United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Lochgelly is a town in Fife, Scotland. It is located between Lochs Gelly to the north-west and south-east respectively, it is separated from Cowdenbeath by the village of Lumphinnans. According to the 2007 population estimate, the town has a population of 6,834. From the 1830s until the 1960s Lochgelly was a mining town. With the industry now dead the town has slipped into economic and social deprivation as with other former mining towns. Lochgelly is now classed as a town in need of both social and economical regeneration and has the cheapest average home price in Britain. Lochgelly, as part of the old parliamentary constituency of West Fife, was known as "Little Moscow" up to the 1950s owing to its Communist political leanings. An area of Lochgelly was known as the Happy Lands and is referenced in the Scottish folk song'The Kelty Clippie'; the town is served by Lochgelly railway station on the line between Markinch. In the 1970s new investment was brought in the form of a factory and development office built by the Andrew Corporation.
This created microwave antennae under the banner of Andrew Antennas, symbolised by a red lightning flash on the dishes they made. These dishes were for commercial and military usage; the firm located at the end of "The Avenue" on the south-east side of the village. Adjoining fields were used for testing new equipment. Lochgelly is the home of the most reputed firm that produced tawses, John Dick, was hence a synonym for that Scottish device for corporal punishment; the town derives its name from the nearby body of Loch Gelly. The name comes from the Gaelic Loch Gheallaidh which, loosely translated, means ‘Shining Waters’ or ‘Loch of Brightness’. Land around the loch is owned by Wemyss 1952 Trustees; the loch was once a popular spot for the local community and was used on a regular basis for water skiing up until the early 90s. Since the loch has not been used for water sports. Lochgelly used to be served in the entertainment sector by the Lochgelly Centre, which had a 424-seat theatre, ideal for community theatre groups, dance groups and music events.
The Lochgelly Centre closed in 2010 for remodelling/refurbishment work, leaving Lochgelly without any access to children's facilities, elderly facilities, community access to various events and classes. The centre re-opened in 2012 and now boasts a range of refurbished and new facilities including the New Jennie-Lee library; the centre runs many classes and boasts an impressive theatre for a small town, on which a variety of artists, plays, musical and drama productions appear. The town is entertained by Lochgelly Town Hall, now establishing itself as a venue for live music. Rubber Stamp Promotions hold regular events at the venue, with bands such as The Vivians and Sergeant playing there in 2009. Lochgelly is home to the junior football club Lochgelly Albert. Former clubs include Lochgelly United who played in the senior leagues between 1890 and 1928 and Lochgelly Violet. There is quarter mile oval racing track just outside the town known as Thunder Valley Raceway; the circuit hosted the 2013 Superstox World Championship.
To tackle issues of multiple deprivation in the town various organisations such as the Coalfields Regeneration Trust have been given funding monies to distribute locally via community-based groups such as social enterprises and voluntary groups. The Lochgelly Community Council holds meetings, on the 2nd Wednesday of each month, to discuss issues affecting Lochgelly, from planning issues to general issues representative of the local community. All meetings are open to the public; the Community Council is made up of local members of the Lochgelly Community and include local politicians in attendance from the SNP and Labour. Monthly minutes from the meetings are available in the Lochgelly Library; the Lochgelly Community Development Forum, until early 2011 known as the Lochgelly Community Regeneration Forum, is a voluntary group representing the interests of the local community and providing a forum for raising local issues with Fife Council. The LCDF publish a 2 sided glossy newsletter, The Voice, delivered to every home in Lochgelly.
This replaced a full magazine, designed for free by a locally based not-for-profit Social Enterprise, now closed. Mooth O the Yooth, is a local non-profit group, managed by and for local youths, with support from Fife Council workers, community wardens and community police officers. The'Moothies' aim to set up activities for other youths in the area. Activities and successes include arranging the'Bairns Ball', held on a monthly basis in Lochgelly; the Moothies obtained a Youth Shelter, located at the bottom of Lochgelly Public Park. The shelter has since been vandalised. In January 2010'Loch of Shining Waters', an online not-for-profit community platform, was launched, it allows members of the local community to publish articles about Lochgelly, raise issues of concern and find out more about local issues. The aim is to release all material under a Creative Commons Licence, provide information about Lochgelly and the issues affecting the town and provide tutorials covering a wide range of technologies, such as using open source scripts for gaining a web presence, as well as articles on computer and online safety.
The Royal Oak Community Club provides affordable venue hire for many smaller groups in the local community, such as the Lochgelly Community Council, dance groups and meals for the elderly but the work they do is in a limited capacity
1950 FIFA World Cup
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup. It was the first World Cup since 1938, the planned 1942 and 1946 competitions having been cancelled due to World War II, it was won by Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930. They clinched the cup by beating the hosts Brazil 2–1 in the deciding match of the four-team final group; this was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was the first tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA; because of World War II, the World Cup had not been staged since 1938. After the war, FIFA were keen to resurrect the competition as soon as possible, they began making plans for a World Cup tournament to take place. In the aftermath of the war, much of Europe lay in ruins; as a result, FIFA had some difficulties finding a country interested in hosting the event, since many governments believed that their scarce resources ought to be devoted to more urgent priorities than a sporting celebration.
The World Cup was at risk of not being held for sheer lack of interest from the international community, until Brazil presented a bid at the 1946 FIFA Congress, offering to host the event on condition that the tournament take place in 1950. Brazil and Germany had been the leading bidders to host the cancelled 1942 World Cup. Brazil's new bid was similar to the mooted 1942 bid and was accepted. Having secured a host nation, FIFA would still dedicate some time to persuading countries to send their national teams to compete. Italy was of particular interest as the long-standing defending champions, having won the two previous tournaments in 1934 and 1938; the Italians were persuaded to attend, but travelled by boat rather than by plane. Brazil and Italy qualified automatically. Of these, seven were allocated to Europe, six to the Americas, one to Asia. Both Germany and Japan were unable to participate; the Japan Football Association, the German Football Association were not readmitted to FIFA until September 1950, while the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR in East Germany was not admitted to FIFA until 1952.
The French-occupied Saarland had been accepted by FIFA two weeks before the World Cup. Italy and other countries, involved in World War II as allies of Germany and Japan, were able to participate in qualification. Italy qualified automatically as defending champions of 1938. Finland, despite being a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany from 1941-1944, was allowed to qualify but withdrew before qualification was complete, FIFA declared their matches as friendlies; the British nations were invited to take part, having rejoined FIFA four years earlier, after 17 years of self-imposed exile. It was decided to use the 1949–50 British Home Championship as a qualifying group, with the top two teams qualifying. England finished first and Scotland second. A number of teams refused to participate in the qualifying tournament, including most nations behind the Iron Curtain, such as the Soviet Union, 1934 finalists Czechoslovakia and 1938 finalists Hungary. Yugoslavia was the only Eastern European nation to take part in the tournament.
Argentina and Peru in South America withdrew after the qualifying draw, in Argentina's case because of a dispute with the Brazilian Football Confederation. This meant that Chile, Bolivia and Uruguay qualified from South America by default. In Asia, the Philippines and Burma all withdrew, leaving India to qualify by default. In Europe, Austria withdrew. Belgium withdrew from the qualification tournament; these withdrawals meant that Switzerland and Turkey qualified without having to play their final round of matches. The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. However, only 13 teams would in the end participate in the World Cup after withdrawals by the rest. Before the qualification competition, George Graham, chairman of the Scottish Football Association, had said that Scotland would only travel to Brazil as winners of the Home Championship.. After Scotland ended up in second place behind England, the Scottish captain George Young, encouraged by England captain Billy Wright, pleaded with the SFA to change its mind and accept the place in Brazil.
Turkey withdrew, citing financial problems and the cost of travelling to South America. FIFA invited Portugal and France, eliminated in qualifying, to fill the gaps left by Scotland and Turkey. Portugal and Ireland refused, but France accepted, was entered into the draw; the draw, held in Rio on 22 May 1950, allocated the fifteen remaining teams into four groups: The teams' pre-tournament Elo rankings are shown in parenthesis. After the draw, the Indian football association AIFF decided against going to the World Cup, citing travel costs (although FIFA had agreed
Marcelo Balboa is an American retired soccer defender who played in the 1990s for the U. S. national team, becoming its captain. He is a member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame. After retiring from playing, he has worked as a commentator for ESPN and ABC and MLS games on HDNet and Altitude, as well as FIFA World Cup games on Univision, he is the head boys' soccer coach for Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado Balboa, of Argentine descent, was born in Chicago and grew up in Cerritos, California. Balboa played youth soccer for Fram-Culver. Balboa's father, Luis Balboa who played professionally in Argentina and with the Chicago Mustangs of the North American Soccer League, coached him. In 1985, Balboa graduated from Cerritos High School. Balboa attended Cerritos College, a local two-year community college from 1986 to 1987. At Cerritos, Balboa was both placekicker on the football team and a two-time 1st Team All-South Coast Conference soccer player. Cerritos College has retired Balboa's jersey number – #3.
In 1988, Balboa transferred to San Diego State University where he was a 1988 First Team and a 1989 Second Team All American soccer player. From 1987 to 1989, Balboa played the collegiate off-seasons on an amateur contract with the professional San Diego Nomads of the Western Soccer League, he was the 1988 WSA MVP. In 1990, Balboa began his professional career with the San Francisco Bay Blackhawks of the American Professional Soccer League. In 1992, he moved to the Colorado Foxes. Marcelo played for León in the Mexican League in 1995 and 1996. In 1996, he signed with the Colorado Rapids. Balboa played six seasons for the Rapids, leading as the team's all-time leader in many statistical categories. Traded to the MetroStars in 2002, Marcelo played only five minutes all year, sitting out the rest with injuries, retiring afterwards. Balboa ended his MLS career with 23 assists in 152 games. In 2005, Balboa was named to the MLS All-Time Best XI and elected to the National Soccer Hall of Fame on the first ballot along with Nick Folan.
In 2012, he was inducted into the Colorado Hall of Fame. Balboa was known for a goal for the Rapids in 2000 against the Columbus Crew, named the MLS Goal of the Year for that season. Marcelo Balboa earned his first cap on January 1988 against Guatemala, he anchored the American defense in the 1990 and the 1994 FIFA World Cups, in the latter receiving international attention for his near miss with a bicycle kick in the U. S. win over Colombia. He was named U. S. Soccer Athlete of the Year in 1992 and 1994. In 1995, he became the first U. S. player to break the 100-cap barrier. In 1998, he joined Tab Ramos and Eric Wynalda as the first U. S. players to play in three World Cups. Balboa ended his U. S. career with 128 caps and 13 goals, his final appearance came in a friendly against Iran on January 16, 2000. After the 2004 MLS season, Balboa assumed a front office position with the Rapids. Balboa debuted as a sideline reporter during ABC's coverage of the 2003 MLS All-Star Game and MLS Cup. In 2004, he became a regular announcer for ABC and ESPN's television coverage of the U.
S. national team. Most Balboa has paired up with baseball announcer Dave O'Brien as networks' #1 U. S. announcing team for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. In 2007, Marcelo started a soccer radio show, From The Pitch, which airs on Denver station Mile High Sports Radio. Balboa served as an analyst for NBC Sports coverage of Soccer at the 2008 Summer Olympics, he has been a guest soccer analyst on Telefutura's Contacto Deportivo. In 2014, he was comentator of the U. S. Team matches for Univision at the World Cup in Brazil. "There it was, the step. He stepped on him"-Describing when England player Wayne Rooney had stepped on the genital region of Portugal player Ricardo Carvalho and was dismissed from the game during the quarterfinals of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. In 2012, Monarch High School hired Balboa to coach the boys' soccer team. Balboa resides in the town of Colorado. Interview on Role Models from CaptainU Marcelo Balboa – FIFA competition record Marcelo Balboa at Major League Soccer
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge known as the Ardennes Counteroffensive, took place from 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945, was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II. It was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in eastern Belgium, northeast France, Luxembourg, towards the end of the war in Europe; the offensive was intended to stop Allied use of the Belgian port of Antwerp and to split the Allied lines, allowing the Germans to encircle and destroy four Allied armies and force the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis powers' favor. The Germans achieved a total surprise attack on the morning of 16 December 1944, due to a combination of Allied overconfidence, preoccupation with Allied offensive plans, poor aerial reconnaissance. American forces bore the brunt of the attack and incurred their highest casualties of any operation during the war; the battle severely depleted Germany's armored forces, they were unable to replace them.
German personnel and Luftwaffe aircraft sustained heavy losses. The Germans had attacked a weakly defended section of the Allied line, taking advantage of overcast weather conditions that grounded the Allies' overwhelmingly superior air forces. Fierce resistance on the northern shoulder of the offensive, around Elsenborn Ridge, in the south, around Bastogne, blocked German access to key roads to the northwest and west that they counted on for success. Columns of armor and infantry that were supposed to advance along parallel routes found themselves on the same roads. This, terrain that favored the defenders, threw the German advance behind schedule and allowed the Allies to reinforce the thinly placed troops; the furthest west the offensive reached was the village of Foy-Nôtre-Dame, south east of Dinant, being stopped by the British 21st Army Group on 24 December 1944. Improved weather conditions permitted air attacks on German forces and supply lines, which sealed the failure of the offensive.
In the wake of the defeat, many experienced German units were left depleted of men and equipment, as survivors retreated to the defenses of the Siegfried Line. The Germans' initial attack involved 410,000 men; these were reinforced a couple of weeks bringing the offensive's total strength to around 450,000 troops, 1,500 tanks and assault guns. Between 63,222 and 98,000 of these men were killed, wounded in action, or captured. For the Americans, out of a peak of 610,000 troops, 89,000 became casualties out of which some 19,000 were killed; the "Bulge" was the largest and bloodiest single battle fought by the United States in World War II and the second deadliest battle in American history. After the breakout from Normandy at the end of July 1944 and the Allied landings in southern France on 15 August 1944, the Allies advanced toward Germany more than anticipated; the Allies were faced with several military logistics issues: troops were fatigued by weeks of continuous combat supply lines were stretched thin supplies were dangerously depleted.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower and his staff chose to hold the Ardennes region, occupied by the U. S. First Army; the Allies chose to defend the Ardennes with as few troops as possible due to the favorable terrain and limited Allied operational objectives in the area. They had intelligence that the Wehrmacht was using the area across the German border as a rest-and-refit area for its troops; the speed of the Allied advance coupled with an initial lack of deep-water ports presented the Allies with enormous supply problems. Over-the-beach supply operations using the Normandy landing areas, direct landing ships on the beaches, were unable to meet operational needs; the only deep-water port the Allies had captured was Cherbourg on the northern shore of the Cotentin peninsula and west of the original invasion beaches, but the Germans had wrecked, mined, the harbor before it could be taken. It took many months to rebuild its cargo-handling capability; the Allies captured the port of Antwerp intact in the first days of September, but it was not operational until 28 November.
The estuary of the Schelde river, that controlled access to the port, had to be cleared of both German troops and naval mines. These limitations led to differences between General Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, commander of the Anglo-Canadian 21st Army Group, over whether Montgomery or Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, commanding the U. S. 12th Army Group, in the south would get priority access to supplies. German forces remained in control of several major ports on the English Channel coast until the end of the war in May 1945; the Allies' efforts to destroy the French railway system prior to D-Day, were successful. This destruction hampered the German response to the invasion, but it proved hampering to the Allies, it took time to repair bridges. A trucking system nicknamed the Red Ball Express brought supplies to front-line troops, but used up five times as much fuel, to reach the front line near the Belgian border, as it delivered. By early October, the Allies had suspended major offensives to improve their supply lines and supply availability at the front.
Montgomery and Bradley both pressed for priority delivery of supplies to their respective armies so they could continue their individual lines of advance and maintain
In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor
National Soccer Hall of Fame
The National Soccer Hall of Fame is a private, non-profit institution established in 1979 located in Toyota Stadium in Frisco, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. The Hall of Fame honors soccer achievements in the United States. Induction into the hall is considered the highest honor in American soccer; the Hall of Fame was founded in 1950 by the Philadelphia "Old-timers" Association, a group of former professional and amateur soccer players that wanted to recognize the achievements of soccer in America. The Hall of Fame museum opened on June 12, 1999 in Oneonta, NY; the museum featured the hall of fame, a library, an interactive soccer play area. The United States National Soccer Team Players Association partnered with the Hall of Fame to create the Time In program, which honored people with a connection to soccer battling leukemia. Since the disease disproportionately targets children a majority of the honorees were youth soccer players. Prior to the 2005 induction of the "Magnificent Five" individuals from the early and mid 20th century had been ignored.
This change was brought about by the acquisition of a large volume of historical records relating to this period. These records combined with developed eligibility criteria led to the induction of Tommy Fleming, Alex McNab, Johnny Nelson, Werner Nilsen and Fabri Salcedo; the notable careers of these five players all took place prior to 1950. The "Magnificent Five" were inducted posthumously into the Hall of Fame in August 2005. Sports Illustrated reported on September 4, 2009, that the Hall announced it would be closing to the public, it was open only on certain match days. As a result of financial difficulties the Hall of Fame cut six of its nine employees during that same month; the director of the Hall of Fame for 10 years, Jack Huckel, left his position on December 18, 2009. On February 10, 2010, it was announced that the Hall would close its facility, though inductions will continue. In September 2015, it was announced that a new Hall of Fame museum would be built at Toyota Stadium in Frisco, the home of Major League Soccer club FC Dallas.
The new museum opened during the 2018 Enshrinement Ceremony on October 20, 2018. This new facility features additional memorabilia from soccer legends and high-tech, interactive exhibits. After the museum was closed, a collection of more than 80,000 items was distributed to various locations across the country, including the headquarters of Eurosport, a long-term corporate sponsor, in Hillsborough, North Carolina; the collection includes the following notable items: The oldest soccer ball made in the United States The 1991, 1999 and 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup Trophies The North American Soccer League archive The 1994 FIFA World Cup U. S. archive A rare soccer photography collection from New York depression-era photographer John Albok Materials from the U. S. national teams in World Cup competition Artifacts from the American Soccer League of the 1920s and 1950s. Pelé’s New York Cosmos jersey; the Lamar Hunt Open Cup trophy. Mia Hamm’s cleats. Commemorations of the first U. S. World Cup team in 1930.
Eligible individuals may be inducted into one of three categories: Player and Veteran. New individuals are inducted annually. To be eligible in the Player category, an individual must have met number 1, either number 2 or number 3, of the following three criteria: Retired as a player for at least three years, but for no more than 10 years Played at least 20 full international games for the United States; this requirement is reduced to 10 games if the games were prior to 1990. Played at least five seasons in an American first-division professional league, won either the league championship, or the U. S. Open was selected as a league all-star at least once. Players who have met either no. 2 or no. 3 but who retired more than 10 years ago are automatically placed on the veteran eligibility list. To be eligible in this category, an individual must have made his or her mark in soccer in a non-playing capacity and have had a major and positive impact on soccer in the United States at a national or first division professional level.
Due to the broad, general nature of the criteria, nominations for this category may be considered. Nominations are screened by the Hall of Fame Historian and Researcher who submit their recommendations to the Hall as to the appropriateness of the nominee's inclusion on the eligibility list; the National Soccer Hall of Fame's Medal of Honor is the highest honor given to people who have grown the sport of soccer in the United States. The Medal is awarded to individuals who has "demonstrated vision and played an historic role in changing the course of soccer in America." The Medal has been given out only four times in history. In 2009, the Hall of fame inducted Jeff Agoos and Joy Fawcett into the Hall of Fame in the player category. In 2010, Thomas Dooley and Preki Radosavljević were inducted in the player category, Kyle Rote, Jr. in the Veteran category and Bruce Arena in the Builder category. On February 17, 2011, the Hall of Fame announced the candidates eligible for induction into the Hall of Fame in 2011.
This list included individuals for all three categories, Player and Builder. On March 29, 2011, the Hall of Fame announced that Cobi Jones, Eddie Pope and Earnie Stewart had been elected for induction into the Hall of Fame in the 2011 Player category. Bruce Murray was selected in the Veteran category, Bob Gansler was elected in the Builder category. On January 31, 2012, the United States Soccer Federation announced that the ballots were finalized for the Class of 2012. Voting began on the day of the announcement and will continue until February 17. Twelve players were added to the ballot after qualifying for the first time, they included Tony Meola, Claudio Reyna