus's legions, the slave army ends up trapped between Crassus and two other forces advancing from behind, most of them are massacred. Afterward, the Romans try to locate the rebel leader for special punishment by offering a pardon if the men will identify Spartacus, living or dead; every surviving man responds by shouting "I'm Spartacus!". As a result, Crassus has them all sentenced to death by crucifixion along the Via Appia between Rome and Capua, where the revolt began. Meanwhile, Crassus has found Varinia and Sp
A sound effect is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, video games, music, or other media. These are created with foley. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music; the term refers to a process applied to a recording, without referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects are called "sound effects"; the term sound effect ranges back to the early days of radio. In its Year Book 1931 the BBC published a major article about "The Use of Sound Effects", it considers sounds effect linked with broadcasting and states: "It would be a great mistake to think of them as anologous to punctuation marks and accents in print.
They should never be inserted into a programme existing. The author of a broadcast play or broadcast construction ought to have used Sound Effects as bricks with which to build, treating them as of equal value with speech and music." It lists six "totally different primary genres of Sound Effect": Realistic, confirmatory effect Realistic, evocative effect Symbolic, evocative effect Conventionalised effect Impressionistic effect Music as an effectAccording to the author, "It is axiomatic that every Sound Effect, to whatever category it belongs, must register in the listener's mind instantaneously. If it fails to do so its presence could not be justified." In the context of motion pictures and television, sound effects refers to an entire hierarchy of sound elements, whose production encompasses many different disciplines, including: Hard sound effects are common sounds that appear on screen, such as door alarms, weapons firing, cars driving by. Background sound effects are sounds that do not explicitly synchronize with the picture, but indicate setting to the audience, such as forest sounds, the buzzing of fluorescent lights, car interiors.
The sound of people talking in the background is considered a "BG," but only if the speaker is unintelligible and the language is unrecognizable. These background noises are called ambience or atmos. Foley sound effects are sounds that synchronize on screen, require the expertise of a foley artist to record properly. Footsteps, the movement of hand props, the rustling of cloth are common foley units. Design sound effects are sounds that do not occur in nature, or are impossible to record in nature; these sounds are used to suggest futuristic technology in a science fiction film, or are used in a musical fashion to create an emotional mood. Each of these sound effect categories is specialized, with sound editors known as specialists in an area of sound effects. Foley is another method of adding sound effects. Foley is more of a technique for creating sound effects than a type of sound effect, but it is used for creating the incidental real world sounds that are specific to what is going on onscreen, such as footsteps.
With this technique the action onscreen is recreated to try to match it as as possible. If done it is hard for audiences to tell what sounds were added and what sounds were recorded. In the early days of film and radio, foley artists would add sounds in realtime or pre-recorded sound effects would be played back from analogue discs in realtime. Today, with effects held in digital format, it is easy to create any required sequence to be played in any desired timeline. In the days of silent film, sound effects were added by the operator of a theater organ or photoplayer, both of which supplied the soundtrack of the film. Theater organ sound effects are electric or electro-pneumatic, activated by a button pressed with the hand or foot. Photoplayer operators activate sound effects either by flipping switches on the machine or pulling "cow-tail" pull-strings, which hang above. Sounds like bells and drums are made mechanically and horns electronically. Due to its smaller size, a photoplayer has less special effects than a theater organ, or less complex ones.
The principles involved with modern video game sound effects are the same as those of motion pictures. A game project requires two jobs to be completed: sounds must be recorded or selected from a library and a sound engine must be programmed so that those sounds can be incorporated into the game's interactive environment. In earlier computers and video game systems, sound effects were produced using sound synthesis. In modern systems, the increases in storage capacity and playback quality has allowed sampled sound to be used; the modern systems frequently utilize positional audio with hardware acceleration, real-time audio post-processing, which can be tied to the 3D graphics development. Based on the internal state of the game, multiple different calculations can be made; this will allow for, for example, realistic sound dampening and doppler effect. The simplicity of game environments reduced the required number of sounds needed, thus only one or two people were directly responsible for the sound recording and design.
As the video game business has grown and computer sound reproductio
Operation Petticoat is a 1959 American World War II submarine comedy film in Eastmancolor from Universal-International, produced by Robert Arthur, directed by Blake Edwards, that stars Cary Grant and Tony Curtis. The film tells in flashback the misadventures of the fictional U. S. Navy submarine, USS Sea Tiger, during the opening days of the United States involvement in World War II; some elements of the screenplay were taken from actual incidents that happened with some of the Pacific Fleet's submarines during the war. Other members of the cast include several actors who went on to become television stars in the 1960s and 1970s: Gavin MacLeod of The Love Boat and McHale's Navy, Marion Ross of Happy Days, Dick Sargent of Bewitched. Paul King, Joseph Stone, Stanley Shapiro, Maurice Richlin were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Writing for their work on Operation Petticoat; the film was the basis for a TV series in 1977 starring John Astin in Grant's role. In 1959, U. S. Navy Rear Admiral Matt Sherman, ComSubPac, boards the obsolete submarine USS Sea Tiger, prior to her departure for the scrapyard.
Sherman, a plankowner and her first commanding officer, begins reading his wartime personal logbook, recalling earlier events. On December 10, 1941, a Japanese air raid sinks Sea Tiger while docked at the Cavite Navy Yard in the Philippines. Lieutenant Commander Sherman and his crew begin repairs, hoping to sail for Darwin, Australia before the Japanese overrun the port. Believing there is no chance of repairing the submarine, the squadron commodore transfers most of Sherman's crew to other boats, but promises Sherman that he will have first call on any available replacements. Lieutenant Nick Holden, an admiral's aide, is reassigned to Sea Tiger despite lacking any submarine training or experience. Holden demonstrates great skill as a scrounger, he teams up with Marine Sergeant Ramon Gallardo, an escaped prisoner, to obtain materials needed for repairs, persuading the captain to sign on Ramon as the ship's cook. What Holden and his men cannot acquire from base warehouses, they "midnight requisition" from various military and civilian sources.
Refloated and restored to seaworthy condition, with only one of her four diesel engines operable, Sea Tiger puts to sea after a native Witch Doctor performs a protection spell for the voyage. Chief Motor Machinist Mate Tostin had confided to Sherman that they've got No. 1 engine, he'll answer for No. 2 when it is back together, that he has been stripping parts from Nos. 3 and 4 to get Nos. 1 and 2 going. No. 1 is prone to backfiring and belching smoke. Sea Tiger reaches Marinduque, where Sherman reluctantly agrees to evacuate five stranded female Army nurses. Holden is attracted to Second Lieutenant Barbara Duran, while Sherman has a series of embarrassing encounters with the well-endowed and clumsy Second Lieutenant Dolores Crandall; when Sherman prepares to attack an enemy oiler moored to a pier, Crandall accidentally hits the "fire" button before the Torpedo Data Computer has transmitted all the settings to the torpedo. It misses the tanker and instead "sinks" a truck ashore. Sea Tiger flees amidst a hail of shellfire.
Sherman tries to put the nurses ashore at Cebu, but the Army refuses to accept them, as the Japanese are closing in. Unable to obtain needed supplies from official sources, Sherman allows Holden to set up a casino in order to acquire them from the soldiers who have taken everything useful into the hills for resistance use. Chief Torpedoman Molumphry has been asking for paint. Holden manages to get some red and white lead primer paint, but does not have enough of either to prime the entire hull; the two are mixed together. A Japanese air raid forces a hasty departure. Tokyo Rose mocks the mysterious pink submarine, while the U. S. Navy believes it to be a Japanese deception. An American destroyer spots Sea Tiger and opens fire launches depth charges when the submarine crash dives. Sherman tries an oil slick and launches blankets and life jackets, but the deception fails. At Holden's suggestion, Sherman ejects the nurses' lingerie. Crandall's bra convinces the destroyer's captain that "the Japanese have nothing like this", he ceases fire.
Sea Tiger, still painted pink, arrives at Darwin battered but under her own power. Sherman's reminiscence ends with the arrival of Sea Tiger's Commanding Officer, Commander Nick Holden, his wife, their sons. Sherman promises Holden command of a new nuclear-powered submarine, named Sea Tiger. Sherman's wife arrives late with their daughters and rear-ends her husband's staff car, causing it to lock bumpers with a Navy bus; when it drives away, dragging his car with it, Sherman reassures his wife that it will be stopped at the main gate. Commander Holden takes Sea Tiger out, her final departure is punctuated by a backfire and belch of smoke from the No. 1 diesel engine, still troublesome after all these years. Curtis took credit for the inception of Operation Petticoat, he had joined the U. S. Navy during World War II with the intent of entering the submarine service in part because his hero, Cary Grant, had appeared in Destination Tokyo. After he became a star, Curtis suggested making a film in which Grant would stare into a periscope as he did in Destination Tokyo.
Curtis much enjoyed working with Grant. Former Universal-International contract star Jeff Chandler wa