Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles are four fictional teenaged anthropomorphic turtles named after Italian artists of the Renaissance. They were trained by their anthropomorphic rat sensei in the art of ninjutsu. From their home in the sewers of New York City, they battle petty criminals, evil overlords, mutated creatures, alien invaders while attempting to remain hidden from society, they were created by Peter Laird. The characters originated in comic books published by Mirage Studios and expanded into cartoon series, video games and other merchandise. During the peak of the franchise's popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it gained worldwide success and fame; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles first appeared in an American comic book published by Mirage Studios in 1984 in Dover, New Hampshire. The concept arose from a humorous drawing sketched out by Eastman during a casual evening of brainstorming and bad television with Laird. Using money from a tax refund, together with a loan from Eastman's uncle, the young artists self-published a single-issue comic intended to parody four of the most popular comics of the early 1980s: Marvel Comics’ Daredevil and New Mutants, Dave Sim’s Cerebus, Frank Miller’s Ronin.
The TMNT comic book series has been published in various incarnations by various comic book companies since 1984. The Turtles started their rise to mainstream success when a licensing agent, Mark Freedman, sought out Eastman and Laird to propose wider merchandising opportunities for the franchise. In 1986, Dark Horse Miniatures produced a set of 15-mm lead figurines. In January 1987, Eastman and Laird visited the offices of Playmates Toys, a small California toy company that wanted to expand into the action-figure market. Development was undertaken by a creative team of companies and individuals: Jerry Sachs, advertising agent of Sachs-Finley Agency, brought together the animators at Murakami-Wolf-Swenson headed by Fred Wolf. Wolf and his team combined concepts and ideas with the Playmates marketing crew, headed by Karl Aaronian, vice president of sales Richard Sallis, VP of Playmates Bill Carlson. Aaronian brought on several designers and concepteur and writer John C. Schulte, worked out the simple backstory that would live on toy packaging for the entire run of the product and show.
Sachs called the high concept pitch "Green Against Brick". The sense of humor was honed with the collaboration of the Murakami-Wolf-Swenson animation firm's writers. Playmates and their team served as associate producers and contributing writers to the miniseries, first launched to sell-in the toy action figures. Phrases like "Heroes in a half shell" and many of the comical catch phrases and battle cries came from the writing and conceptualization of this creative team; as the series developed, veteran writer Jack Mendelsohn came on board as both a story editor and scriptwriter. David Wise, Michael Charles Hill, Michael Reaves wrote most of the scripts; the miniseries was repeated. Once the product started selling, the show got syndicated and picked up and backed by Group W, which funded the next round of animation; the show went network, on CBS. Accompanied by the popular Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1987 TV series, the subsequent action figure line, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became a mainstream success.
At the height of the frenzy, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Turtles' likenesses could be found on a wide range of children's merchandise, from Pez dispensers to skateboards, breakfast cereal, video games, school supplies, towels and toy shaving kits. While the animated TV series, which lasted for 10 seasons until 1996, was more light-hearted, the comic-book series continued in a much darker and grittier tone. In 1990, a live-action feature film was released, with the Turtles and Splinter being portrayed by actors in animatronic suits created by Jim Henson's Creature Shop; the film became one of the most successful independent films and spawned two sequels, as well as inspiring a three-dimensional animated film set in the same continuity, released in 2007 under the title TMNT. After the end of the cartoon series, a live-action series in the vein of the films was created in 1997 in conjunction with Saban Entertainment; the series was called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation and introduced a fifth, female turtle called Venus de Milo.
However, the series was unsuccessful and was canceled after one season. The property lay dormant until 2003, when a new animated TV series entitled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles began to air on Fox Box; the series storyline stuck much closer to the original Mirage comic book series, but was still less violent. It lasted for seven seasons and 156 episodes, ending in February 2009. On October 21, 2009, it was announced that cable channel Nickelodeon had purchased all of Mirage's rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property. Mirage retains the rights to publish 18 issues a year, though the future involvement of Mirage with the Turtles and the future of Mirage Studios itself is unknown. Nickelodeon has developed a new CGI-animated TMNT television series and partnered with fellow Viacom company Paramount Pictures to bring a new TMNT movie to theaters; the TV show premiered on Nickelodeon on September 29, 2012. The live-action film, produced by Platinum Dunes, Nickelodeon Movies, Paramount Pictures, directed by Jonathan Liebesman, produced by Michael Bay, was released on August 8, 2014.
Leonardo – The tactical, courageous leader and devoted student of his sensei, Leonardo wears a blue mask and wields two swords. As the most conscientious of the four, he
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Gogo's Crazy Bones
Gogo's Crazy Bones are small, collectible figurines that became a popular fad during the late 1990s through the 2000s. They are produced by Spanish company Magic Box Int. and PPI Worldwide Group, the sole distributor in North America. Crazy Bones was inspired by a children's game played in Ancient Greece and Rome called'Astragal', where children played a similar game using sheep's knucklebones; this ancient pastime is known as Tabas. Games played are reminiscent of jacks. Crazy Bones is a modern version of this game, played with characters molded from plastic. There are hundreds of each character having a unique face and name; each series has a number of'rare' pieces that are sought after by collectors and are sold on numerous websites for many times their original value. Crazy Bones was launched in the United States by Peter Gantner after witnessing the success of Barcelona-based GoGos in Spain, which had sold over 350 million packs from its inception in 1996 to 1997. Gantner formed Toy Craze in December 1997 with his brother David Gantner and businessman Scott Harris, the company acquired the distribution rights in the US.
Some sources indicate Bill Flaherty, who became President of Toy Craze founded the company. Gogos agreed to provide him with inventory with no upfront costs in return for 50% of all profits; this deal was renegotiated, the manufacturer was paid a royalty of sales. A small company at the time of inception, Crazy Bones became a popular fad in the late 90s; the product was aggressively marketed to children, promotional events took place in scout meetings, club groups and shows, where free sample packs were distributed. Toy demos have taken place in SkyDome, where children were given free packs and taught how to play Crazy Bones; this promotion was organized by the Canadian marketers of Crazy Bones, a joint venture by Wayne Fromm and Eric Segal of All 4 Fun Consumer Products Ltd. All 4 Fun Toy Products Ltd. created a series of Crazy Bones for the Toronto Blue Jays, a cereal promotion with Cap'n Crunch and another with Wrigley. In 1999 and 2000 Fromm and Segal created one of Canada's largest collectible fad in the toy industry..
Fromm conceived of a musical band based on Crazy Bones in 2000, called B2K. This was a joint venture between Fromm and Iron Music. Nearly four million free packs have been distributed. Crazy Bones secured a number of high-profile partners, including McDonald's, which included the product as Happy Meal toys nationwide; these Crazy Bones were larger than the normal toys to reduce risk of choking among young children. Within two years, the company's revenues had grown to nearly $17 million. By favoring tours of scout meetings and the like over television and print advertisements, Toy Craze has kept its marketing costs to around 10%. Crazy Bones were distributed in Canada through the Concord, Ontario-based company Playtoy Industries, where they enjoyed similar success. Playtoy Industries declared bankruptcy in December 1999 and Wayne Fromm and Eric Segal catapulted Crazy Bones through a joint venture Crazy Bones enjoyed incredible popularity in the late 1990s. From 1998-2000, 31.5 million packages were sold.
Over 23 million figurines were sold in the UK and Spain in a recent relaunch between March and December 2008. Crazy Bones were banned in many schools, as they were blamed for encouraging theft, in-class distractions. Crazy Bones was first released by an American company HotShots. HotShots lost or sold the Crazy Bone patent. Toy Craze obtained and licensed it, with Magic Box int. manufacturing them. The original bones were small plastic figurines made with faces; each bone had personality. The long line of characters included the well known Jaws, Top Hat, Eggy. Slight variations in design with a shift to a more spooky nature, of 59-78, led to production of the Mutant set of bones. On the other hand, Ghost, Aliens and Sports were intended as each containing brand new characters. "Sports" included 40 sports-uniformed Crazy Bones characters, whilst "Buddies" included 58 Gogos, like the past series, with its own function and design including: Liberty and Slick. In the "Things" series, all the bones are shaped like various everyday objects such as: a TV, a couch and a book, but as with the other series they had smiley faces.
In the "Aliens" series, there are 60 different anthropomorphic figures of a classic grey, big eyed, alien. Some of the designs included: Salad Head, Boris and others. A "Third" series of Crazy Bones named "The New Generation" was released, including 120 all new characters; some seem to be variations of the originals, or mutant original, but they are all meant as new characters to the series. A second sports series was released, but instead of uniformed characters, it features characters from the Original and Mutants series performing a sport. There was a series with magnetic characters, which are difficult to find. Rockers are music themed characters; as of October 2010, the current distributor for Gogo's Crazy Bones in the US is Jonic Distribution North America. The Classic series was available in Canada in the 1990s; the rebranded Gogo's Crazy Bones series 1 was sold in Canada in 2009. Series 2 became available in May 2011 came series 3 and now series 4. In Europe Crazy Bones are released in different sets for different countries.
The following sets have been released: Gogo's Crazy
Samurai: Heaven and Earth
Samurai: Heaven and Earth is a comic book about a samurai and his journey to rescue the woman he loves, published by Dark Horse Comics. The title refers to an oath, it is drawn by Luke Ross. Asukai Shiro: The main character Yoshiko: Shiro's love for whom he searches Don Miguel Ratera Aguilar Y Aragon: Spanish ambassador obsessed with Yoshiko The story starts in Kaga Province in 1704 with a Chinese army of thousands attacking a Japanese castle of a hundred. During the battle only two samurai are shown to survive, one being the main character Asukai Shiro, knocked out under a pile of rubble; the other survivor, Masahiro informs him. Shiro acts as Masahiro's second for ritual suicide as he does not have anything to live for. Shiro pursues the Chinese to China and battles the warlord and his small army at his fortress after learning that Yoshiko was sold to an Arab slave merchant. Shiro follows the Arab to Paris, where he is accosted by bigoted Frenchmen at Notre Dame, he battles three musketeers being subdued when one hits him from the back with a barrel of wine.
Shiro is imprisoned in Bastille. He is released under the care of a Spanish Ambassador, Don Miguel Ratera Aguilar Y Aragon who plans on using him to assassinate Louis XIV in Versailles. There he learnes that Yoshiko has been bought by Louis XIV, which causes him to no longer want to complete the assassination and just leave Louis and the musketeers don't know that and a battle ensues. Don Miguel tries to kill Shiro after learning he will not complete the assassination, during the battle Shiro is knocked unconscious and Don Miguel leaves with Yoshiko for Spain; the last comic ends with Shiro riding from Versailles on a horse, given to him by the musketeers. The story spans at least three 5-issue miniseries, the first of which appeared in 2005 and was collected as a trade paperback a year later: Samurai: Heaven and Earth It included a rare prelude for the first time in color and art done by other artists, along with the 5 issues; the second miniseries began in December 2006 and ended in mid-2007.
The trade paperback was published late in 2007. In late July 2007, Darkhorse started its Myspace Darkhorse Presents Online Comic; the first issue contained a short Samurai: H&E comic, which takes place between issues 2 and 3 of Volume 1. Dark Horse profile for the trade paperback
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, played for children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural tradition. In addition, lullabies are used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, regulation of behavior. One of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants; as a result, the music is simple and repetitive. Lullabies can be found in many countries, have existed since ancient times. Although not accepted as a standard etymology, it has been argued that the term "lullaby" derives from "Lilith-Abi". In the Jewish tradition, Lilith was a demon, believed to steal children's souls in the night. To guard against Lilith, Jewish mothers would hang four amulets on nursery walls with the inscription "Lilith – abei". Lullabies tend to share exaggerated melodic tendencies, including simple pitch contours, large pitch ranges, higher pitch.
These clarify and convey heightened emotions of love or affection. When there is harmony, infants always prefer consonant intervals over dissonant intervals. Furthermore, if there is a sequence of dissonant intervals in a song, an infant will lose interest and it becomes difficult to regain its attention. To reflect this, most lullabies contain consonant intervals. Tonally, most lullabies are simple merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies. In addition to pitch tendencies, lullabies share several structural similarities; the most frequent tendencies long pauses between sections. This dilutes the rate of material and appeals to infants' slower capacity for processing music. Rhythmically, there are shared patterns. Lullabies are in triple meter or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion." This mimics the movement. In addition, infants' preference for rhythm shares a strong connection with what they hear when they are bounced, their own body movements; the tempos of lullabies tend to be slow, the utterances are short.
Again, this aids in the infant's processing of the song. Lullabies never have instrumental accompaniments. Infants have shown a strong preference for unaccompanied lullabies over accompanied lullabies. Again, this appeals to infants' more limited ability to process information. Lullabies are used for their soothing nature for non-infants. One study found lullabies to be the most successful type of music or sound for relieving stress and improving the overall psychological health of pregnant women; these characteristics tend to be consistent across cultures. It was found that adults of various cultural backgrounds could recognize and identify lullabies without knowing the cultural context of the song. Infants have shown a strong preferences for songs with these qualities. Lullabies are used to pass down or strengthen the cultural roles and practices. In an observation of the setting of lullabies in Albanian culture, lullabies tended to be paired with the rocking of the child in a cradle; this is reflected in the swinging rhythmicity of the music.
In addition to serving as a cultural symbol of the infant's familial status, the cradle's presence during the singing of lullabies helps the infant associate lullabies with falling asleep and waking up. Studies conducted by Dr. Jeffery Perlman, chief of newborn medicine at New York–Presbyterian Hospital's Komansky Center for Children's Health, find that gentle music therapy not only slows down the heart rate of prematurely delivered infants but helps them feed and sleep better; this speeds their recovery. A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics under the aegis of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City found that the type of music matters. Therapeutically designed "live" music – and lullabies sung in person – can influence cardiac and respiratory function. Another study published in February 2011 in Arts in Psychotherapy by Jayne M. Standley of the National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy at Florida State University suggests that babies who receive this kind of therapy leave the hospital sooner.
Additional research by Jayne M. Standley has demonstrated that the physiological responses of prematurely delivered infants undergoing intensive care can be regulated by listening to gentle lullabies through headphones. In addition to slowing heart and respiration rates, lullabies have been associated with increased oxygen saturation levels and the possible prevention of life-threatening episodes of apnea and bradycardia. Gentle music can provide stimulation for premature infants to behave in ways that boost their development and keep them alive. Lullabies can serve as a low-risk source of stimulation and reinforcement for increasing nipple sucking rates, providing infants with the nutrition they require for growth and development. Lullabies are thus associated with encouraging the rapid development of the neurological system and with a shorter length of hospitalization. More recent research has shown that lullabies sung live can have beneficial effects on physiological functioning and development in premature infants.
The live element of a slow, repetitive entrained rhythm can regulate sucking behavior. Infants have a natural tendency to entrain to the sounds. Beat perception begins during fetal development in the womb and infants are born with an innate musical preference; the elem
The Perhapanauts is an American comic book series created by writer Todd Dezago and artist Craig Rousseau in 2005. The first two mini-series, "First Blood" and "Second Chances," were published by Dark Horse Comics, although it was announced on October 31, 2007, that forthcoming Perhapanauts comics would be published by Image Comics; the Image Comics series began with an annual in February 2008, "Jersey Devil", followed by what may either be numerous upcoming mini-series or an ongoing series. The first series is "Triangle" taking the team into the Bermuda Triangle, which starts publication in April 2008; the story follows a team of supernatural investigators working for Bedlam, a top-secret government agency. The main focus of the stories are on one team of Bedlam operatives; the members of Blue Group are the group's leader who has psychic powers. Other characters in the series include a psychic who works as an adviser for Bedlam; the series have been collected into trade paperbacks: First Blood Second Chances Triangle Proof, an ongoing series about a Bigfoot who hunts other cryptids for a clandestine government group Creature Commandos, a DC Comics team made up of monsters Nick Fury's Howling Commandos, a Marvel Comics team made up of monsters Official website Todd Dezago's "Perhapablog"
The Spectacular Spider-Man
The Spectacular Spider-Man is a comic book and magazine series starring Spider-Man and published by Marvel Comics. Following the success of Spider-Man's original series, The Amazing Spider-Man, Marvel felt the character could support more than one title; this led the company in 1968 to launch a short-lived magazine, the first to bear the Spectacular name. In 1972, Marvel more launched a second Spider-Man ongoing series, Marvel Team-Up, in which he was paired with other Marvel heroes. A third monthly ongoing series, Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man, debuted in 1976; the Spectacular Spider-Man was a two-issue magazine published by Marvel in 1968, as an experiment in entering the black-and-white comic-magazine market pioneered by Warren Publishing and others. It sold for 35 cents when standard comic books cost Annuals and Giants 25 cents, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication aside from the original series' summer Annuals, begun in 1964. The first issue featured a painted, color cover by men's adventure-magazine artist Harry Rosenbaum, in acrylic paint on illustration board, over layouts by The Amazing Spider-Man artist John Romita Sr.
The 52-page black-and-white Spider-Man story, "Lo, This Monster!", was by writer Stan Lee, penciler Romita Sr. and inker Jim Mooney. A 10-page origin story, "In The Beginning!", was by Lee, penciler Larry Lieber and inker Bill Everett. The feature story was reprinted in color, with some small alterations and bridging material by Gerry Conway, in The Amazing Spider-Man #116–118 as "Suddenly...the Smasher!", "The Deadly Designs of the Disruptor!", "Countdown to Chaos!". These versions were themselves reprinted in Marvel Tales #95–97; the second and final issue sported a painted cover and the interior was in color as well. Lee and Mooney again collaborated on its single story, "The Goblin Lives!", featuring the Green Goblin. A next-issue box at the end promoted the planned contents of the unrealized issue #3, "The Mystery of the TV Terror". A version of the Goblin story, trimmed by 18 pages, was reprinted in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #9, portions of the "TV Terror" costume were reused for the costume of the Prowler.
Both issues of the magazine were reprinted in their entirety in the collection Marvel Masterworks: The Amazing Spider-Man #7. The first issue was reprinted again in 2002 as The Spectacular Spider Man Facsimile as it was presented. Titled Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man on its December 1976 debut, shortened to The Spectacular Spider-Man with #134, this was the second Amazing Spider-Man monthly comic-book spin-off series, after Marvel Team-Up, which featured Spider-Man; the monthly title ran 264 issues until November 1998. The series was launched by artist Sal Buscema and Mike Esposito. Conway explained the concept and origin of the series: was in response to the fact that I had a deal to script several ongoing for Marvel at the time. Stan wanted me back on Spider-Man, in particular, but I didn't want to take Amazing Spider-Man from Len Wein, by this time the regular writer, so Stan saw it as an opportunity to launch a second Spider-Man title, something he'd wanted to do for a while....
The full, original title was "Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man." The notion was we'd focus more on the supporting characters and Peter's social life, but before we could develop that I left Marvel again, not long after that. Buscema drew the title until mid-1978. After Buscema's departure, a succession of artists penciled the series for five years. Frank Miller, who would become the artist on Daredevil, first drew the character in Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #27. Scripting alternated between Conway and Archie Goodwin until mid-1977, when Bill Mantlo took over. During this era of Spectacular, the stories focused more on Parker's campus life as an undergraduate student/teacher's assistant at Empire State University and giving more attention to his colleagues than to the more long-running supporting characters in Amazing. Mantlo's first run on the title featured frequent appearances by the White Tiger, Marvel's first superhero of Hispanic descent and the first appearance of the supervillain Carrion.
He used the series to wrap up unresolved plot elements from The Champions comic book series and concluded his first run with a crossover with Fantastic Four #218. Mantlo was succeeded by Roger Stern, who wrote for the title from #43 to #61; when Stern departed to write for The Amazing Spider-Man, Mantlo returned to scripting Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man. Mantlo's second run introduced the superhero duo Cloak and Dagger, created by Mantlo and Hannigan in Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #64, included a story arc which took place from issues #73–79, in which Doctor Octopus and the Owl compete for control of the New York underworld, Octopus destroys New York with a nuclear device and the Black Cat is critically injured. Issue #86 was part of the "Assistant Editors Month" event and featured a story drawn by Fred Hembeck. Al Milgrom took over scripting as well as art on the title with issue #90 and worked on it through #100. Milgrom imbued the book with a more whimsical tone, for example