BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
American Academy in Berlin
The American Academy in Berlin is a research and cultural institution in Berlin whose stated mission is to foster a greater understanding and dialogue between the people of the United States and the people of Germany. The American Academy was founded in September 1994 by a group of prominent Americans and Germans, among them Richard Holbrooke, Henry Kissinger, Richard von Weizsäcker, Fritz Stern, Otto Graf Lambsdorff, it opened in 1998. The organization is funded by private donations, with support coming from individuals as well as corporations and foundations on both sides of the Atlantic; the German weekly magazine Der Spiegel has called the Academy “the world's most important center for American intellectual life outside the US.”The American Academy in Berlin is located in the Hans Arnhold Center in a villa on the shores of the Wannsee, a lake within the identically-named district in the southwestern part of Berlin. It was the home of banker and cultural leader Hans Arnhold and his family before they were forced to emigrate to the United States in the 1930s.
It was appropriated and occupied by Walther Funk, the Minister of Economics of the Third Reich and president of the Reichsbank. After the Arnhold family regained ownership, the villa was sold to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1958. Being located in the American Zone of occupation after World War II, it was used as a recreation center by the U. S. Army and as a meeting center for political officials and Americans until after the fall of the Berlin Wall; the American Academy in Berlin maintains an office in New York City. Its current president is Terry McCarthy; the American Academy in Berlin awards the Berlin Prize Fellowship to Americans in the fields of arts, humanities, economics and composition. 12 fellows are in residence at the Hans Arnhold Center for one academic semester. The Berlin Prize includes a monthly stipend, partial board, residence at the Academy’s Hans Arnhold Center. In addition, the organization hosts short-term visiting Americans from a variety of disciplines and professions.
Past Distinguished Visitors include Paul Krugman, James Wolfensohn, Tom Daschle, Samuel Nunn, Justice Stephen Breyer. 2015: Evgeny Morozov 2015: Jeffrey Goldberg 2014: Jonathan Lethem 2014: Beatriz Colomina 2013: Andrew J. Nathan 2012 and 2013: Béatrice Longuenesse 2011: Adam Haslett 2011: Susan McCabe 2010: Anne Hull 2009: George Packer 2008: Ha Jin Since 2007 the Henry A. Kissinger Prize has been awarded annually to a European or American who has made a lasting contribution to bettering the transatlantic relationship. Previous recipients of the prize are former German chancellor Helmut Schmidt; the American Academy's house magazine, The Berlin Journal, contains a range of articles, opinion pieces, fiction and poetry by fellows and distinguished visitors. The Richard C. Holbrooke Forum brings together international scholars, policy experts, government officials in a series of workshops to discuss some of the most intractable problems in modern diplomacy, its core themes are: Values. American Academy in Rome Official website "American Academy in Berlin", Charity Navigator
In political science, a revolution is a fundamental and sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolts against the government due to perceived oppression or political incompetence. In book V of the Politics, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle described two types of political revolution: Complete change from one constitution to another Modification of an existing constitution. Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary in terms of methods and motivating ideology, their results include major changes in culture and socio-political institutions in response to perceived overwhelming autocracy or plutocracy. Scholarly debates about what does not constitute a revolution center on several issues. Early studies of revolutions analyzed events in European history from a psychological perspective, but more modern examinations include global events and incorporate perspectives from several social sciences, including sociology and political science.
Several generations of scholarly thought on revolutions have generated many competing theories and contributed much to the current understanding of this complex phenomenon. Notable revolutions during centuries include the creation of the United States through the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolution, the 1848 European Revolutions, the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Chinese Revolution of the 1940s, the Cuban Revolution in 1959; the word "revolucion" is known in French from the 13th century, "revolution" in English by the late fourteenth century, with regard to the revolving motion of celestial bodies. "Revolution" in the sense of representing abrupt change in a social order is attested by at least 1450. Political usage of the term had been well established by 1688 in the description of the replacement of James II with William III; this incident was termed the "Glorious Revolution". There are many different typologies of revolutions in social literature. Alexis de Tocqueville differentiated between.
One of several different Marxist typologies divides revolutions into. Mark Katz identified six forms of revolution. Revolution by osmosis, e.g. the gradual Islamization of several countries. These categories are not mutually exclusive. Katz cross-classified revolutions as follows. Aspiring revolutions, which follow the Central revolution subordinate or puppet revolutions rival revolutions, e.g. communist Yugoslavia, China after 1969A further dimension to Katz's typology is that revolutions are either against or for. In the latter cases, a transition period is necessary to decide on the direction taken. Other types of revolution, created for other typologies, include the social revolutions; the term revolution has been used to denote great changes outside the political sphere. Such revolutions are recognized as having transformed in society, culture and technology much more than political systems; some can be global. One of the classic examples of the usage of the word revolution in such context is the Industrial Revolution, or the Commercial Revolution.
Note that such revolutions fit the "slow revolution" definition of Tocqueville. A similar example is the Digital Revolution. Most the word "revolution" is employed to denote a change in social and political institutions. Jeff Goodwin gives two definitions of a revolution. First, a broad one, including any and all instances in which a state or a political regime is overthrown and thereby transformed by a popular movement in an irregular, extraconstitutional and/or violent fashion. Second, a narrow one, in which revolutions entail not only mass mobilization and regime change, but more or less rapid and fundamental social, economic and/or cultural change, during or soon after the struggle for state power. Jack Goldstone defines a revolution as an effort to transform the political institutions and the justifications for political authority in society, accompanied by formal or informal mass
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academies of Sciences and Medicine is the collective scientific national academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations, and as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council. The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS. Now jointly governed by all three academies, it produces some 200 publications annually which are published by the National Academies Press; the US National Academy of Sciences was created by an Act of Incorporation dated March 3, 1863, signed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln The Act stated that "... the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, examine and report upon any subject of science or art.... " With the American civil war raging, the new Academy was presented with few problems to solve, but it did address matters of "... coinage and measures, iron ship hulls, the purity of whiskey..."
All subsequently affiliated organizations have been created under this same overall congressional charter, including the two younger academies, National Academy of Engineering and NAM. Under this same charter, the National Research Council was created in 1916. On June 19 of that year US President Woodrow Wilson requested that the National Academy of Sciences organize a "National Research Council"; the purpose of the Council was in part to foster and encourage "the increased use of scientific research in the development of American industries... the employment of scientific methods in strengthening the national defense... and such other applications of science as will promote the national security and welfare."At the time, the Academy's effort to support national defense readiness, the Committee on Nitric Acid Supply, was approved by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Nitric acid was the substance basic in the making of propellants such as cordite, high explosives, dyes and other products but availability was limited due to World War I.
The NRC, through its committee, recommended importing Chilean saltpeter and the construction of four new ordinance plants. These recommendations were accepted by the War Department in June 1917, although the plants were not completed prior to the end of the war. In 1918, Wilson formalized the NRC's existence under Executive Order 2859. Wilson's order declared the function of the NRC to be in general: "o stimulate research in the mathematical. Physical, biological sciences, and in the application of these sciences to engineering, agriculture. Medicine, and other useful arts. With the object of increasing knowledge, of strengthening the national defense, of contributing in other ways to the public welfare."During World War I, the United States was at war, the NRC operated as the Department of Science and Research of the Council of National Defense as well as the Science and Research Division of the United States Army Signal Corps. When war was first declared, the Council had organized committees on gas warfare.
On June 1, 1917, the council convened a meeting of scientific representatives of the United Kingdom and France with interested parties from the U. S. on the subject of submarine detection. Another meeting with the British and French was held in Paris in October 1918, at which more details of their work was disclosed; as a result of these meetings, the NRC recommended that scientists be brought together to work on the problems associated with submarine detection. Due to the success of council-directed research in producing a sound-based method of detecting submarines, as well as other military innovations, the NRC was retained at the end of the war, though it was decoupled from the military. NRC's Articles of Organization have been changed only three times: in 1956, January 1993, July 2015; the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Medicine are honorary membership organizations, each of which has its own governing Council, each of which elects its own new members.
The membership of the three academies totals more than 6,300 scientists and health professionals. New members for each organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. By the terms of the original 1863 Congressional charter, the three academies serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science and medicine." The program units known as the National Research Council, are collectively the operating arm of the three academies for the purpose of providing objective policy advice. Although separately chartered, it falls under the overall charter of the National Academy of Sciences, whose ultimate fiduciary body is the NAS Council. In actual practice, the NAS Council delegates governing authority to a Governing Board of the National Research Council, chaired jointly by the presidents of the three academies, with additional members chosen by them or specified in the charters of the academies. Under this three-academy umbrella, the program units produce reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, advance the pursuit of science and medicine.
There are seven major divisions: Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Division of E
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology is a public research university in Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong. Founded in 1991, it is the territory's third institution being granted university status along with establishment. HKUST is regarded as one of the fastest growing universities in the world; as of 2019, the university was ranked seventh in Asia by QS and fifth by Times, around top 40 internationally. It ranked first in Times Higher Education Young University Rankings in 2018 and second by QS world's under-50 universities in 2019. Today, the university consists of four main academic schools, offering programs in science, engineering and management, humanities and social science, along with the Interdisciplinary Programs Office, Fok Ying Tung Graduate School and Institute for Public Policy. In the late 1980s the Hong Kong Government anticipated a strong demand for university graduates to fuel an economy based on services. Sir Sze-Yuen Chung and Sir Edward Youde, the Governor of Hong Kong, conceived the idea of another university in addition to the pre-existing two universities, The University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Planning for the "Third University", named The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology began in 1986. Construction began at the Kohima Camp site in Tai Po Tsai on the Clear Water Bay Peninsula; the site was earmarked for the construction of a new British Army garrison, but plans for the construction of the garrison were shelved after the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed in 1984. Scheduled to finish in 1994, the death of Sir Edward in 1986 led to increased effort and allowed UST to open its doors early – in 1991. Several leading scientists and researchers took up positions at the new university in its early years, including physicist Leroy Chang who arrived in 1993 as Dean of Science and went on to become Vice-President for Academic Affairs. Thomas E. Stelson was a founding member of the administration; the project was criticised for surpassing the budget set forth by the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. However, under the fund-raising efforts of its President, Woo Chia-wei, the first students enrolled in October 1991.
By 1992, accommodation and athletic facilities were expanded to support about 7,000 students. Several more expansion projects such as the construction of the Hong Kong Jockey Club Enterprise Center have since been completed; the library extension building, Lee Shau Kee Business Building, Lo Ka Chung Building, South Bus Station, Undergraduate Halls VIII and IX, Cheng Yu Tung Building and the Conference Lodge, are the latest additions to the campus. Established in 1991 under Chapter 1141 of the Laws of Hong Kong, HKUST is one of the eight statutory universities in Hong Kong, it is an institution funded by the University Grants Committee. As with all other statutory universities in Hong Kong, the Chief Executive of HKSAR acts as the Chancellor of HKUST. Prior to the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, this was a ceremonial title bestowed upon the Governor of Hong Kong; the supreme governing body of the university is its Council, formed by a total of 27 members. Council members include university administrators, the chairperson of the alumni Convocation, an elected staff member, an elected full-time student representative, as well as 17 "lay members" not being employees or students at the university.
Under the HKUST Ordinance, The Chief Executive of HKSAR possesses the power of directly appointing the chairman and vice-chairman of the Council, the Treasurer of the University, not more than 9 of the lay members. The Senate acts as the university's supreme academic body, responsible for making and reviewing the academic policies of the university, it is composed of academic staff members but includes the Students' Union president, an elected representative of the undergraduates as well as an elected representative of the postgraduates. Being the supreme advisory body of the university, the Court is responsible for promoting the university's interests and to raise funds; the university is a campus university, occupying a 60-hectare site at the northern part of Clear Water Bay Peninsula in Sai Kung District, New Territories, Hong Kong, overlooking Port Shelter in Tai Po Tsai. The campus layout and architecture is based on a master plan submitted jointly by Simon Kwan & Associates and Percy Thomas Partnership, the runner-up entry in an architectural competition held before the university was founded.
As the campus has a sloped terrain and facilities are built on separate terraces carved out of the hillside, with the academic facilities occupying the top-level terraces, undergraduate halls of residence and sporting facilities at the seafront. The terraces are connected by motor roads as well as a network of footbridges and elevators known as Bridge Link; the countryside setting of the university contributed to the fact that HKUST was once the only public university in Hong Kong not being directly served by an MTR station, prior to the re-titling of the Education University of Hong Kong. The university is connected to the metro network through public bus routes including 91, 91M and 792M, complemented by a handful of minibus services, with Choi Hung and Hang Hau stations being the major feeder points. Academic activities are conducted in the Academic Building, which contains 10 lecture theatres, a multitude of classrooms and administrative offices; the lecture theatres can offer audiovisual equipment.
In addition, an information center and a souvenir shop can be found at the Piazza. Prior to 2013, offices a