Paul X. Kelley
Paul Xavier Kelley is a retired United States Marine Corps general who served as the 28th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps from July 1, 1983, to June 30, 1987. Kelley served 37 years active duty in the Marine Corps. Commissioned through Villanova College's Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps program in 1950, his first posting was with Aircraft Engineering Squadron 12 at Marine Corps Air Station Quantico, Virginia, he served as an exchange officer with the Royal Marines, joined the Marine Force Reconnaissance community and served with distinction during the Vietnam War. Kelley's final assignments were as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and Commandant of the Marine Corps until his retirement in 1987. Following his retirement from the Marine Corps, Kelley has served on a number of corporate boards. Kelley was born on November 1928, in Boston, Massachusetts, he earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Economics from Villanova University in 1950. Kelley was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in June 1950 through Villanova College's Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps program.
After The Basic School in March 1951, he served with the 2nd Marine Division at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, as an infantry officer in a wide variety of billets, including his first assignment to Aircraft Engineering Squadron-12 out of Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia. In September 1952, he was assigned to the USS Salem, where he served for 20 months, first as executive officer and as commanding officer of the Marine Detachment on the Salem. In December 1953, he was promoted to captain. From July 1956 to December 1957, Kelley served as the Special Assistant to the Director of Personnel at Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D. C.. He completed the Airborne Pathfinder School at Fort Benning, Georgia. In February 1958, he was assigned to the newly activated 2nd Force Reconnaissance Company, Force Troops, Fleet Marine Force, Camp Lejeune, when he served as the executive officer and commanding officer. From September 1960 to May 1961, Kelley was the United States Marine Corps Exchange Officer with the British Royal Marines, becoming one of the few foreigners to earn the Royal Marines Commandos' coveted green beret.
During this tour, he attended the Commando Course in England, served as Assistant Operations Officer with 45 Commando in Aden, as Commander "C" Troop, 42 Commando in Singapore and Borneo. On March 1, 1961, he was promoted to major. From June 1964 until August 1965, Kelley became Commanding Officer, Marine Barracks, Rhode Island. In 1965, Kelley deployed to South Vietnam, he first served as the Combat Intelligence Officer for the 3rd Marine Amphibious Force, FMF, Pacific. Following this assignment, he served as the Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines in combat, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on January 20, 1966. During his tour as battalion commander, he earned the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit with Valor device and two awards of the Bronze Star Medal with Valor device. Four years from 1970 to 1971, Kelley commanded the 1st Marines, the last Marine regiment in combat in Vietnam, he earned a second Legion of Merit during this deployment. In 1974, Kelley was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.
As a general officer, he served as Commanding General of the 4th Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. In February 1980, Kelley was promoted to lieutenant general and named as the first Commander of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force. From July 1, 1981, Kelley was promoted to the rank of general and became the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and Chief of Staff, Headquarters Marine Corps. On July 1, 1983, Kelley was named Commandant of the Marine Corps, succeeding General Robert H. Barrow. June 1950 -- commissioned as Second Lieutenant December 16, 1953 -- Captain March 1961 -- Major. January 20, 1966 — Lieutenant Colonel April 1, 1970 — Colonel August 6, 1974 — Brigadier General June 29, 1976 — Major General February 4, 1980 — Lieutenant General July 1, 1981 — General In 1989, Kelley joined the Washington, D. C. public policy firm Cassidy & Associates. From 1989 to 1994, he served as Chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission. Kelley is including Allied Signal, Inc.. GenCorp, Inc.
Saul Centers, Inc. Sturm Ruger & Co. Inc.. In December 2006, Kelley chaired a panel of military and business leaders looking to improve the United States's energy security, they recommended tougher emission standards and greater access to offshore United States gas and oil reserves. On July 26, 2007, the Washington Post published an op-ed by Kelley and Robert F. Turner, in which they warned that the July 20, 2007. Executive order issued by President George W. Bush, purporting to define torture and allowable interrogation methods, appeared to violate Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and thus expose the President and other persons to potential liability for war crimes. On November 9, 2010, he was named an honorable Reagan Fellow from Eureka college. Kelley sits on the Honorary Board for the 501 Non Profit Wine Country Marines. Kelley's decorations and badges include: Note: The gold United States Navy Parachute Rigger badge was worn unofficially by Marine Corps personnel in place of United States Army parachutist badge from 1942–1963 before it became the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist insignia on July 12, 1963 per BuPers Notice 1020.
Members of the Marine
Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3
III Marine Expeditionary Force
III Marine Expeditionary Force is a formation of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force of the United States Marine Corps. It is forward-deployed and able to conduct operations across the spectrum from humanitarian assistance and disaster relief to amphibious assault and high-intensity combat, it maintains a forward presence in Japan and Asia to support the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan and other alliance relationships of the United States. III MEF conducts combined operations and training throughout the region in support of the National Security Strategy for Theater Security Cooperation; the Marines and sailors of III MEF engage in more than 65 combined and multilateral training exercises annually throughout the Asia-Pacific region, in countries including treaty allies Japan, South Korea, The Philippines, Australia. These exercises build partner capacity and maintain strong regional alliances and military-to-military contacts; these exercises prepare III MEF to conduct operations ranging from major combat operations to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
III MEF has played a significant role in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief missions throughout the region. The MEF assisted the relief efforts led by the Government of Japan during Operation Tomodachi after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. III MEF conducted HA/DR missions in Thailand in October 2011, the Philippines in October 2010, Indonesia in October 2009. Most in response to the resulting humanitarian crisis from Typhoon Haiyan which struck the Philippines in 2013, III MEF activated as Joint Task Force 505 to conduct humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations in support of the Philippine government. More than 2,495 tons of relief supplies were delivered, over 21,000 people were evacuated. Commanded by a lieutenant general with its headquarters at Camp Courtney, III MEF's mission is to provide forward based and deployed forces to the commander, U. S. Pacific Command, to conduct Phase 0 engagement and theater security cooperation events, support contingencies and emergent requirements, prepare to execute existing operations plans in support of the theater and national military strategies.
III MEF is organized as a Marine Air Ground Task Force to provide a deployable, flexible self-contained fighting force. The Marines combine air and logistics forces to operate as a coherent, self-sufficient force; each mission dictates the MAGTF's scale and structure, giving the Marine Corps the flexibility to respond to any crisis and making a "force in readiness." A MEF is the largest of all MAGTFs. III Marine Expeditionary Force was activated as I Amphibious Corps 1 October 1942 in Camp Elliott, San Diego, California; that month, they were deployed to Noumea, New Caledonia. The unit was redesignated as III Amphibious Corps 15 April 1944. III Amphibious Corps was deactivated on 10 June 1946. III Marine Expeditionary Force was activated 6 May 1965 at Republic of Vietnam. III MEF was re-designated to III Marine Amphibious Force 7 May 1965. III Marine Amphibious Force deployed to Camp Courtney, Okinawa April 1971. III MAF was redesignated to III Marine Expeditionary Force 5 February 1988. During World War II, III MEF was known as I Marine Amphibious Corps.
It was renamed III Amphibious Corps on 15 April 1944, took part in fighting against the Japanese Empire in the Pacific theater during World War II. It fought in some of the bloodiest battles, including the Solomon Islands Campaign, the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign and the Battle of Okinawa. III Amphibious Corps redeployed to Tientsin, China in September 1945, where it participated in the occupation of Northern China until June 1946. III Amphibious Corps was deactivated on 10 June 1946. III MEF was reactivated 6 May 1965 in Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam under Major general William R. Collins. 7 May 1965, III MEF was re-designated as III Marine Amphibious Force and consisted of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Division and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. The III MAF's area of operations was in the northern I Corps Tactical Zone. III MAF participated in the Vietnam War from May 1965 – April 1971 operating from Quang Tri, Thua Thien, Quang Nam, Quang Tin, Quang Ngai. III MAF deployed to Camp Courtney, Okinawa in April 1971.
Since III MAF was redesignated to III Marine Expeditionary Force 5 February 1988, they have participated in many different operations. These operations include the Persian Gulf War's Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, as well as Operation Provide Comfort in Southwest Asia and Iraq from Sept. 1990 – April 1991 and May–June 1991. III MEF elements have played a vital role in Operation Sea Angel in Bangladesh from May–June 1991. III MEF elements have had a significant impact on the Iraq War's Operation Iraqi Freedom as well as the Global War on Terrorism's Enduring Freedom. One of the biggest roles III MEF plays in the Asia-Pacific region is humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. III MEF elements participated in Operation Unified Assistance in response to the tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia from December 2004 to February 2005. III MEF has assisted with the 2005 Kashmir earthquake response from October 2005 to March 2006.
Sands of Iwo Jima
Sands of Iwo Jima is a 1949 war film starring John Wayne that follows a group of United States Marines from training to the Battle of Iwo Jima during World War II. The film features John Agar, Adele Mara and Forrest Tucker, was written by Harry Brown and James Edward Grant, directed by Allan Dwan; the picture was a Republic Pictures production. Sands of Iwo Jima was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Film Editing, Best Sound Recording and Best Writing, Motion Picture Story. Note: the story is told from the viewpoint of Corporal Robert Dunne. Tough-as-nails career Marine Sergeant John Stryker is disliked by the men of his squad the combat replacements, for the rigorous training he puts them through, he is despised by PFC Peter "Pete" Conway, the arrogant, college-educated son of an officer, Colonel Sam Conway under whom Stryker served and admired, PFC Al Thomas, who blames him for his demotion. When Stryker leads his squad in the invasion of Tarawa, the men begin to appreciate his methods.
Within the first couple of minutes of the battle, the platoon leader, Lt. Baker, is killed only seconds after he lands on the beach, PFC "Farmer" Soames is wounded in the leg, PFC Choynski receives a head wound; the marines are aggressively pinned down by a pillbox. Able Company commander Captain Joyce takes charge and he begins to send out marines to silence the pillbox; as a result of three unsuccessful attempts to reach the pillbox, two demolition marines and a flamethrower operator are killed and PFC Shipley is left mortally wounded in the line of fire. Sgt. Stryker demolishes the pillbox. Shipley would die of his wounds in front of his best friend Regazzi. On, Thomas becomes distracted from his mission, "goofs off" when he goes to get ammunition for two comrades, stopping to savor a cup of coffee; as a result, though he brings back coffee for his squadmates, he returns too late — the two Marines, now out of ammunition, in the interim are shown being overrun. On their first night, the squad is ordered to dig in and hold their positions under the cover of darkness.
Bass begs for help. Conway considers Stryker brutal and unfeeling when he decides to abandon Bass to the enemy. After the battle, when Stryker discovers the truth, he forces Thomas into a fistfight; this is seen by a passing officer but Thomas, to Stryker's surprise, deflects the officer's intention of pressing charges against Stryker for violation of military rules in striking a subordinate by claiming that he was being taught judo by his superior. Subsequently, ravaged by his conscience over the fate of his fellow Marines, Thomas breaks down and abjectly apologizes for his dereliction of duty; the squad receives three new recruits: Stein, McHugh. Stryker reveals a softer side of his character while on leave in Honolulu, he returns with her to her apartment. He becomes suspicious when he hears somebody in the next room, but upon investigation, finds only a hungry baby boy that his intended paramour is supporting the best way she can. Stryker departs; the woman had earlier noted that there were "worse ways to make a living than fighting a war," in reference to her current lot in life.
During a training exercise, McHugh drops a live hand grenade. Everybody drops to the ground, except Conway, distracted reading a letter from his wife. Stryker knocks him down, saving his life, proceeds to bawl him out in front of the platoon. Stryker's squad subsequently fights in the battle for Iwo Jima. Stryker shouts "Saddle Up!" as they prepare to take the beach. The squad suffers within the first couple of hours, losing Soames, McHugh and Frank Flynn. Stryker's squad is selected to be a part of the 40 man patrol. During the charge, Eddie Flynn and Fowler are killed. While the remaining men were resting during a lull in the fighting, Stryker is killed by a Japanese soldier emerging from a spider hole. Bass locates the spider hole and kills the Japanese shooter; the remaining squad members find and read a letter on his corpse, a missive addressed to his son and expressing things Stryker wanted to say to him, but had never managed to. Moments the squad witnesses the iconic flag raising. Conway, reminiscent of Stryker, walks away shouting "Saddle Up!"
Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, John Bradley, the three survivors of the five Marines and one Navy corpsman who were credited with raising the second flag on Mount Suribachi during the actual battle, appear in the film just prior to the re-enactment. Hayes was the subject of a film biography, The Outsider, Bradley the subject of a book by his son James, Flags of Our Fathers. Appearing as themselves are 1st Lt. Harold Schrier, who led the flag-raising patrol up Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima and helped raise the first flag, Col. David M. Shoup Commandant of the Marine Corps and recipient of the Medal of Honor at Tarawa, Lt. Col. Henry P. "Jim" Crowe, commander of the 2nd Battalion 8th Marines at Tarawa, where he earned the U. S. Navy Cross. Actual battle footage is interspersed throughout the film. Several of the actors were re-united
Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay
Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay or MCAS Kaneohe Bay is a United States Marine Corps airfield located within the Marine Corps Base Hawaii complex known as Marine Corps Air Facility Kaneohe Bay or Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay. It is located two miles northeast of the central business district of Kaneohe, in Honolulu County, United States; the airfield has one runway with a 7,771 x 200 ft asphalt surface. The United States Army acquired 322 acres of the peninsula when President Woodrow Wilson signed executive order 2900 establishing the Kuwaaohe Military Reservation. Little is known about the operations of the fort, however, at the end of World War I, the military property was leased for ranching. In 1939, Kuwaaohe was reactivated, subjected to many name changes to include Camp Ulupa’u, named Fort Hase. Prior to and during World War II, Fort Hase grew from a humble beginning as a defense battalion to a major unit of the Windward Coastal Artillery Command. Navy planners began to eye the peninsula in 1939 as the home of a strategic seaplane base.
They liked the isolated location, the flat plains for an airfield and the probability of flights into prevailing trade winds. In 1939, the Navy acquired 464 acres of the peninsula for use of the PBY Catalina Patrol seaplanes for long-range reconnaissance flights. One year the Navy owned all of the Mokapu Peninsula except for Fort Hase. On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the air station minutes prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Of the 36 Catalinas stationed here, 27 were destroyed and six others were damaged, along with 18 sailors who perished in the attack; the first Japanese aircraft destroyed in action were shot down at Kaneohe, along with Aviation Ordnanceman Chief Petty Officer John William Finn becoming one of the first Medal of Honor recipients of World War II for valor on that day. During the war, the air station was a major training base in the Pacific Theater; the Fleet Gunnery School trained thousands of Navy gunners. There was a school for celestial navigation, aircraft recognition, turret operations.
Flight instructors trained Navy and Marine Corps aviators in flight operations prior to being sent to a forward combat area. Following the war, Fort Hase had become a skeleton outpost and the air station consisted of limited air operations, a small security detachment, a federal communications center. In 1949, the Navy decommissioned the air station. On January 15, 1952 the Marine Corps recommissioned the idle airfield Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, making it an ideal training site for a combined air/ground team. Station Operations and Headquarters Squadron supported flight operations until June 30, 1972, when Station Operations and Maintenance Squadron was commissioned in its place. SOMS served until it was disbanded on July 30, 1994. Marine Corps Air Facility Kaneohe Bay was formed on that date and continues today to serve the operational needs of the aviation community. On May 28, 1987, the National Register of Historic Places listed "Kaneohe Naval Air Station" as a historic district and a National Historic Landmark.
Following the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure Commission decision to close Naval Air Station Barbers Point, the base acquired 4 Navy P-3 Orion patrol squadrons and one SH-60 Seahawk Anti-Submarine squadron in 1999. Today there are 10,000 active duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel there, directed by Marine Aircraft Group 24 and Navy Patrol and Reconnaissance Wing 2; the installation was re-designated as an Air Station in May 2009. At the same time, the airfield was named for MajGen Marion Eugene Carl, the Corps announced that new squadrons would be stationed there. On January 15, 2016, two Marine helicopters from the air station collided over the North Shore of Oahu, leaving 12 US Marines missing and feared dead. List of United States Marine Corps installations List of airports in Hawaii Official website USMC Air Station Kaneohe Bay Overview & PCS Information Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-311-A, "U. S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Hangar No. 4, First Street between A & B Streets, Honolulu County, HI", 11 photos, 12 data pages, 1 photo caption page Historic American Buildings Survey No.
HI-311-B, "U. S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Boat House, Southeast of intersection of Fueling Pier & D Street, Honolulu County, HI", 5 photos, 5 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-311-C, "U. S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Mokapu & Summer Roads, Honolulu County, HI", 6 photos, 12 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Buildings Survey No. HI-311-D, "U. S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Enlisted Men's Mess Hall, Corner of Third & F Streets, Honolulu County, HI", 6 photos, 13 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for NGF AirNav airport information for PHNG FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations for PHNG SkyVector aeronautical chart for NGF Airport information for PHNG at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Airport information for PHNG at Great Circle Mapper. Kaneohe Bay on GlobalSecurity.org WWII Era Photos of Kaneohe Bay
4th Marine Regiment (United States)
The 4th Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps. Based at Camp Schwab in Okinawa, Japan, it is part of the 3rd Marine Division of the III Marine Expeditionary Force. Close with and destroy the enemy by fire and maneuver, or repel the enemy's assault by fire and close combat; the regimental Headquarters Company is based at Camp Schwab and hosts Marine infantry battalions from across the Corps that forward deploy to Okinawa and the 3rd Marine Division for six-month rotations under the Unit Deployment Program. Headquarters Company at Camp Schwab, Okinawa; each of the Regiment's three organic infantry battalions are reinforcing other Marine infantry regiments in the 1st Marine Division. 1st Battalion, 4th Marines: attached to 1st Marine Regiment at Camp Pendleton, California. 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines: attached to 5th Marine Regiment at Camp Pendleton. 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines: attached to 7th Marine Regiment at Twentynine Palms, California. The 4th Marine Regiment was first activated on 16 April 1914, in Puget Sound, Washington, & Mare Island, California Naval Yards, under the command of Colonel Joseph Henry Pendleton.
This activation was a direct result of deteriorating relations between the United States and Mexico. On 21 April, President Woodrow Wilson ordered U. S. Naval Forces to Vera Cruz. Shortly after activation, 4th Marines embarked upon the USS South Dakota headed for San Francisco. Upon their arrival they received four companies; the regiment sailed for Mexico. On 28 April, 4th Marines arrived in Acapulco harbor. Reinforcements subsequently arrived in Mazatlán a week and half later; the regiment continued to maintain a presence in Mexican waters patrolling the shore through May and June. However, by the end of June no landing had been deemed necessary and tensions had eased between Mexico and the United States. Shortly thereafter 4th Marines withdrew from Mexican waters and concluded their first Latin American expedition; the regiment returned to San Diego to establish its new home base. Between this time and February 1916 the regiment conducted several missions of force projection off the coast of Mexico.
None had required the Marines to disembark as diplomatic relations were subsequently smoothed over upon their arrival or shortly thereafter. The Dominican Republic broke out in civil war in the spring of 1916. American forces were sent to quell the danger posed to other foreigners there; as the Americans came ashore the rebels withdrew from Santo Domingo, the capital, to Santiago where they had established another rival government. American forces called for reinforcements and 4th Marines was called into action, they left San Diego on 6 June for New Orleans. Three days they boarded the USS Hancock for the Dominican Republic. Disorder and civil war that had long been troubling China flared in the mid 1920s with the foreign community in Shanghai, where fighting between opposing Chinese forces became active, demanding a more permanent protective force; the United States had landed Marines twice in 1925, but in 1927 nationalist forces were on the verge of taking the city and the United States responded with a small force of about 340 Marines sent from Guam followed by the 4th Marine Regiment less the 2d Battalion sailing from San Diego on 3 February 1927 embarked in USS Chaumont.
The embarked 3d Battalion, commanded by Major Alexander Vandegrift, was held aboard the transport at State Department direction until a declaration of emergency by the Municipal Council of the international Settlement was declared on 21 March. Once landed the Marines, shortly came under the command of Brigadier General Smedley Butler as Marine Corps Expeditionary Force, United States Asiatic Fleet, they joined forces of seven other nations in the internal defense of the settlement, with orders to not come into conflict with Chinese troops. They were not deployed to the perimeter barricades though they did support international forces that were so deployed. By June additional forces, including 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment as part of a newly activated Provisional Regiment, had arrived in China and been sent to Tientsin. By the time that force arrived the threat to the international settlement in Shanghai had eased and the combined forces of the American, Dutch, Italian, Japanese and Spanish were seen as sufficient.
The 4th Marine Regiment was reduced in strength in October 1927 with the 2d Battalion at Tientsin becoming 2d Battalion, 12th Marines and the Provisional Regiment dissolved. The 4th regiment settled into routine garrison duty during which it gained the nickname "China Marines" and a unique feature, the only fife and drum corps in the Corps; the formation of the Fessenden Fifes was a result of influence of the American chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Council and Civil Commandant of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps, Sterling Fessenden, instruments from the 1st Battalion, Green Howards whose fifers and drummers taught the Marines to play. Reductions continued and on 14 January 1928 the 4th Regiment was detached from the withdrawing Marines of the brigade and on 13 February 1930 the regiment gained its designation as 4th Marines; the quiet was ended in January 1932 when Japanese forces in Manchuria began seizing Chinese territory in late 1931 and bloody clashes between Chinese and Japanese civilians erupted in Shanghai that month.
The 4th Marines were deployed to prevent fighting from spilling into the International Zone. By 4 February Marines had been reinforced by Marines from the Philippines, the Marine detachment of the USS Houston and the United States Army 31st Infantry Regiment. On 3 March 1932 an agreement was reached between combatants, the state of emergency in the Interna
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012