Dick Lundy (animator)
Richard James "Dick" Lundy was an American animator and film director who worked at several different animation studios including Walt Disney Animation Studios, MGM, Hanna-Barbera. Lundy was a pioneer of personality animation and is today most remembered as one of the creators of Donald Duck. Throughout his career he worked as a primary animator on at least 60 films, both short and feature-length, directed 51 short films. In the summer of 1929 Lundy started working for The Walt Disney Company, first assigned in the ink and paint department. In September he transferred to the animation department as an inbetweener. In March the next year Lundy was promoted to animator and worked on Three Little Pigs and Orphan's Benefit. After working on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Lundy became a director at Disney. In 1943 Lundy worked for Walter Lantz Productions, he again became a director. He directed Andy Panda, Woody Woodpecker, the Swing Symphonies. Lundy worked for Wolff Productions after the Lantz studio closed in 1949.
Here he worked on television commercials. In 1950 Lundy worked for MGM on the Droopy film Caballero Droopy. In 1959 Lundy worked for Hanna-Barbera on The Flintstones, Yogi Bear, Scooby-Doo, he continued to do freelance work for several years thereafter. Lundy was not the first to draw or animate Donald Duck; this was done by Art Babbitt and Dick Huemer in the short film The Wise Little Hen, a film in which Lundy worked. This was Donald's first appearance, although the story offered little opportunity for character development; this would come in Donald's second appearance, Orphan's Benefit, in which Lundy was the sole animator of Donald. According to common animation practice, the audio and voices of the film were recorded first and were played for the animators to reference. In listening to voice actor Clarence Nash portray the Duck in Orphan's Benefit, Lundy said " decided, an ego-show-off. If anything crossed him, he got mad and blew his top." Lundy was born in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, to James and Minnie Lundy, their only child.
Shortly after his birth the family moved to Detroit, where Lundy's father worked as an inspector for the Burroughs Adding machine Company. When Lundy was ten years old his parents separated and he and his mother went to live in Port Huron north of Detroit, they moved back to the city where Lundy's mother worked as a waitress. Lundy moved to Los Angeles in the late 1920s. Lundy was married twice. In 1932 he married Juanita Sheridan who worked at the Disney studio; this marriage ended in divorce in 1934. By 1939 Lundy was remarried to Mabel Lundy. Together they had one daughter Llewellyn. Dick Lundy on IMDb
History of animation
The history of animation started long before the development of cinematography. Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with projected images on a screen, moving as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. In 1833 the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, would provide the basis for cinematography. There are several examples of early sequential images that may seem similar to series of animation drawings. Most of these examples would only allow an low frame rate when they are animated, resulting in short and crude animations that are not lifelike. However, it's unlikely that these images were intended to be somehow viewed as an animation, it is possible to imagine technology that could have been used in the periods of their creation, but no conclusive evidence in artifacts or descriptions have been found. It is sometimes argued that these early sequential images are too interpreted as "pre-cinema" by minds accustomed to film, comic books and other modern sequential images, while it is uncertain that the creators of these images envisioned anything like it.
Fluent animation needs a proper breakdown of a motion into the separate images of short instances, which could hardly be imagined before modern times. Measuring instances shorter than a second first became possible with instruments developed in the 1850s. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, it has been claimed that these superimposed figures were intended for a form of animation with the flickering light of the flames of a fire or a passing torch illuminating different parts of the painted rock wall, revealing different parts of the motion. Archaeological finds of small paleolithic discs with a hole in the middle and drawings on both sides have been claimed to be a kind of prehistoric thaumatropes that show motion when spun on a string. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree.
An Egyptian mural 4000 years old, found in the tomb of Khnumhotep at the Beni Hassan cemetery, features a long series of images that depict the sequence of events in a wrestling match. The Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius wrote in his poem De rerum natura a few lines that come close to the basic principles of animation: "...when the first image perishes and a second is produced in another position, the former seems to have altered its pose. Of course this must be supposed to take place swiftly: so great is their velocity, so great the store of particles in any single moment of sensation, to enable the supply to come up." It must be noted that this was in the context of dream images, rather than images produced by an actual or imagined technology. The medieval codex Sigenot has sequential illuminations with short intervals between different phases of action; each page has a picture inside a frame above the text, with great consistency in size and position throughout the book. A page of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci show anatomical studies with four different angles of the muscles of shoulder and neck of a man.
The four drawings can be read as a rotating movement. Ancient Chinese records contain several mentions of devices, including one made by the inventor Ding Huan, that were said to "give an impression of movement" to a series of human or animal figures on them, but these accounts are unclear and may only refer to the actual movement of the figures through space. Since before 1000 CE the Chinese had a rotating lantern which had silhouettes projected on its thin paper sides that appeared to chase each other; this was called the "trotting horse lamp" as it would depict horses and horse-riders. The cut-out silhouettes were attached inside the lantern to a shaft with a paper vane impeller on top, rotated by heated air rising from a lamp; some versions added extra motion with jointed heads, feet or hands of figures triggered by a transversely connected iron wire. Volvelles have moving parts, but these and other paper materials that can be manipulated into motion are not regarded as animation. Shadow play has much in common with animation: people watching moving figures on a screen as a popular form of entertainment a story with dialogue and music.
The figures could be detailed and articulated. The earliest projection of images was most done in primitive shadowgraphy dating back to prehistory, it evolved into more refined forms of shadow puppetry with flat jointed cut-out figures which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen. The shapes of the puppets sometimes include translucent color or other types of detailing; the history of shadow puppetry is uncertain, but seems to have originated in Asia in the 1st millennium BCE. Clearer records seem to go back to around 900 CE, it spread to the Ottoman empire and seems not to have reached Europe before the 17th century. It became popular in France at the end of the 18th century. François Dominique Séraphin started his elaborate shadow shows in 1771 and performed them until his death in 1800, his heirs continued until their theatre closed in 1870. Séraphin developed the use of clockwork mechanisms to automate the show. Around the time cinematography was developed, several theaters in Montmartre showed elaborate "Ombres Chinoises" shows t
The Spirit of '43
The Spirit of'43 is an American animated World War II propaganda film created by Walt Disney Studios in 1943 and released in January 1943. The film stars Donald Duck, arguably contains the first appearance of a prototype for the character Scrooge McDuck, not named in the film, it is a sequel to The New Spirit. The purpose of the film is to encourage patriotic Americans to file and pay their income taxes faithfully in order to help the war effort; the repeated theme in the film is "Taxes... To Defeat the Axis." The film, along with Der Fuehrer's Face and others like it, was released on DVD by Disney in 2004. The film is in the public domain and therefore can be seen on many gray market videos and DVDs; the title is an allusion to the expression "Spirit of'76". In the film, Donald Duck is portrayed as an everyman, he is met by two physical manifestations of his personality — the classic "good angel on one shoulder, bad devil on the other shoulder" dilemma common to cartoons of the time — identified as the "thrifty saver" and the "spendthrift."
The "good duck" appears as a elderly duck with a Scottish accent who wears a kilt and Scottish cap and urges Donald to be thrifty with his money so he can be sure to pay his taxes for the war effort. The "bad duck" appears as a zoot suit-wearing hipster who urges Donald to spend his duly earned money on idle pleasures such as "good dates"; the good angel reminds of other "dates": the dates. The narrator explains that Americans should "gladly and proudly" pay their income taxes which are higher that year "thanks to Hitler and Hirohito." A tug-of-war ensues between "spend" and "save" with Donald caught in the middle. The two sides give way and crash on opposite ends of Donald to reveal the "true" selves: the doors of the bad duck's club are revealed to be swastikas and the bad duck himself turns out to bear a resemblance to Hitler, while the wall the good duck has crashed up against resembles the flag of the United States; the narrator asks the audience if they are going to "spend for the Axis" or "save for taxes".
Having made the obvious choice, Donald is assumed to shake hands with the bad duck, but it is revealed that he heads over to the bad duck to punch him out at the last second. He goes to proudly pay his taxes with the good duck; the second part of the film is a montage recycled from The New Spirit, showing how the taxes are being used to make planes, bombs and other war materials. It shows them being used against Axis forces, along with the repeated slogan "Taxes... to the Axis", accompanied by the opening bars of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Media related to The Spirit of'43 at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to The Spirit of'43 at Wikiquote The Spirit of'43 on IMDb
An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, hold a major stake in the sales or rentals of the media produced, they own rights over merchandising and creative rights for characters created/held by the company, much like authors holding copyrights. In some early cases, they held patent rights over methods of animation used in certain studios that were used for boosting productivity. Overall, they can function as such in legal terms. There are about 201 animation studios dedicated to the production and distribution of animated films that are active. Few are actual production houses. Many of these animation studios help with the fulfillment of animation works for big brand names and have carried out outsourced projects including Nemo. Winsor McCay was renowned as the father of the animated cartoon, having converted his cartoon strip Little Nemo into a 10-minute feature film, co-directing it along with J. Stuart Blackton, released on April 8, 1911.
However, the idea of a studio dedicated to animating cartoons was spearheaded by Raoul Barré and his studio, Barré Studio, co-founded with Bill Nolan, beating out the studio created by J. R. Bray, Bray Productions, to the honour of the first studio dedicated to animation. Though beaten to the post of being the first studio, Bray's studio employee, Earl Hurd, came up with patents designed for mass-producing the output for the studio; as Hurd did not file for these patents under his own name, but handed them to Bray, they would go on to form the Bray-Hurd Patent Company and sold these techniques for royalties to other animation studios of the time. The patents for animation systems using drawings on transparent celluloid sheets and a registration system that kept images steady were held under this firm. Bray developed the basic division of labor still used in animation studios; the biggest name in animation studios during this early time was Disney Brothers Animation Studio, co-founded by Walt and Roy O. Disney.
Started on October 16, 1923, the studio went on to make its first animated short, Steamboat Willie in 1928, to much critical success, though the real breakthrough was in 1937, when the studio was able to produce a full-length animated feature film i.e. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which laid the foundation for other studios to try to make full-length movies. In 1932 Flowers and Trees, a production by Walt Disney Productions and United Artists, won the first Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film; this period, from the 1920s to the 1950s or sometimes considered from 1911 to the death of Walt Disney in 1966, is known as the Golden Age of American Animation as it included the growth of Disney, as well as the rise of Warner Bros. and MGM as prominent animation studios. Disney continued to lead in technical prowess among studios for a long time afterwards, as can be seen with their achievements. In 1941, Otto Messmer created the first animated television commercials for Botany Tie ads/weather reports.
They were shown on NBC-TV in New York until 1949. This marked the first forays of animation designed for the smaller screen and was to be followed by the first animated series made for television, Crusader Rabbit, in 1948, its creator, Alex Anderson, had to create the studio'Television Arts Productions' for the purpose of creating this series as his old studio, refused to make a series for television. Since Crusader Rabbit however, many studios have seen this as a profitable enterprise and many have entered the made for television market since, with Bill Hanna refining the production process for television animation on his show Ruff and Reddy, it was in 1958 that The Huckleberry Hound Show claimed the title of being the first all new half-hour cartoon show. This, along with their previous success with the series Tom and Jerry, elevated Hanna's animation studio, Hanna-Barbera Productions, to dominate the North American television animation market during the latter half of the 20th Century. In 2002, produced by DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images won the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
Since Disney/Pixar have produced the most number of movies either to win or be nominated for the award. Direct-to-video animation has seen a rise, as a concept, in the Western markets. With many comic characters receiving their versions of OVA's, original video animations, under the Westernized title of direct-to-video animations, the OVA market has spread to American animation houses. Though the term "direct-to-video" carries negative connotations in the North American and European markets, their popularity has resulted in comic characters ranging from Hellboy, Green Lantern and Avengers, to television shows such as Family Guy and Futurama, all releasing direct-to-video animations. DC Comics have continually released their own animated movies for the sole purpose of sale in the direct-to-video market. With growing worries about piracy, direct to video animation might become more popular in the near future With the growth of animation as an industry, the trends of ownership of studios has changed with time.
Current studios such as Warner Bros. and early ones such as Fleischer Studios, started life as small, independent studios, being run by a small core group. After being bought out or sold to other companies, they consolidated with other studios and became larger; the drawback of this setup was that there was now a major thrust towards profitability with the management acting as a damper towards creativity of these
Three Little Pigs (film)
Three Little Pigs is an animated short film released on May 27, 1933 by United Artists, produced by Walt Disney and directed by Burt Gillett. Based on a fable of the same name, the Silly Symphony won the 1934 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film of 1933; the short cost $22,000 and grossed $250,000. In 1994, it was voted #11 of the 50 Greatest Cartoons of all time by members of the animation field. In 2007, Three Little Pigs was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Practical Pig, Fiddler Pig and Fifer Pig are three brothers who build their own houses with bricks and straw respectively. All three of them play a different kind of musical instrument – Fifer Pig "toots his flute, doesn't give a hoot and plays around all day," Fiddler Pig "with a hey diddle diddle, plays on his fiddle and dances all kinds of jigs" and Practical Pig is seen as working without rest. Fifer and Fiddler stick houses with much ease and have fun all day.
Practical, on the other hand, "has no chance to sing and dance for work and play don't mix," focusing on building his strong brick house, but his two brothers poke fun at him. An angry Practical warns them "You fiddle. Don't think you can make me sore. I'll be safe and you'll be sorry when the Wolf comes through your door!" Fifer and Fiddler ignore him and continue to play, singing the now famous song "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?". As they are singing, the Big Bad Wolf comes by, at which point Fifer and Fiddler reveal they are in fact afraid of the wolf. Fifer and Fiddler each retreat to their respective houses. Fifer manages to hides at Fiddler's house; the wolf pretends to give up and go home. The pigs see through whereupon the Wolf blows Fiddler's house down; the two pigs manage to escape and hide at Practical's house, who willingly gives his brothers refuge. The Wolf arrives disguised as a Jewish peddler/Fuller Brush man to trick the pigs into letting him in, but fails; the Wolf tries to blow down the strong brick house, but is unable, all while a confident Practical plays melodramatic piano music.
He attempts to enter the house through the chimney, but smart Practical Pig takes off the lid of a boiling pot filled with water under the chimney, the Wolf falls right into it. Shrieking in pain, the Wolf runs away frantically, while the pigs sing "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?" again. Practical plays a trick by knocking on his piano, causing his brothers to think the Wolf has returned and hide under Practical's bed. Billy Bletcher as Big Bad Wolf Pinto Colvig as Practical Pig Dorothy Compton as Fifer Pig Mary Moder as Fiddler Pig The movie was phenomenally successful with audiences of the day, so much that theaters ran the cartoon for months after its debut, to great financial response; the cartoon is still considered to be the most successful animated short made, remained on top of animation until Disney was able to boost Mickey's popularity further by making him a top merchandise icon by the end of 1934. Animator Chuck Jones observed, "That was the first time that anybody brought characters to life.
They were three characters who looked alike and acted differently". Fifer and Fiddler Pig are care-free; the reason for why the film's story and characters were so well developed was that Disney had realized the success of animated films depended upon telling gripping stories that would grab the audience and not let go. This realization led to an important innovation around the time Pigs was in development: a "story department," separate from the animators, with storyboard artists who would be dedicated to working on a "story development" phase of the production pipeline; the moderate, but not blockbuster, success of the further "Three Pigs" cartoons was seen as a factor in Walt Disney's decision not to rest on his laurels, but instead to continue to move forward with risk-taking projects, such as the multiplane camera and the first feature-length animated movie. Disney's slogan repeated over the years, was "you can't top pigs with pigs." The original song composed by Frank Churchill for the cartoon, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?", was a best-selling single, mirroring the people's resolve against the "big bad wolf" of The Great Depression.
When the Nazis began expanding the boundaries of Germany in the years preceding World War II, the song was used to represent the complacency of the Western world in allowing Adolf Hitler to make considerable acquisitions of territory without going to war, was notably used in Disney animations for the Canadian war effort. The song was further used as the inspiration for the title of the 1963 play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? In the United States, the short was first released on VHS, Betamax and Laserdisc in 1984 as part of its "Cartoon Classics" Home Video series, it came out on VHS in the UK in spring 1996 as part of the Disney Storybook Favourites series. It made its DVD debut on Decembe
Porky Pig is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons, he was the first character created by the studio to draw audiences based on his star power, the animators created many critically acclaimed shorts featuring the character. After he was supplanted by characters, Porky continued to be popular with moviegoers and, more the Warners directors, who recast him in numerous everyman and sidekick roles, he is known for his signature line at the end of many shorts, "Th-th-th-that's all folks!" This slogan had been used by both Bosko and Buddy and Beans at the end of Looney Tunes cartoons. In contrast, the Merrie Melodies series used the slogan: So Long, Folks! until the mid 1930s when it was replaced with the same one used on the Looney Tunes series. He is the oldest continuing Looney Tunes character. Porky's most distinctive trait is a severe stutter, for which he sometimes compensates by replacing his words. Porky's age varied in the series.
In the ending of many Looney Tunes cartoons, Porky Pig bursts through a bass drum head, his attempt to close the show with "The End" becomes "Th-Th-The, Th-Th-The, Th-Th... That's all, folks!" Porky Pig would appear in 153 cartoons in the Golden age of American animation. The character was introduced in the short I Haven't Got a Hat, directed by Friz Freleng. Studio head Leon Schlesinger suggested that Freleng do a cartoon version of the popular Our Gang films. Porky only has a minor role in the film, but the fat little stuttering pig became popular. Porky's name came from two brothers who were childhood classmates of Freleng, nicknamed "Porky" and "Piggy". Since Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising had left the studio in 1933, taking the studio's star character Bosko with them, Looney Tunes had been kept afloat by cartoons featuring the bland Buddy. Porky's introduction pointed to things to come. Tex Avery was hired to the studio in 1935, his film Gold Diggers of'49 reused much of the cast from I Haven't Got a Hat, albeit in wildly different roles.
Porky transitioned from a shy little boy to an immensely fat adult. Though he was still in a supporting role, Porky got most of the laughs; the directors realized. Porky shared his stutter with the voice actor who played him, Joe Dougherty, who did have a stutter; because Dougherty could not control his stutter, production costs became too high as his recording sessions took hours. The versatile Mel Blanc replaced Dougherty in 1937. Blanc continued the stutter; this is parodied in A Connecticut Rabbit in King Arthur's Court, where Bugs Bunny struggles to pronounce the word "porcupine", which Porky pronounces with no trouble. Porky's Duck Hunt was released in 1937, Blanc became the permanent voice of Porky until his death in 1989. In interviews, Blanc said that he intended Porky's stutter to be suggestive of the grunting of actual pigs. Porky's Duck Hunt was the first film of another Looney Tunes star, Daffy Duck. Porky starred in dozens of films in the late 1930s; the directors still did not have a grasp on the character, however.
Several such cartoons show Porky as a child with parents: an unnamed mom. Bob Clampett pinned Porky down in 1939, making him a permanent young adult: cuter, slimmer and less of a stutterer; some cartoons show Porky as an antagonist. He settled into a kind persona. Clampett's Porky was an innocent traveler, taking in the wonders of the world—and in Clampett's universe, the world is a weird place indeed; this principle is best demonstrated in Porky in Wackyland, a film that sends Porky on a quest to find the last of the surreal Dodos, Yoyo Dodo. Porky in Wackyland was selected for preservation by the National Film Registry in 2000. In his commentary as part of the 1970s documentary film Bugs Bunny: Superstar, Clampett said that his early version of Tweety Bird had to be redesigned after his first picture because the producers thought he "looked naked". Meanwhile, as Clampett noted, nothing was made of the fact that "all those years, Porky never wore any pants!" However, Porky was seen with Tick Tock Tuckered and Brother Brat.
Porky's post at the pinnacle of the Warners' pantheon was short-lived. In 1937, the studio tried pairing Porky with various sidekicks, such as love interest Petunia Pig, cantankerous foil Gabby Goat, a screwy black duck, Daffy. Daffy Duck, the creation of Tex Avery, was by far the most popular outshining Porky. In fact, Friz Freleng satirized this phenomenon when he directed You Ought to Be in Pictures, where Daffy convinces Porky to quit his job at Warner Bros. to